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PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... No. 4. 

FORTY-EIGHTH 
ANNUAL BEPORT OF THE SECRETARY 

OF THB 

MASSACHUSETTS 

State Board of Agriculture, 

TOGETHER WITH THB 



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OP THB HATCH EXPERI- 
MENT STATION OF THE MASSACHUSEHS 
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



1900. 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1901. 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



TAQM 

State Board of Agrioaltnro, 1901, v 

Report of the Secretary, vii 

Biinutes of Meetings of Execntiye Committee, .... 8 

Minutes of Special Meetings of the Board, 11 

Public Winter Meeting of the Board at Worcester, .... 17 

Lecture : Birds Useful to Agriculture. By E. H. Forbush, 86 

Lecture : Some Lessons from the Census. By Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, 63 

Lecture : Fungous Diseases. By Dr. Wra. C. Sturgis, ... 82 
Lecture : Stable Ventilation. By Dr. Jas. B. Paige, . .110 

Lecture : Apples. By Prof. S. T. Maynard, 131 

Lecture : Sheep Raising in Massachusetts. By Frank P. Bennett, . 140 
Lecture : Some Asi)ects of the Law as applied to Rural Affairs. 

By M. F. Dickinson, Jr., 161 

Minutes of Annual Meeting of the Board, 207 

Report of Committee on Agricultural Societies, . . .218 

Report of Committee on Domestic Animals and Sanitation, . . 219 

Report of Committee on Experiments and Station Work, . 220 
Report of Committee on Forestry, Roads and Roadside Improve- 

*ments, 224 

Report of Committee on Agricultural College and Education, . 227 

Report of Committee on Institutes, Rules and Legislation, . . 232 

Report of the Librarian, 234 

Report of Delegates to the Farmers' National Congress, . . 236 

Essay : Better Roads for Massachusetts. By Oscar S. Thayer, . 245 
Essay : Agricultural Organizations. By Henry C. Comins, . .251 
Essay : The Relation of Agriculture to the Public Health. By Dr. 

Samuel W. Abbott, 261 

Essay : Soil Exhaustion. By Dr. Geo. E. Stone, .... 280 
Essay : Possibilities for Farm Forestry in Massachusetts. By Allen 

Chamberlain, • . 289 

Essay : Birds as Protectors of Woodlands. By E. H. Forbush, . 300 
Essay : Some Insects injuring Market-garden Crops. By Dr. H. T. 

Femald, 822 

Essay : Poultry Keeping on the Farm. By Dr. Arthur A. Brigham, 336 

Report on Extermination of the Gypsy Moth, 355 

Tenth Annual Report of the State Dairy Bureau, . . .371 

Report of Board of Cattle Commissioners, 395 

Returns of the Agricultural Societies, 484 

Agricultural Directory, 493 

Index, 613 



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State Board of Agriculture, 1901. 



Members ez Officio. 

His Excbllency W. MURRAY CRANE. 

Uis Honor JOHN L. BATES. 
Hon. WM. M. OLIN, Secretary of the Commonwealth. 

H. H. GOODELL, M.A., LL.D., President Massachusetts Agricultural College, 
C. A. GOES8MANN. PH.D., LL.D., ChcmUt of the Board, 
JAMES W. 8TOCKWELL, Secretary, 

Members appointed by the (Governor and Council. 

Tenii EipltM 

WILLIAM R. SESSIONS of Springfield, 1902 

FRANCIS H. APPLETON of Pealjody 1903 

WARREN C. JEWETT of Worcester 1904 

Members chosen by the Incorporated Societies. 

^^S![ ""^ '^'^'''^7 ^^^'.""^iP- W.SARGENT of Amesbury. . . 1903 

BamstabU County JOHN BURSLEY of West Bametable, . 1904 

Berkshire^ WESLEY B. BARTON of Dalton. . . 1908 

Blackstone Valley, .... SA*MUEL B. TAFT of Uxbridge, . 1908 

n^riMt^i rn^^., J EDWARD M. THURSTON of Swansea 

Bristol County j (P. O. South Swansea), .... 1902 

DeerfiOd Valley HENRY A. HOWARD of Colraln, . . 1902 

Eastern Hampden, . . . . O. E. BRADWAY of Monson, . . . 1908 
v^^ S JOHN M. DANFORTH of LynndeM (P.O. 

^**** j Lynnfleld Centre), 1902 

Franklin County JOHN S. ANDERSON of Shelbume, . 1904 

Hampshire A. M. LYMAN of Montague, ... 1904 

Hampshire, Franklin and Hampden, H. C. COMINS of Northampton, . . . 1908 

Highland, C. K. BREWSTER of Worthlngton, . . 1902 

HUlside, ALVAN BARRUS of Goshen (P.O. LUhla), 1902 

Hingham{Agr*land HorVl), , . EDMUND HERS EY of HI ngham, . . 1908 

w^m»^ v^}^ S GEO. P. CARPENTER of Wllllamstown 

Hoosac valley J (P. O. Blacklnton) 1903 

Housatonic, CHARLES B. BENEDICT of Egremont, . 1908 

ManTirs* Agr'l {Xo,Ameborough), OSCAR S. THAYER of A ttleborough, . 1908 

Marshfield {Agr'l and Hort'l), . . HENRY A. TURNER of Norwell, . . 1908 

Martha's Vineyard, .... JOHNSON WHITING of West Tisbury, . 1904 

Massachusetts Horticultural, . . WM. H. SPOONER of Jamaica Plain, . 1908 

Middlesex North, . . . • j ''^^it), ^.^^^'^ !"' Tewksbnry (P.O. ^^^ 

Middlesex South, ntLi^}^''^.''' ,^^^^^ 

Nantucket, J. 8. APPLETON of Nantucket, . . 1908 

Ostford, . W. M. WELLINGTON of Oxford, . . 1904 

Pl^nnnuih Cnu^« J AUGUSTUS PRATT of North Middle- 

Plymouth Couniy j borough 1902 

Spencer (Far*8 and Mech'sAssoc'n), JOHN G. AVERY of Spencer, . . . 1904 

Union {AgrH and Hort*t),, . . ENOS W. BOISE of Blandford, . . . 1904 

Weymouth {Agr'l and Jnd*l), . . QUINCY L. REED of South Weymouth, . 1908 

Worcester, J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH of Worcester, . 1902 

Worcester East, W. A. KILBOURN of South Lancaster, . 1908 

Worcester North-west (Agr*l and J T. H. GOODSPEED of Athol (P. O. Athol 

Mech*t), . . . . . .} Centre), 1904 

Worcester South, CD. RICHARDSON of West Brookfleld, 1904 

Worcester Couniy West, , . . CHAS. A. GLEASON of New Bralntree, . 1902 



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THE FORTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL KEPORT 



SECRETARY 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



7b the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of 

Massachusetts. 

The agriculture of Massachusetts has been fairly profitable 
the past year, notwithstanding the severe drought, most 
severely felt in the eastern portions of the State. 

The policy of the State is wisely liberal to agriculture, 
and well it may be, for the productive industries measure 
the true wealth of State or nation. More than eighty per 
cent of the country's exports for the last ten years have 
been agricultural. The &rmers of this State are fortunate 
in having a good market at their doors, and in being able 
to largely supply this market direct from producer to con- 
sumer, thereby obtaining the best possible return for their 
products. 

With the electric railways now connecting the towns 
and the villages with the larger centres, the farm is to-day 
simply suburban to our great cities. The free rural de- 
livery of the mails is another factor of great importance 
that will soon reach every town and hamlet in the State. 
The farmers of the State are to-day, as never before, look- 
ing for the latest improvements and the best methods. 
Never before has the report of the Board been practically 
exhausted within the first year ; never before has the secre- 
tary been importuned for lecturers and institute speakers as 



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viii BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

now. All these indicate the change that is rapidly taking 
place, -^the advance that is being made in the agriculture 
of the State. 

Standing at the threshold of a new century, filled with an 
optimism that we believe the circumstances warrant, we 
repeat the words of an address written one year ago, as an 
inspiration and a prophecy : — 

To-day the agriculture of New England is improving. Of Mas- 
sachusetts I know of what I affirm. The farmer is not discouraged 
or downhearted to-day, but looks forward to the coming prosperity, 
and goes forth to meet it. lie believes the undue burdens now 
resting on his labor are to be removed, and as never before he 
realizes his strength. The farmer is getting to believe in himself 
and to have greater faith in his brother. He realizes the dignity 
of his calling, its importance to the State, its right to favor. He 
sees that through co-operation and united effort much can be accom- 
plished to improve his condition and advance his position. 

Competition with the west in the great grain staples for a while 
led to loss and hardship, even as the west has since suffered by the 
competition of Russia and India; but to-day New England has 
found other channels of industry more profitable and better adapted 
to her soil, her markets and her people. Looking forward, we see 
the fruits of summer grown in January in our own greenhouses, 
more profitably than in their proper season. We see our own 
dependent population supplied with every luxury by New England 
enterprise on New P^ngland soil. We see the farmer taking his 
old stand as a leader in all good enterprises. We see his sons, 
educated and strong, taking their rightful place and exerting their 
old-time influence, — the strength of the hills, the backbone of the 
cities. We see the electric car speeding its way from town to town 
and from village to village, carrying the child to the larger and 
better schools, and giving free mail delivery to the homes of the 
country as to the city. We see equal taxation resting " like the 
atmosphere " on rich and poor alike, — every man according to 
his ability. We see the trusts that hold the farmei-s in their iron 
grasp destroyed or made to subserve righteous ends for the benefit 
of all. We see the bright day when arbitration shall settle the 
differences of the nations, as law now settles the disputes between 
individuals, and war's costly tribute shall cease. We see the home 
in which all comforts are found and all graces abound, its approaches 
lines of beauty, its crown of blessing the love and contentment that 
dwell therein. We see wealth of character and honesty of purpose 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF SECRETARY. ix 

and life honored more than gold, and honest industry more prized 
than the indolence of wealth. Money valued for the good it can 
do, *' the man the gold for a' that." We see all this, not as a 
mirage or a far-distant view, but growing nearer and nearer, and 
never hastening so rapidly to its accomplishment as to-day. I 
may not look upon its grand fulfilment, but the day-star has risen, 
the dawning of the coming day brightens the eastern sky, the 
mists disperse, the mountain tops are already in view, and some 
of you that read these words shall see its fulfilment. 

Changes m the Board. 

The changes in the membership of the Board resulting 
from elections by the several societies will be noted in the 
report of the committee on credentials. 

During the year now past the Board has lost by death two 
of its honored members, appointees of the Governor, and 
both with long and valuable record for services on the Board 
and in the cause of agriculture. 

Hon. James S. Grinnell of Greenfield was one of the 
original members of the Board at its formation forty-nine 
years ago, and had served either by election of the Franklin 
County Agricultural Society or by appointment by the 
Governor, excepting during the years 1853-56 and 1863-77 
inclusive, until his resignation on account of his infirmities 
one year ago. 

Mr. Dwight A. Horton of Northampton began his service 
on the Board in 1889 by election by the Hampshire Agri- 
cultural Society. In 1892 he was appointed by the Gov- 
ernor as one of the three members at large. As a member 
of the Dairy Bureau, to which position he was appointed in 
1891, as its chaiiman since 1896 to the time of his decease, 
Mr. Horton's service was continuous and valuable. At the 
winter meeting of the Board at Worcester, President H. H. 
Goodell, Ex-Secretary Wm. R. Sessions and senior member 
of the Board Edmund Hersey were appointed to draft a 
tribute to the memory of these deceased members, and their 
report will be found printed on page 208 of this volume. 

Meetings of the Board. 
A special field meeting of the Board was held at the Daniel 
Webster farm in Marshfield, September 4, and a special 

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X BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

business meeting was held in connection with the public 
winter meeting at Worcester, December 4-6, accounts of 
which meetings will be found on pages 11-14 of this volume. 
The public winter meeting for lectures and discussions 
was held at Worcester, December 4-6. The lectures and 
discussions will be found printed on. pages 17-204 of this 
volume. The annual business meeting was held at the 
office of the secretary, Jan. 8 and 9, 1901, and the min- 
utes thereof, etc., will be found printed on pages 207-257 
of this volume. 

History of the Summer Meeting. 
To the future historian of the Board the inauguration of 
the summer meeting may be of interest, and should have 
place in our records. In the report of the special committee 
on farmers' institutes at the last annual meeting the following 
recommendation is found, viz. : «*Andwe further recom- 
mend that the Board inaugurate the system of holding one 
summer institute meeting each year, at such time and place 
as shall be decided upon by the Board ; and that the secre- 
tary shall provide subjects and speakers for the occasion." 
At the close of the first day's session the Board received an 
invitation from Walton Hall, Esq., the retiring delegate 
from the Marshfield Agricultural and Horticultural Society, 
to hold a summer meeting at his residence in Marshfield, — 
the Daniel Webster farm. The pleasant relations of the 
Board with Mr. Hall, the very cordial invitation and the 
historic surroundings of the place induced its immediate 
acceptance, and the decision of the question of a summer 
meeting was thus unexpectedly solved before the report of 
the committee came before the Board for its acceptance. 
Our host was unremitting in his attentions, the ocean con- 
tributed its share, and the peach orchard in which we were 
invited to pluck and eat was a thing of beauty and joy. 
Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, had accepted 
an invitation to be present and address the Board on the 
work of the United States. Department of Agriculture, but 
failed to appear; but with such speakers as President 
Goodell, Hon. Wm. R. Sessions, Mr, Hall, and reminiscent 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF SECRETARY. xi 

remarka by many members of the Board, the afternoon 
passed delightfully and all too quickly. With a vote of 
thanks to our host and a last look on the quiet resting-place 
of the great statesman and defender of Massachusetts, we 
bade adieu to Marshfield, convinced that a summer meeting 
under favorable conditions and with suitable addresses could 
be made the most profitable meeting of the year ; and the 
revised draft of the by-laws of the Board, which will be sub- 
mitted to you for action at this meeting, will provide for 
such a meeting as a permanent feature of the work of the 
Board. 

Agricultural Societies. 

The returns of the societies will be found printed on pages 
484-491 of this volume. 

The cattle shows and annual fairs are now criticised, and 
fair criticism is always welcome and should be carefully con- 
sidered. That great good has been accomplished by these 
yearly exhibitions no intelligent person will deny. We see 
the great improvement in stock, both for profit and utility, 
the valuable acquisition of new and more profitable varieties 
in fruit, and wonderftil creations of beauty in flowers, the 
thrift that comes from the desire to improve and to excel, 
all encouraged and stimulated by these fairs. This has been 
accomplished. Is the work complete? Have we reached 
perfection ? or are there other opportunities and incentives 
that take the place of and supersede these fairs ? We believe 
not, and therefore urge these societies receiving the State's 
bounty to consider the importance of using it judiciously for 
the benefit of agriculture. It behooves us to impress on 
the societies the importance of the best methods and the best 
work in the line of agricultural improvement. To this end 
I am convinced that the societies that are financially able 
should have suitable buildings for the comfort and exhibition 
of neat stock. To tie fine stock to a post or to a fence to 
stand all day after a hasty drive to the grounds, it may be 
in the hot sun or with a fierce wind blowing upon them, or 
in a cold sleet or a pouring rain, — and either of these is 
liable to happen, — is not a lesson of kindly treatment to 
animals, nor can there be an instructive exhibit of stock 

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Xll 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



under such circumstances. The best stock, distinctive in 
breed and perfect in condition, will not be exhibited at such 
a fair under such conditions. I am glad to see the improved 
cattle sheds being constructed on so many of our fair grounds, 
and believe we should encourage and almost insist that, 
where the society is financially able, these improvements 
should be made. I commend the society that last year 
mortgaged its grounds in part to provide suitable exhibi- 
tion sheds for the stock. Very many of our societies are 
well equipped, and we are sure the number will enlarge 
each year, until all are well prepared for the most humane 
treatment of the animals and for intelligent and comparative 
study of their excellence. 

Publications. 
The following publications were issued by this office in 
1900, and may be obtained on application : — 





Pages. 


Number. 


Date of Issue. 


Agriculture of Massachusetts, 1899, 


732* 


16,000 


May 8. 


Crop Bulletin No. 1, May, 


40 


2,700 


June 2. 


Crop Bulletin No. 2, June, . 


40 


2,600 


June 30. 


Crop Bulletin No. 3, July, 


40 


2,600 


Aug. 3. 


Crop Bulletin No. 4, August, . 


40 


2,600 


Sept. 6. 


Crop Bulletin No. 5, September, . 


40 


2,500 


Oct. 4. 


Crop Bulletin No. 6, October, . 


36 


2,600 


Nov. 5. 


Descriptive catalogue of farms, eighth 
edition, 


74 


2,500 


Sept. 27. 


Farm catalogue supplement, No. 2, 


4 


700 


Dec 1. 


Farmers' institute pamphlet, . 


14 


800 


Dec. 17. 



There were also issued in pamphlet form '' Nature leaflets," 
Nos. 1-7; ^« Holland and its people," by Prof. Wm. H. 

* Inclading twelfth annnal report of the Hatch Experiment Station of the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College, 125 pages. 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF SECRETARY. xiii 

Niles, being an excerpt from the "Agriculture of Massa- 
chusetts," 1899 ; a leaflet containing the tree warden and 
other laws ; and an opinion of the Attorney-General on the 
duties of tree wardens. 

Massachusetts Crop Reports. 

The publication of monthly crop reports or bulletins was 
continued in 1900, and six in all were issued (May-Octo- 
ber) , aggregating 236 pages of printed matter. 

■ The special articles included in these reports were : Bul- 
letin No. 1, '' Some insects injuring market garden crops," 
by Dr. H. T. Femald; Bulletin No. 2, ^'Possibilities for 
farm forestry in Massachusetts," by Allen Chamberlain; 
Bulletin No. 3, '* Birds as protectors of woodlands," by 
E. H. Forbush; Bulletin No. 4, *' Poultry keeping on the 
farm," by Dr. A. A. Brigham; Bulletin No. 5, '' The rela- 
tion of agriculture to the public health," by Dr. S. W. 
Abbott; and Bulletin No. 6, *'Soil exhaustion," by Dr. 
G. E. Stone. Bulletins 1, 3 and 6 were illustrated. 

These special articles will be found printed on pages 261- 
351 of this volume. This department has been largely in 
charge of Mr. Legate. 

Nature Leaflets. 

During the past year this office issued seven illustrated 
leaflets of four pages each, called << Nature leaflets," upon 
the following subjects: ''Canker worms," "Tent cater- 
pillars," '* Black knot of the plum and cherry," ** Insec- 
ticides and fungicides," '* White-marked tussock moth," 
*' Spiny elm caterpillar" and '' Potato and apple scab." 

These leaflets were prepared to fill what seemed to be a 
real need, and it is the intention of the office to continue 
the series. Frequent requests for information on various 
subjects are received, and it is somewhat difficult at times 
to supply it in printed form. Again, specimens of insects 
are sent or brought to the office for identification, and a let- 
ter in reply is much more satisfying when accompanied by 
printed information. 

It is believed that the teaching of nature study in our 
public schools has led some teachers to apply here for 

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xiv BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

printed matter on insects, birds, plants, etc. Just how 
much it is best for this office to undertake along this line is 
perhaps a question for the future to determine. If the en- 
couraging and helping of those who are interested in the 
development of nature study in our public schools leads 
certain pupils to look to our Agricultural College as their 
future alma mater, this Board, as overseers of the college, 
have just cause for congratulation. This work has been 
largely done under the direction of Mr. Fowler. 



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No. 4.] 



REPORT OF SECRETARY. 



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xvi BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Also the Legislature of 1900 made the following regular 
annual appropriations : for maintaining an agricultural ex- 
periment station at the Massachusetts Agricultural College, 
$10,000 ; for the said college, for free scholarships, $10,000 ; 
for the said college, for labor fund and extra instruction, 
$10,000 ; for travelling and other necessary expenses of the 
trustees of the said college, $800 ; to defray expenses of col- 
lecting and analyzing samples of concentrated commercial 
feed stuffs, $1,200, and for maintenance of the veterinary 
laboratory at the said college, $1,000. The Legislature also 
appropriated for the said college the sum of $8,000 to pro- 
vide the theoretical and practical education required by its 
charter and the law of the United States relating thereto ; 
also $19,000 for carrying forward the work against the 
gypsy and brown-tail moths. 

Tree Wardens. 

The usual appropriation of $200 was made for the pur- 
chase of M-spikes and washers, $196.77 of which was ex- 
pended before June 1. In an appropriation bill approved 
June 20 a fiii-ther appropriation of $100 was made, but was 
not drawn upon, owing to the rendering of an opinion by 
the Attorney-General, June 9, based on the tree warden law 
of 1899, that *< There is, therefore, no further need of desig- 
nating shade trees by any such distinguishing mark ; and, 
under the powers granted to the tree wardens, the selectmen 
have no longer any right of interference or control. I am 
of opinion, therefore, that you are not called upon to fur- 
nish M-spikes to towns, but that as to cities the law remains 
unaffected." 

The election of tree wardens at the March town meetings, 
under the provisions of the tree warden law of 1899 (chap- 
ter 330) , resulted in a greatly increased demand for M-spikes 
in the spring months, there being 6 requests in March, 38 in 
April, 24 in May and 7 in June. After the receipt of the 
opinion above referred to, this office did not feel warranted 
in purchasing more M-spikes, the supply on hand being 
nearly exhausted, but printed the opinion of the Attorney- 
Greneral, and mailed a copy to each of the tree wardens for 
their information and guidance. 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF SECRETARY. xvii 

The supplying of these spikes was begun in December, 
1891, and the records of this oflSce show that since that date 
thei*e have been supplied approximately 8,000 3\ inch large 
spikes, 31,000 3^ inch small spikes, 119,000 2| inch spikes 
and 107,000 2^ inch spikes, 265,000 in all, with accompany- 
ing washers. These spikes and washers were sent to 6 cities 
and 127 towns. 

Tree wardens elected under the law of 1899 have in a 
number of instances called upon this oflSce for interpretation 
of the law or for advice as to what they should do or should 
not do in the performance of their duties. Without doubt 
some help has heen given such inquirers, but, as the law 
referred to did not originate with this Board, and the Board 
is not mentioned in the law, the position of this office has 
been somewhat conservative. These requests came no doubt 
largely because it has been the duty of this office to fur- 
nish M-spikes. 

Forestry and Roadside Improvement. 

Our Board has its committee on forestry, roads and road- 
side improvements. This is perhaps at the present time one 
of the most important committees of the Board. The con- 
dition in which the laws on this subject are now found to be 
by the decision of the Attorney-General demands a careful 
revision in the form of a new law, and the questions are 
many and important. It requires the best thought and 
study to frame a law that shall preserve the beauty without 
being oppressive and that shall protect the wayside owner 
from injustice. We all recognize that there is a money 
value in wayside improvement, and to enhance this we want 
a law that shall generally receive the co-operation of the 
wayside owners. Again, is it wise that the tree warden 
shall be the autocrat, or should there be an appeal to the 
higher authority of the selectmen in towns, the parks or 
street commissioner in cities ? 

Perhaps the owner is artistic in his ideas, and delights in 
irregular grouping and vistas. The tree warden is of a 
mathematical, methodical turn of mind, and with him certain 
respectable trees set at equal distances and on exact lines, 
and pruned of nature's negligence, is beauty. How can two 



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xviii BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

so diverse in ideas get along without friction? True, it is 
said that the tree warden is elected every year, and, if an 
unwise choice is made, it can be remedied at the next election ; 
but the tree warden in thirty minutes can destroy what thirty 
years cannot replace. This is simply one illustration of the 
importance of a wise law. 

We are all in favor of roadside improvement ; the law is 
needed ; it must be our work to make it as effective, as per- 
fect as we can. I therefore suggest that the forestry com- 
mittee meet with the secretary at the proper time, to make 
such suggestions as shall be a benefit to abutters, to the 
travelling public and to the State. 

Farmers' Institutes. 

During the year 1900 121 farmers' institutes were held 
under the auspices of the several societies. All of the 
societies represented on the Board, except the Massachusetts 
Society for Promoting Agriculture, held the required 3 insti- 
tutes and 9 societies held 4 or more. In addition, 6 insti- 
tutes were held in sections where there was no near-by 
society. The average attendance at 118 of the institutes, . 
3 not being reported, was 91. At 15 of the institutes the 
attendance was 200 or over ; at 27 it was 100 to 200 ; at 39 
it was 50 to 100 ; at 37 it was less than 50. In some cases 
the attendance was materially decreased owing to severe 
stonns. This oflSce supplied 100 lecturers during the year, 
at a total cost of $1,627.73, or $16.27 per lecturer. 

This department is largely in charge of Mr. Legate, and 
has been well and efficiently administered. It is essential 
that as long notice as possible should be given the secretary's 
office of date, subject and speaker wanted. Equally impor- 
tant is it that the public have sufficient notice of such insti- 
tutes. One or two days' notice is not sufficient, we deem 
it, for the opportunity of the farmer or the comforfr as well 
as the best work of the lecturer. It is not creditable to the 
State Board, much less to the society, with such speakers 
as our list furnishes from this and other States, that the 
institute lacks attendance because the first notice many inter- 
ested had of the institute was the report of its proceedings 
in the press. 



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No. 40 REPORT OF SECRETARY. xix 

Legislation. 
The legislation of 1900 having reference to the Board of 
Agriculture or to the agricultural societies was *' An act 
making appropriations for sundry agricultural expenses" 
(Acts of 1900, chapter 31) ; " An act relative to the work 
of the Dairy Bureau of the State Board of Agriculture " 
(Acts of 1900, chapter 368) ; *' An act making an appro- 
priation for expenses in connection with the work of exter- 
minating the gypsy moth" (Acts of 1900, chapter 403) ; 
'< A resolve in favor of the Berkshire Agricultural Society" 
(Resolves of 1900, chapter 21) ; and *' A resolve to author- 
ize the State Board of Agriculture to collect and distribute 
information relative to partly abandoned farms and unre- 
munerative lands" (Resolves of 1900, chapter 51). 

Abandoned Farms. 

Provision was made by chapter 51 of the Resolves of 1900 
for carrying on the work of this office in " collecting and 
distributing information relative to partly abandoned farms 
and unremunerative lands." The resolve was approved 
April 11, and steps were at once taken to prepare material 
for a new edition of the descriptive catalogue. 

The methods adopted were much the same as in former 
years. A circular letter was mailed the last of April to the 
assessors, but returns were received from only 147 of the 
353 cities and towns. These communities reported 233 
names, of which 195 were new, and from these 27 descrip- 
tions were received. Also a circular letter was mailed in 
June to some 70 individuals whom it was thought might be 
able to report names in their respective localities ; but only 
60 new names were received, resulting in 13 descriptions. 
It will be noted, therefore, that these efforts resulted in the 
getting of only 40 new descriptions. Circular letters were 
also sent to those having descriptions in the seventh edition, 
206 farms, and the canvass resulted as follows : farms sold, 
43 ; owners not wishing to advertise again, 15 ; owners 
wishing to advertise again, 70 ; no response, 78. 

The new catalogue, eighth edition, contained 136 descrip- 
tions, and was issued the last of September. The average 

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XX BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

acreage of these farms was 135.36 acres, and the average 
price asked $1,720.62. 

The new catalogue was desired because of continual de- 
mand for information, both by letter and by person. The 
seventh edition of the catalogue was received from the 
printers in January, 1898, and after fifteen months scarcely 
any of the 1,500 copies issued were available for distribution. 
In order to ascertain if there really was warrant for asking 
the Legislature for a further appropriation to continue the 
work, a record was kept of the calls by mail during the 
calendar year ending Aug. 20, 1900. The record showed 
252 such calls ; 145 being from Massachusetts, 37 from New 
York, 13 from Connecticut, and the rest scattering. 

An interesting feature of the new catalogue was the print- 
ing of replies of a number of purchasers of farms advertised 
in previous catalogues in response to a circular letter of 
inquiry. Details cannot well be given in this brief r6sumd, 
and it will no doubt suffice to say that nearly all of the par- 
ties responding to the circular letter gave their reasons for 
purchasing, and expressed themselves as satisfied with their 
purchase. There were also included in the catalogue several 
pages of statistics of Massachusetts agriculture compiled 
from the State census of 1895, they showing plainly that, 
while there had been changes in our agriculture, owing to 
changed conditions, there were no reasons for alarm, but 
reasons rather for congratulations at the good showing 
made. It might properly be said in this connection that the 
extreme difficulty this office has had the past ten years in 
getting descriptions of farm property for the several cata- 
logues does not indicate that owners of farms are over- 
anxious to dispose of their property. 

The reasons assigned by the 136 individuals desiring 
descriptions of their property included in the eightji edition 
of the catalogue may be summed up as follows : in other 
business, living elsewhere, no use for it or unable to carry it 
on, 67 ; old age, 22 ; poor health, 13 ; having another farm, 
10 ; to settle an estate, 8 ; reasons not given, 16. In no 
instance was there any expression of dissatisfaction with 
farm life, or of the opinion that " farming doesn't pay." 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF SECRETARY. 



XXI 



The original act authorizing the State Board of Agri- 
culture to undertake this work was approved May 4, 1891. 
A summary of the work to Jan. 1, 1901, is as follows : — 



Number of all farms in State, census of 1885, 
Names of owners or agents given by assessors. 
Names of owners or agents received from other sources^ 
Total number of names famished (duplications elimi- 

nated), 

Number making reply to request for description, 
Number of descriptions received, . 
Number stating they did not wish to sell. 
Number reporting property already disposed of, 
Number stating informant to have been misinformed. 
Catalogued farms reported sold, .... 
Catalogued farms withdrawn at request of owners, 
Catalogued farms withdrawn fix)m later editions because 

owners failed to respond to letters of inquiry, . 



45.010 

1,371 

822 

2,193 
995 
711 
174 
60 
50 
309 
114 

142 



In regard to residence of the 309 purchasers at the time 
of purchase, the following is shown : Massachusetts, 178 ; 
New York and Connecticut, 14 ; New Hampshire, 5 ; Ver- 
mont and Rhode Island, 4 ; Ohio, New Jersey and Florida, 
3 ; Nova Scotia, Maine, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and 
Elansas, 1 ; not reported, 75. Judging by the names a large 
proportion of these purchasers were of American parentage. 

In regard to the probable use which the purchasers in- 
tended to make of the farms purchased, the returns show the 
following : for farming purposes, 120 ; for a home, 26 ; for 
an investment, 15 ; for the wood and timber, 15 ; for sum- 
mer residence, 13 ; for poultry with some farming, 10 ; for 
dairying, 9 ; for poultry, 7 ; for sheep, 3 ; for cranberry 
growing, 1. No statement was received concerning 90 of 
the farms reported sold. 



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xxu 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub, Doc. 



CataJogties issued. 



Edition. 


Date of iMue. 


Number 

of 
Copict. 


Total 

Descriptionf 

published. 


Total Farma 
•old. 


ToUl Farms 
withdrawn. 


First, . 


Nov., 1891, 


3,000 


330 


- 


- 


Second, . 


Jan., 1892, 


1,500 


339 


- 


- 


Third, . 


Nov., 1892, 


2,000 


383 


51 


22 


Fourth, . 


Nov., 1893, 


2,000 


400 


108 


53 


Fifth, . 


Dec, 1894, 


2,000 


643 


150 


79 


Fifth Supplement, 


April, 1896, 


1,000 


560 


150 


79 


Sixth, . 


Dec., 1896, 


2,000 


621 


242 


95 


Seventh, 


Dec., 1897, 


1,500 


638 


269 


103 


Eighth, . 


Sept., 1900, 


2,500 


710 


309 


114 



Financial Statement^ 1891-1901, 

Appropriati<wis of 1891, 1893, 1896 and 1900, .... $5,000 00 
Reverted back to State treasury, because unused, . 1,230 95 

Amount actually available, $3,769 05 

Printing 17,500 catalogues, 8 editions, 1 supplement, $1,945 77 
Postage stamps for mailing catalogues and circulars, 670 00 
Special services members of the Board of Agri- 
culture, 196 30 

Special envelopes for mailing catalogues, . 170 82 

Printed circulars, 129 96 

Sundries, 5 50 

Available for work in 1901, . . .650 70 

$3,769 05 

A four-page leaflet, containing descriptions of 9 farms, 
received too late for incorporation in the catalogue, was 
issued December 1. 

This department is largely in charge of Mr. Fowler. . 

Dairy Bureau. 
The annual report of the Dairy Bureau to the Legislature 
will be found printed on pages 371-391 of this volume. 

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No. 4.] REPORT OF SECRETARY. xxiii 

The personnel of the Bureau has been changed, owing to the 
decease of the chairman, Mr. D. A, Horton of Northampton. 
The resulting vacancy was filled by the appointment of Mr. 
F. W. Sargent of Amesbury . 

Chapter 368 of the Acts of 1900 provides that ** the State 
Board of Agriculture shall at its annual meeting elect a gen- 
eral agent of the Dairy Bureau, to assist the Bureau and to 
oversee, under its direction, the work prescribed in section 
11 of chapter 412 of the Acts of 1891." 

This provision of law supersedes the appointment by the 
Governor of <* an assistant to the secretary of the Board 
of Agriculture, — to assist in the work prescribed in the 
eleventh section of this act." 

This act was intended to promote more perfect unity in 
the work of the Dairy Bureau, that it might have an agent 
who would be virtually appointed by them to do the work 
as general agent, not independent of the Bureau and the 
Board by appointment of the Governor. The general agent 
to ** assist the Bureau . . . under its direction " cannot be 
misconstrued as assistant secretary of the Board of Agri- 
culture as to duties, and all misconception as to duties or 
title in correspondence or press reports is obviated. It 
establishes the direct control of the Dairy Bureau over its 
" general agent" and all other agents, and at the same time 
lessens the responsibility of the secretary, which is wise, 
because of his many duties. It is believed this act will 
prove of material value to the work of the Dairy Bureau 
and the best good of the Board. 

Pan-American Exposition. 
The Massachusetts Commissioners for the Pan-American 
Exposition communicated with the secretary of the Board 
relative to an agricultural exhibit at that exposition. The 
matter was laid before the executive committee of the Board 
with the commissioners present, and after discussion the 
executive committee appointed Pres. H. H. Goodell, Hon. 
Wm. R. Sessions and the secretary of the Board a commit- 
tee with fiill power to act. This committee with the com- 
missioners have been in perfect accord. We have visited 
the Massachusetts Agricultural College, and the college has 

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xxiv BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

been called upon to prepare the agricultural and horticultural 
exhibit of Massachusetts for the Exposition. President 
Goodell says of this exhibit : — 

It will be largely illustrative, and by comparison rather than by 
actual specimens. In horticulture there are five cases, illustrative 
of its progress during the last hundred years, containing colored 
models of original fruits and vegetables side by side with the latest 
and improved varieties. It is an object lesson of the simplest 
kind, but of the greatest educational value. 

In botany are four exhibits : first, a dozen plates illustrating the 
structure and development of the nematode worms, so ruinous to 
the cucumbers, tomatoes and other crops grown under glass, and 
supplemented by plates showing the methods used for sterilizing 
the soil and thus killing the nematode foe ; second, eighteen types 
mounted on glass in glycerine-gelatine of fungous diseases of 
Massachusetts, affecting the growth and perfection of the leaf ; 
third, a series of diagrams showing (a) the influence of electricity 
upon plant growths and (b) the different kinds of appai-atus used 
for electrically stimulating the germination of seed ; fourth, a set 
of mounted sections of wood of some sixty specimens of the trees 
of Massachusetts. There are three sections, of the thinness of 
paper, of each specimen, one section being cut perpendicular, 
another tangential and a third radial, thus showing the grain of 
the wood from every part of the tree. Accompanying each set 
of three are two photographs, one of the tree in full foliage and 
the other bare and denuded of leaves. 

In agriculture are a series of charts depicting graphically the 
acreage of Massachusetts cereals, root and other crops, compared 
with tlie acreage of the same crops in three or four of the great 
agricultural States of the Union, a second series comparing the 
dairy products, and a third the yield per acre, cost and value of 
the same. These charts cover a period of forty years, and are 
exceedingly valuable and instructive. 

This exhibit will, we believe, be distinctive and instruc- 
tive, an honor to the college and the State.* It rests with 
the Board to continue this committee or make such provision 
as seems to it best for the completion of this work, that the 
commission may be able to consult with the Board on all 
questions that may arise relating to the proper presentation 
of the agricultural interests of Massachusetts at this great 
exposition. 

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No. 4.] REPORT OF SECRETARY. xxv 



Protection and Value of Insectivorous Birds. 
The Board believes in the great, almost invaluable, ser- 
vices of the insectivorous birds, and therefore in the list of 
subjects at the last winter meeting we placed the subject of 
"Birds useful to agriculture** first in the list. Desiring 
definite data as to the value of birds as insect destroyers, we 
asked the ornithologist of the Board, Mr. E. H. Forbush, to 
give us reliable information on this point, and insert his re- 
port, as follows : — 

Fletcher, the greatest of Canadian economic entomologists, has 
estimated that one-tenth of the value of all the agricultural products 
of the United States is yearly sacrificed to insects. Therefore, 
taking the figures of the last census, three hundred and eighty 
million dollars is thus wasted annually. In view of such state- 
ments as this from conservative authorities, any promising means 
of reducing this appalling waste should command the attention of 
intelligent agriculturists everywhere. In this connection it may 
be safely asserted that too much attention is paid to the possi- 
bilities of costly artificial remedies, such as mechanical appliances 
and mineral poisons, and not enough to the valuable and inexpen- 
sive services rendered by the natural enemies of insects, especially 
the birds. Birds fitted by nature to pursue and devour these pests 
are also blest with phenomenal appetites, and require an enormous 
quantity of insect food. A woodcock has been known, says 
Audubon, to eat its own weight of insects in a night. The num- 
ber of caterpillars that certain birds have been observed to eat 
within an hour almost passes belief. The young of our smaller 
birds, reared as they are at a time when insects are multiplying, 
require a great amount of insect food. A young crow required 
8 to 10 ounces of food daily to promote its growth. Digestion in 
young birds requires only half an hour to an hour and a half, and 
their stomachs must be filled often, lest they pine and die. A 
young robin fed by Professor Tread well ate 41 per cent more than 
its own weight in worms in twelve hours, requiring this amount, 
or about its own weight in beef, daily for its sustenance. Pro- 
fessor Wood states that the daily food of the robin is equivalent 
to an earth worm 14 feet in length. 

The young while they are in the nest, and later when they first 
take wing, require the same parental care. One hundred and 
twenty-five visits were made to a vireo's young in ten hours by 
the parent birds. Nearly 200 visits were made to the nest by a 

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xxvi BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

pair of chipping sparrows in a day. Martins have been seen to 
make 312 visits to the nest in fourteen hours. Grosbeaks have 
been seen to make 436 visits to the nest in eleven hours, while 
wrens have made from 40 to 71 visits an hour. Most of these 
visits were made for the purpose of carrying insects to the young, 
and in many cases several insects were carried in the beak at one 
time. If such birds can be induced to breed in numbers on our 
farms, if they can be protected and attracted to the vicinity of 
growing crops, their services cannot fail to check the attacks of 
insects, and so add materially to the harvest. 

In view of the value of these friends to the farmer, as thus 
set forth, should we not investigate and experiment to find 
how best we can attract useful birds to our farms, how in- 
crease the number of these birds, and also to find out, if we 
can, whether the use of insecticides is reducing their num- 
bers ? So valuable is their aid to the farmer, that this study 
may show the wisdom of an investigation of this subject for 
the benefit of the State. Birds may be considered the most 
valuable insect destroyers, costing nothing, but bringing 
beauty and joy and song to the country side and the country 
home. 

Agricultukal College. 

The report of the examining committee of the Agricultural 
College will be found printed on pages 227-231 of this vol- 
ume. The thirteenth annual report of the Hatch Experi- 
ment Station of the college is by law bound with the report 
of the secretary of the Board of Agriculture in this volume. 
Those desiring further details as to the scope of the college 
and experiment station are respectfully referred to the presi- 
dent. Dr. Henry H. Goodell, Amherst, Mass. 

Cattle Commissioners. 
The annual report of the Board of Cattle Commissioners 
is by law printed in the annual report of the secretary of the 
Board of Agriculture, and the report for 1900 will be found 
printed on pages 395-482 of this volume. The oflSce of the 
commission is at 8 Beacon Street, Boston ; Dr. Austin 
Peters, chairman. 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF SECRETARY. xxvu 

Agbicultural Directory, 
A directory of the agricultural organizations in the Com- 
monwealth) with officers for 1901, will be found printed on 
pages 493-511 of this volume. This directory is intended to 
be absolutely correct. Members of the Board, officers of 
societies, granges and farmers' clubs will confer a favor 
by sending notice of changes to this office as soon as they 
occur. 

Farmers' National Congress. 
The report of the delegates to the Farmers' National Con- 
gress at Colorado Springs, Col., Aug. 21-31, 1900, is by 
request included in this volume, and will be found printed 
on pages 236-244. It is interesting to note that the present 
president of the Congress is a Massachusetts gentleman, 
Capt. R. G. F. Candage of Brookline. 

Revision of By-laws and Rules. 

The matter of revision of the by-laws, rules, etc., of the 
Board has been taken under consideration by the committee 
on institutes, rules and legislation, acting jointly with the 
executive committee, and the results of their labors will be 
duly reported. It is understood that the commission on the 
revision of the Public Statutes will soon make their report, 
and for this reason it is suggested that the printing of the 
statute laws relating to the Board of Agriculture and to the 
agricultui*al societies, and the by-laws of the Board, rules, 
etc., be deferred until after the new statutes become available. 

It is hoped that the codification or revision above re- 
ferred to will remove some of the objectionable features 
in the laws as they now stand. 

Library. 
The library in the office of the secretary is becoming more 
and more appreciated and used. Attention is called to the 
report of the librarian, which will be found printed on page 
234 of this volume. 



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xxviii BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Semi-centennial op the Board. 

The Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture was estab- 
lished by chapter 142 of the Acts of 1852, which was approved 
by Ilis Excellency Gov. Geo. S. Boutwell, April 21, 1852. 
The first meetmg of the Board was held at the Council Cham- 
ber in Boston, July 22, 1852, with His Excellency Governor 
Boutwell as presiding oflScer, and the secretary of the Com- 
monwealth, Hon. Amasa Walker, as secretary pro tern. 

It will therefore be noted that the semi-centennial of the 
Board is fast approaching, and it is suggested that action be 
ti;ken at this time to provide for the proper observance of 
this epoch in the Board's history. 

Crop Conditions and Weather. 
A summary of Massachusetts crop conditions and weather 
for 1900 is here appended. 

J. W. STOCKWELL, 

Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture. 
Boston, Janaary, 1901. 



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No. 4.] MASSACHUSETTS CROPS. xxix 



Summary of Crop Conditions, 1900. 



The season opened late, and the cold weather of May 
tended to still further retard vegetation. The frosts of the 
10th and 11th of May did much damage to early vegetables 
and some damage to fruit. Pastures and mowings were 
generally in excellent condition. Fall seeding did not winter 
as well as usual, owing to the lack of snow-covering during 
the winter. The fruit bloom was the heaviest in years. The 
severe frosts of the 10th and 11th injured peaches and straw- 
berries severely, plums and cherries to a lesser degree, and 
apples practically not at all. Insects did very little damage ; 
spraying increasing, but not rapidly. There was a fair 
supply of good farm help. Wages averaged about $18 per 
month with board and about $1.25 per day without board. 
There was even less change than usual in the acreage of farm 
crops. 

In June there was very little injury from insects. Cool 
weather held com back, but it was otherwise in good con- 
dition. Haying was not generally begun, and the crop did 
not promise to be up to the average. Early potatoes showed 
a slight increase in acreage in eastern sections, and there was 
prospect of a good crop. Early market-garden crops, with 
the exception of asparagus, were about average as to yield 
and price. The supply of dairy products was about normal, 
with prices slightly increased. Pasturage was in good con- 
dition, though likely soon to need rain. Strawberries were 
far from a good crop, but the prices ruled high. Apples 
promised a good crop ; peaches a light crop ; pears fair and 
plums generally a light crop ; cherries were a very poor 
crop, having suffered badly from frost. 

No noticeable damage from insects was reported in July. 
Indian com was generally in good condition, though per- 
haps a little late. Haying was completed, with from two- 

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XXX BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

thirds to three-fourths of a full crop; quality good and 
condition first class. The acreage of forage crops was con- 
siderably increased because of the short hay crop, and they 
were generally in fair condition. Market-garden crops were 
generally short, owing to drought ; prices about as usual. 
Early potatoes were nearly a failure, owing to drought. 
Apples promised a good crop; pears fair; plums light; 
peaches light ; quinces and grapes good. Pastures were in 
need of rain in all sections. Rye, oats and barley were gen- 
erally good average crops. 

At the end of August, Indian corn promised a fine crop in 
all except Essex, Middlesex and Barnstable counties, where 
it was somewhat off. Rowen was a light crop in all sections. 
Late potatoes were below the average, owing to drought. 
Blight was not general and there was little rot. Tobacco 
was generally an excellent crop, and cutting was practically 
completed at the end of the month. Apples promised a 
good crop ; pears fair ; peaches light ; grapes good ; cran- 
berries light. Pastures were far from being in good condi- 
tion, and cattle were fed at the bams in many sections. Oats 
and barley were below the average as to grain and straw. 
Poultry keeping was generally found profitable, but not 
enough attention is paid to it in most cases. 

Indian corn in September was rather more than an aver- 
age crop in western and central sections and rather less in 
eastern. The rowen crop was far below the normal, and in 
many sections was practically a failure. Fall feed was also 
far below the normal. Onions were less than an average 
crop. Potatoes were probably not over a two-thirds crop ; 
little rot and quality good. The prospects for root crops 
were not flattering. Celery was a fairly good crop. Apples 
promised to give one of the largest crops on record, but the 
gale of the 12th took off from one-third to one-half of them. 
Little was done to utilize the windfalls, except for cider for 
vinegar making. Pears were a fair crop; plums light; 
peaches average ; grapes a very good crop ; cranberries little, 
if any, over half a crop. 

The last of October root crops were reported to be about 
average in western and central sections; in eastern and 
south-eastern sections yields considerably below the average^ 

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No. 4.] MASSACHUSETTS WEATHEK. xxxi 

Potatoes appeared to be one of the poorest crops for years. 
Pastures and mowings were in good shape and fall feed 
unusually good, resulting in a greatly improved condition 
of farm stock. Much less than the usual amount of fall seed- 
ing was done, owing to the drought, and that put in was re- 
tarded in germination. The fall rains and warm weather 
pushed fall seeding along finely, and at the close of the season 
it was reported to be in good condition. With the excep- 
tion of apples, prices for which were low on account of the 
large crop, prices of farm crops ranged rather higher than 
usual, due probably to the shortage caused in most crops by 
the drought. Of 149 replies to the question : '< How have 
prices for crops raised for market compared with former 
years ? " 89 correspondents spoke of prices as average, 54 as 
higher than usual and 6 as lower than usual. There was the 
usual difference of opinion as to which crops had been most 
profitable, as well as which had proved least profitable. It 
might be said, however, that 54 considered com to have 
been among the most profitable crops ; 46, hay or grass ; 
31, potatoes; 9, sweet corn; 7, apples; 7, tobacco; 5, 
asparagus ; 5, tomatoes, etc. Seventy correspondents agreed 
that potatoes should be reckoned among the least profitable 
crops; 28, apples; 17, hay or grass; 8, corn; 7, onions; 
4, cabbages, etc. 

The season was not one which could be called generally 
profitable for our farmers. The prolonged drought of sum- 
mer and early fall cut many crops short to such an extent 
that the increased prices received failed to make up the 
shortage. Starting the summer with empty barns, the short 
hay crop and scanty pasturage materially increased the 
cost of producing dairy products. Of 144 correspondents 
answering the question as to the profits of the season, 43 
regarded it as profitable, 17 as average, 26 as fairly profitable 
and 58 that it had not been a profitable one. 

Massachusetts Weather, 1900. 

[Compiled from date furnlflhed by the Weather Boreaa, Boston.] 

January was milder than usual, the temperature ranging 
from 1^ to 4P above the normal at all stations of official 
observation. The month opened with a general snow-storm, 

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xxxii BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

which furnished the greater portion of the snowfall for the 
period and the first amount of consequence of the season. 
While the total snowfall for the month was less than the 
average, the precipitation, snow and rain combined, was in 
excess of the normal by about a half inch. There was an 
average amount of sunshine. The average number of days 
with .01 inch or more precipitation was 10. 

February was distinguished by much unpleasant weather 
and more than the average amount of precipitation. The 
average number of days with rain or snow, 10, was the same 
as for the preceding month. The average precipitation was, 
however, far in excess of that of January, and about 4 inches 
above the normal. Excepting rain in southern coast sec- 
tions, the precipitation was chiefly in the form of snow. The 
monthly mean temperature, 27*^, was above the normal for 
February. The coldest weather of the season occuiTcd dur- 
ing the month. 

March was notable for a preponderance of fine, clear 
weather, the average number of clear days, 15, being much 
in excess of the pleasant weather usually experienced during 
this month. There was an average of only 8 days with a 
measurable amount of precipitation, which is a remarkable 
occurrence for March weather. Notwithstanding the small 
number of foul days, the average precipitation for the month 
was fully up to normal, and for the greater portion of the 
State it was from 1 to 2 inches in excess. It occurred, how- 
ever, principally during two storms, i.e., lst-2d and the 
16th. The month was colder than usual, the monthly mean 
temperature being about 1.5^ below the normal. . 

April was a pleasant month, with more than the average 
amount of fair weather. There were 12 sunny days, 7 with 
skies partially obscured and 9 with general cloudiness. 
The precipitation was deficient, the average amount for the 
month being about 1 inch below the normal. Snow flurries 
were of occurrence in parts of the State, but the amounts too 
small to measure. The temperature was fairly well dis- 
tributed through the month. The monthly mean was 1° 
above the normal for April. The temperature fell below 
fi'eezing during the month at all stations. 

May, as a whole, was a very unpleasant month. There 

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No. 4.] MASSACHUSETTS WEATHER. xxxiii 

was much more than the usual amount of cloudiness, and 
very few days when the sky was wholly unobscured. The 
rainfall was also considerably in excess of the normal amount 
for the month. This was, however, fairly well distributed 
through the period. There was a general storm on the 3d, 
during which rain fell in about all sections of the State. 
The amounts were very large in coast sections. General 
moderate showers occurred on the 8th and 9th. A «< spell " 
of unsettled conditions prevailed from the 15th to the 21st, 
•during which there were showers on each day in parts or the 
whole of the State. The rainfall during the 19th was gener- 
ally heavy. The average temperature for the month was 
considerably below the normal, the daily deficiency amount- 
ing to atout 1° per day. With the exception of an unusually 
warm day on the 15th, when the mercury rose to 93^ at 
Boston, the temperature was uniformly cool. Killing frosts 
were of general occuiTence on the 10th and 11th, and in 
many localities where the conditions were favorable, thin 
ice formed. The lowest temperature recorded at Boston 
was 33°, on the 11th. With two exceptions. May 3, 1874, 
when the temperature was 32°, and again on the 3d in 1881, 
when it fell to 31°, the 15th of the month was the coldest 
in the past twenty-eight years at Boston. The month was 
marked by a prevalence of easterly and northerly winds. 

June opened with warm weather, the average temperature 
for the first two or three days ranging above the normal of 
the season. This was followed during the latter part of the 
first week by one or two cool days. Showers, timely and 
well distributed, afforded sufficient moisture. The second 
week of the month was continuously warm. The temper- 
ature, however, was not excessive, and the maximum did 
not exceed 90°. There was much sunshine during this 
period, with an average of four clear days. The rainfall 
was light, in the form of showers, which fell chiefly on the 
8th and 9th. There was a continuation of fine weather 
through the third week, with cloudless skies on an average 
of three to four days. The rainfall was light, although it 
was well distributed over the State. There was no marked 
change in the temperature, which ranged near the average 
for the season ; it was, however, slightly lower than for the 



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xxxiv BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

preceding week. The closing week of the month was devoid 
of unusual features. The precipitation was deficient and 
irregularly distributed. Excepting in coast sections, where 
copious local showers were reported on the 23d, the rainfall 
was light. 

The month of July was characterized by varied and ex- 
treme conditions of weather. The opening days, and until 
the 6th, the temperature averaged from 2^ to 5° below nor- 
mal. During this period there was much cloudiness^ al- 
though the rainfall was light, averaging about .4 inch. The 
second and third weeks were excessively warm, the mercury 
being almost continuously above the normal. The warm 
wave was most intense from the 16th to 18th inclusive, dur- 
ing which the maxima temperatures ranged in the 90s, 
occasionally reaching 100^, in the shade, and the minima 
falling but slightly, if any, below 80*^. The weather in the 
mean time was clear to partly cloudy, with a general defi- 
ciency of rain. The only showers of consequence were on 
the 12th and 18th. These were very irregular in amounts 
and distribution. A season of cool weather obtained from 
the 20th to 22d, with the maximum temperatures in the 80s. 
This was followed by a few days of moderate summer heat, 
resulting in a general rain storm on the 25th and 26th. The 
rainfall during this storm was generally copious. The month 
closed with several days of fair weather, with the average 
amount of sunshine and temperatures ranging near the 
seasonal average. 

August opened with a ** spell " of clear weather and cool 
nights, which continued through the 5th. In favorable 
localities the temperature fell dangerously near the frost 
point. The cool wave broke the record for August for 
many years past, variously estimated from ten to twenty- 
five years. This was followed by a period of warm weather 
with a high per cent of moisture. The mercury ranged in 
the 90's in all sections except those of the immediate coast. 
There were frequent showers from the 6th to the 10th, with 
the rainfall generally in light to moderate amounts. Three 
days of generally fair and cooler weather followed, with 
much easterly wind, and fogs were prevalent in coast sec- 
tions. The third week of the month was characterized by 

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No. 4.] MASSACHUSETTS WEATHER. xxxv 

much cloudiness and rain. The storm of the 15th was 
quite general, giving copious rainfalls in nearly all parts 
of the State. During no week of the season was there 
so much precipitation. Comparatively low temperature 
accompanied the foul weather. The weather for the re- 
mainder of the month was generally fair, the exceptions 
consisting of local storms, usually attended by thunder and 
light rainfall. From the 20th to the 23d a moderate cool 
wave prevailed, and this was followed by several of the 
warmest days of the season. The highest temperatures of 
the season were recorded from the 25th to the 27th, when 
tlie figures ranged from 90^ to 1 10^. The weather of August, 
as a whole, did not depart greatly from the average for this 
month. 

The weather of September was characterized by a high 
average temperature, more than the usual number of clear 
days and rainfall above the normal for the month. While 
the temperature was in excess of that usually experienced in 
this month, it was so equitably distributed as not to impress 
the casual observer as being more than the average. There 
were no excessively warm days. The highest temperature 
registered at the office of the Weather Bureau, Boston, was 
only 91^, and only on two days. The minimum temperature, 
however, ranged unusually and continuously high. With 
slight exceptions it ranged in the 50's and 60*3 throughout 
the month, at Boston. In the interior and western portions 
of the State the mercury ranged much lower than in coast 
sections. The coolest period was from the 18th to the 20th, 
when frost occurred in many localities, and in a few instances, 
where the conditions were especially favorable, thin ice 
formed. The closing days of the month were cool. Not- 
withstanding the fact that the average precipitation was con- 
siderably in excess of the normal of the month, there were 
more than the usual number of clear days, and the per cent 
of sunshine was also in excess of the average. The rainfall 
was chiefly the result of two general storms, during which 
the precipitation was very heavy. At Boston 3.70 inches 
of water fell from the 16th to the 18th inclusive, which is an 
inch in excess of the normal rainfall of September at that 
point. The severe wind storm of the 12th was a conspicuous 



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xxxvi BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

feature of the weather of the month. The gale was general, 
and continued through a large portion of the day. It 
attained a velocity at Boston of 60 miles per hour, reaching 
its greatest force in the eastern parts of the State. 

October was remarkably pleasant. There was about the 
average number of days with rain, the amount of which was 
fairly well distributed throughout the several sections of the 
State. Excepting the heavy fall of the night of the 8th, the 
storms were moderate. There was a week of overcast skies, 
from the 6th to the 12th of the month, but for the remainder 
of the period the days of sunshine and cloudiness were about 
equally divided. The weather was abnormally warm, view- 
ing from a point of mean temperature, the daily means at 
Boston being in excess of the normal for two-thirds of the 
days. The mercuiy ranged higher in this month in the 
twenty-eight years covered by the national meteorological 
observations, but only in the early days of the month. The 
month was remarkable for a continuous moderate tempera- 
ture and for the period in the later part of the month with 
a maxima of near 80^ for several days. At Boston the 
maximum rose to 77° on the 22d and to 80° on the 23d and 
the 24th. This record is not paralleled in October at this 
station during the past twenty- eight years of official records. 
Killing frosts and occasional freezing temperatures were of 
occurrence from the 16th to the 22d, but excepting these 
days there was a general absence of frost. Fogs were 
prevalent in coast sections during the closing week of the 
month. There were no unusual features shown in the 
records of wind direction and velocity or those of air press- 
ure. October, 1900, as a whole, will be remembered and 
will go on record as a month of most pleasant weather. 

The weather during November was characterized by much 
cloudiness, the skies being wholly overcast during 15 days 
of the period. Sunshine predominated during 8 days, and 
partly cloudy weather for the remainder of the month. Pre- 
cipitation occurred on an average of 12 days, and the monthly 
amounts were excessive at about all points or stations of 
observation. The monthly average for the State was 5.06 
inches, which is slightly more than an inch above the nor- 
mal for November. It was chiefly in the form of rain, 

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No. 4.] MASSACHUSETTS WEATHER. xxxvii 

although snow fell in all sections at some time during the 
month. The largest amount for the month, so far as offi- 
cially reported, was at Pittsfield, where 6 inches fell, on the 
9th. The depth there, particularly in country roads, was 
sufficient to impede travel. A severe ice storm occurred in 
the vicinity of Leeds, which did much damage to fruit trees. 
The month was marked by abnormally high monthly mean 
temperature. The mean for the State was 42.7°, which is 
about 2° in excess of the normal. The month as a whole 
was one of much unpleasant weather, and generally unfa- 
vorable to outdoor work. 

The weather of December was also made up of much 
cloudiness. The month was, however, conspicuous for few 
stonny days, and for a marked deficiency in the average pre- 
cipitation. Snow or rain occurred, in measurable amounts, 
on an average of but 6 days, and the average monthly 
amount for the State was 2.06 inches, which is about 1 inch 
less than the normal. The snowfall was unusually light, the 
largest amount for the month being 6 inches at Pittsfield. 
The chief disturbance of the month was the storm from the 
3d to the 5th. It was of southern origin, and moved north- 
ward along the coast. It was attended by winds of hurricane 
force, which were destructive to life and to property. The 
temperature record for December, viewed as a whole, shows 
the weather to have been less severe than usual. When 
examined in detail, however, it is found that for a period of 
10 days to a fortnight, embraced in the second and third 
decades, there was much cold weather. The monthly mean 
for the State was 3.4°, which is 1° below the normal. Gen^ 
erally speaking, the weather was fairly representative of the 
first winter month. 



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xxxviii BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [P.D.No.4. 



Meteorological Observatory of the Hatch Experi- 
ment Station (Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 
lege), Amherst. 



Annual Summart for 1900. 



Pressure {in Inches). 

Maximum reduced to freezing, 30.42, Feb- 
ruary 28, 7 A.M. 

Minimum reduced to freezing, 28.55, Feb- 
ruary 25, 4 A.M. 

Maximum reduced to freezing and sea 
level, 30.75, February 28, 7 a.m. 

Minimum reduced to freezing and Bca 
level, 28.86, February 26, 4 a.m. 

Mean reduced to freezing and sea level, 
28.986. 

Annual range, 1.89. 

Air Temperature {in Degrees F.).* 
Highest, 96.0, August 6, 5.80 p.m. 
Lowest, — 8.0, February 3, 6.30 a.m. 
Mean, 48.8. 

Mean of means of max. and mln., 48.1. 
Mean sensible (wet bulb), 45.0. 
Annual range, 104.0. 
Highest mean daily, 84.0, July 17. 
Lowest mean dally, 3.4, February 2. 
Mean maximum, 59.1. 
Mean minimum, 37.8. 
Mean daily range, 21.8. 
Greatest dally range, 47.5, May 27. 
Least dally range, 2.5, May 19. 

Humidity. 
Mean dew point, 39.2. 
Mean force of vapor, .436. 
Mean relative humidity, 72.3. 

}Find,— Prevailing Direction West. Sum- 
mary {Per Cent). 

North-west, 15. 

North, 12. 

South-west, 11. 

South, 10. 

West, 10. 

Other directions, 42. 

Total movement, 60,508 miles. 

Greatest dally movement, 485 miles, Feb- 
ruary 26. 

Least daily movement, 1 mile, November 
29. 

Mean dally movement, 138.4 miles. 

Mean hourly velocity, 5.8 miles. 



Maximum pressure, per square foot, 30J} 
pounds = 78 miles per hour, February 
25, 11 P.M., W.N.W. 

Precipitation {in Inches). 
Total precipitation, rain or melted snow, 

51.67. 
Number of days on which .01 or more 

rain or melted snow fell, 131. 
Snow total, in inches, 37.0. 

Weather. 
Mean cloudiness observed, 55 per cent. 
Total cloudiness recorded by sun ther- 
mometer, 2,238 hours = 50 i>er cent. 
Number of clear days, 83. 
Number of fair days, 144. 
Number of cloudy days, 138. 

Bright Sunshine. 
Number of hours recorded, 2,216=60 per 
cent. 

Dates of Frosts, 

Last, May 29. 
First, September 15. 

Dates of Snow, 
Last, April 9. 
First, November 9. 
Total days of sleighing, 27. 

Gaies of SO or More Miles per Hour, 
January 26, 64 n^illes, N.W. ; January 27, 66 
miles, N.W.; February 5, 53 miles, N.; 
February 13, 55 miles, N.W. ; February 
14, 50 miles, N.W.; February 22, 52 
miles, N.E.; February 25, 78 miles, 
W JJ.W. ; February 26, 51 mUcs, N.W. ; 
March 2, 57 miles, N.W.; March 4, 58 
miles, N.W. ; April 1, 60 mlle8,W.N.W.; 
April 26, 51 mUes, N.N.E.; May 1, 52 
mUes, N.W.; May 5, 66 mUes, N.W.;* 
June 80, 50 miles, N.W.; July 7, 68 
miles, S.W.; August 6, 57 miles, 
N.N.W. ; September 12, 60 mUes, S.W. ; 
November 9, 58 miles, N.N.W.; No- 
vember 10,60 miles, N.N.W.; Decem- 
ber 9, 51 mUes, S.S.W. 



* Temperature In ground shelter. 



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MEETINGS OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

OF THE 

Board of Agriculture, 

1900. 



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MEETINGS OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, 

ACTING FOR THE BOARD. 



Boston, Jan. 24, 1900. 

The credentials of Hon. Wm. K. Sessions and Gen. Fran- 
cis H. Appleton as members of the Board of Agriculture by- 
appointment of the Governor were presented and accepted. 

The matter of the delinquencies of certain societies in 
making required returns, referred to the executive commit- 
tee at the annual meeting, was considered, and they were 
all excused except the Blackstone Valley and Middlesex 
North societies, whose cases were laid over until the next 
meeting of the committee. 

The matter of filling the oflSce of first vice-president, re- 
ferred to the committee at the annual meeting, being in 
order, a ballot was taken, and Hon. Wm. R. Sessions was 
unanimously elected. 

The matter of filling the vacancy on the committee on 
gypsy moth, birds and insects, referred to the committee 
at the annual meeting, being in order, a ballot was taken, 
and Hon. Wm. R. Sessions was unanimously elected. 

The matter of change of date for the holding of the fair 
of the Bristol County Agricultural Society being under con- 
sideration, it was 

Votedy That the request of the society for change of date 
be denied, and that the secretary notify the society of the 
action of the committee. 

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4 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

The matter of change of date for the holding of the fair 
of the Middlesex South Agricultural Society being under 
consideration, it was 

Voted^ That the date for the. commencement of the fair of 
the Middlesex South Agricultural Society be changed to the 
third Tuesday after the first Monday in September. 

The secretary presented a proposed bill for an appropria- 
tion for carrying forward the work of the ofiBce in the matter 
of repopulating abandoned or partly abandoned farms, 
which proposed bill was approved by the committee. 

The secretary presented a proposed amendment to chapter 
412 of the Acts of 1891, which proposed amendment was 
approved by the committee. 

A request that the State pay for lectures and expenses of 
two speakers at any all-day institute was considered by the 
committee, and was denied. 

The matter of changes in the by-laws and rules of the 
Board was considered, and action was postponed to a future 
meeting. While this matter was being considered, Messrs. 
Barton and Comins of the committee on institutes, rules 
and legislation, sat with the executive committee. 



Boston, March 13, 1900. 

Voted, To excuse the delinquencies of the Blackstone 
Valley and Middlesex North societies, they having filed 
their transactions for 1899 since the last meeting of the 
executive committee. 

Suggestion was made that by imposing a fine societies 
might be more careful to avoid being delinquent in making 
required returns. 

The request of the Hoosac Valley Agricultural Society 
for the approval by the Board of Agriculture of its vote, 
passed at a special meeting of the society, on Feb. 24, 



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No. 4.] MEETINGS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 5 

1900, "authorizing the officers to mortgage their grounds 
for the sum of $10,000, to pay existing indebtedness," being 
in order, the matter was considered. 

There was presented a certified copy of the records of 
the meeting, showing that it was legally called and that the 
vote was passed by the necessary two-thirds ; also advertise- 
ments of the hearing and of the call for the special meeting. 
The delegate from the said society also appeared in the in- 
terests of the request for approval. 

No person appearing in opposition, it was 
Votedy To approve for the Board of Agriculture the 
above-quoted vote of the Hoosac Valley Agricultural So- 
ciety, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 274, 
Acts of 1890. 

The request of the Middlesex North Agricultural Society 
for the approval by the Board of Agriculture of its vote, 
passed at a special meeting of the society, Dec. 27, 1899, 
** That Sidney Drewett be and hereby is authorized and em- 
powered, as treasurer of the Middlesex North Agricultural 
Society, to borrow in its name and behalf, at his discretion, 
a sum not exceeding $2,500, for the use of said society, for 
such time and upon such terms as he may deem advisable, the 
rate of interest not to exceed five per cent per annum, pay- 
able semi-annually, and therefor to sign and give the pro- 
missory note of said society ; and also that Henry S. Perham 
as president and the said Sidney Drewett as treasurer of 
the society be and hereby are authorized and empowered, 
in its name and behalf, to make, execute and acknowledge a 
mortgage deed with power of sale in the usual form, and 
affix thereto the seal of said society, and such deed to 
deliver as security for the payment of said note, therein 
and thereby conveying, subject to an existing mortgage 
from said society to the Lowell Institution for Savings for 
the principal sum of $9,000, dated Jan. 23, A.D. 1896, all 
the real estate belonging to said society, situate on the 
easterly side of said Gorham Street in said Lowell, known 
as the fair grounds, together with any land theretofore ac- 
quired by the said society from the Lowell bleachery and 
situated on the southerly side of the fair grounds and to 

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6 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

become a part thereof; " and of its vote, passed at an ad- 
journed special meeting of the society, on Feb. 5, 1900, 
*« That Sidney Drewett be, and he hereby is, authorized and 
empowered, as treasurer of the Middlesex North Agricult- 
ural Society, to borrow in its name and behalf at his discre- 
tion, a sum not exceeding $4,800, for the use of said society, 
for such time and upon such terms as he may deem desir- 
able, the rate of interest not to exceed five per cent per 
annum, payable semi-annually, and therefor to sign and give 
the promissory note of said society ; and also that Henry S. 
Perham as president and the said Sidney Drewett as treas- 
urer of the society, be and hereby are authorized and em- 
powered, in its name and behalf, to make, execute and 
acknowledge a mortgage deed with power of sale in the 
usual form, and affix thereunto the seal of said society, and 
such deed to deliver as security for the payment of said 
note, therein and thereby conveying, subject to an existing 
mortgage from said society to the Lowell Institution for 
Savings, for the principal sum of $9,000, dated Jan. 23, 
1896, all the real estate belonging to said society, situate on 
the easterly side of Gorham Street in said Lowell, known 
as the fair grounds, together with any land theretofore 
acquired by said society from the Lowell bleachery, and 
situated on the southerly side of the fair grounds, and to 
become a part thereof," being in order, the matter was 
considered. 

There were presented certified copies of the above-quoted 
proceedings of the society, showing that the meetings were 
legally called and that the votes were the necessary two- 
thirds ; also copies of the advertisements of the special 
meetings of the society and of the hearing by the Board 
of Agriculture. Certain persons appeared in favor of the 
request for approval, and certain persons appeared in oppo- 
sition. After a full hearing and careful weighing of the 
evidence pro and con^ the committee unanimously 

Voted^ To approve for the Board of Agriculture the 
above-quoted votes of the Middlesex North Agricultural 
Society, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 274, 
Acts of 1890. 

Voiedy That hereafter votes of societies on matters of 

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No. 4.] MEETINGS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 7 

sale or mortgage of their real estate must be by aye and 
nay, and that the societies be so notified. 

Voted^ That the secretary ask the opinion of the At- 
torney-General as to the powers of the Board of Agriculture 
under chapter 274, Acts of 1890. 



Boston, July 12, 1900. 

Voied^ That the action of the Dairy Bureau, in employing 
Mr. Geo. M. Whitaker as general agent, temporarily, until 
the next annual meeting of the Board, be approved. 

Votedy That the first and second vice-presidents of the 
Board, the chairman of the executive committee, the pres- 
ident of the Massachusetts Agricultural College and the 
secretary of the Board be appointed a committee of the 
Board, to represent the claims of the agriculture of the State 
before the commissioners on the exhibit of the State at the 
Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, N. Y., in 1901, and 
to have full powers in the disposition of any monies which 
may be devoted to the agricultural exhibit. 

Votedj That the action of the secretary in regard to the 
Marshfield field meeting be approved. 



Marshfibld, Sept. 4, 1900. 

The executive committee this day authorized the Plym- 
outh County Agricultural Society, on its request, to unite 
with the Marshfield Agricultural and Horticultural Society 
in the holding of its 1900 fair ; and the dates of the Plym- 
outh County Society were changed accordingly, — i.e., to 
September 19, 20 and 21. 



Boston, Oct. 30, 1900. 

The executive committee, sitting jointly with the com- 
mittee on institutes, rules and legislation, considered and 
acted upon the revision of the by-laws, rules and recom- 
mendations of the Board, and the matter was left subject 
to the approval of the Board. 



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1 



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SPECIAL MEETINGS 

OF THE 

Board of Aoriculttjre, 

1900. 



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SPECIAL MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



Field Meeting. 

Marshfibld, Sept. 4, 1900. 

A field meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held at 
the Daniel Webster farm, in Marshfield, this day, on invita- 
tion of Mr. Walton Hall, the present owner of the farm 
and a former member of this Board. Some twenty-five 
members of the Board were present, also several former 
members, officers of the Marshfield Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society and friends, — in all, a company of some 
one hundred persons. The gathering was quite informal, 
and the time was spent in inspecting the farm, peach 
orchards, cranberry meadows, etc., and in enjoying a clam- 
bake and dinner on the grounds. 

The after-dinner exercises were presided over by First 
Vice-President Wm. R. Sessions. Short addresses were 
made by a number of those present. It was expected that 
the Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, would 
be present and make a formal address, but he failed to ap- 
pear. A vote of thanks was given Mr. Hall for his courtesy 
and hospitality. 



Worcester, Dec. 4, 1900. 

The Board of Agriculture met in Horticultural Hall, 
Worcester, this day, at 11.30 a.m., for business. 

Present: First Vice-President Wm. R. Sessions, who 
presided, and Messrs. J. S. Appleton, Avery, Barrus, Bar- 
ton, Benedict, Bowditch, Bradway, Brewster, Bursley, 
Carpenter, Clark, Comins, Damon, Danforth, Ellsworth, 
Gleason, Goodell, Goodspeed, Hersey, Howard, Jewett, 
Eilboum, Lloyd, Pratt, Reed, Richardson, Sargent, Sigour- 
ney. Smith, Spooner, Stockwell, Thayer,' Thurston and 
Whitmore. 



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12 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

The credential of Mr. Warren C. Jewett, member by ap* 
pointment of the Governor to succeed Mr. D. A. Horton, 
was presented and accepted. 

On motion of Secretary Stock well, 

Voted J That Messrs. Goodell, Sessions and Hersey be a 
committee to report resolutions at the annual meeting on 
the death of Messrs. Grinnell and Horton. 

The hearing on the request of the Bristol County Agri- 
cultural Society for the approval by the Board of Agricult- 
ure of its vote, passed at a special meeting of the society, 
on Oct. 20, 1900, **To borrow $4,000 for the purpose of 
paying for the recent enlargement of its grand stand, and 
mortgage its real estate to secure said loan ; and to renew 
the mortgage of its real estate now held by the Bristol 
County Savings Bank," being in order, the matter was 
heard. It appearing that the action of the society was 
according to law and properly advertised, and no person 
appearing in opposition to the request of the society, it was 

Voted^ That the Board of Agriculture approves of the 
vote of the Bristol County Agricultural Society, passed at 
a special meeting, Oct. 20, 1900, as above quoted, in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of chapter 274, Acts of 1890. 

Secretary Stookwell. The report of the gypsy moth 
committee, made to the Legislature in accordance with the 
law under which this committee is still acting, is subject 
to your approval here to-day. It is somewhat long, and I 
doubt if we have time to listen to it now. 

Voted^ To adjourn the business meeting to 9.30 a.m., 
Wednesday. 

WoRCESTEB, Dec. 5, 1900. 

The adjourned business meeting was called to order by 
Second Vice-President Pratt, who said : The hour has 
arrived to which the business meeting of the Board was 
adjourned. Before we listen to the report which Secretary 
Stockwell will present, Mr. Sargent has a resolution which 
he wishes to offer. 



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No. 4.] SPECIAL MEETINGS. 13 

Mr. Sargent read the following : — 

WierecLSy The profits of the time-honored and legitimate industry 
of dairy husbandry are seriously menaced by the manufacture and 
sale of oleomargarine and butterine, which are made to imitate 
and intended to be sold as pure butter ; and 

Whereasj The annual sale of 90,000,000 pounds of imitation 
butter supplants the product of 600,000 cows ; and 

W7ierea8^ The Grout bill now before Congress is intended to 
suppress the manufacture of these products when colored yellow 
to imitate butter, by a tax of ten cents per pound ; thei*efore, 

Beaolvedy That it is the sense of this meeting that the Grout 
bill should become a law. 

Beaolved^ That the Senators and Representatives in Congress 
from Massachusetts are urged to give their votes and active sup- 
port and use their ablest efforts to secure the passage of the Grout 
bill. 

Resolved^ That a copy of these resolutions be sent by the 
secretary to each Senator and member of Congress from Massa- 
chusetts. 

Mr. W. B. Barton (of Dalton). I move the adoption 
of the resolutions. 

Voted y To adopt the resolutions. 

The Chairman. If you will give your attention, Mr. 
Stockwell will present the report of the gypsy moth com- 
mittee. 

Keport read. 

The Chairman. The report is before you for your action. 

Mr. Thurston (of Swansea) . In view of the importance 
of the report, and the hour having arrived for the morning 
lecture, I move that the discussion or adoption of this re- 
port be left to the close of the afternoon session. 

Votedy To adjourn the business meeting until the close 
of the afternoon session. 

The business meeting was resumed at 4.30 p.m., First 
Vice-President Sessions presiding. 

The Chairman. The business before you is the report of 
the gypsy moth committee, read to you this morning. The 
question now is on its acceptance. 



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14 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [P.D.No.4. 

Mr. Barton. I move that the committee's report be 
accepted and adopted. 

The motion was seconded, and, after remarks by Messrs^ 
Thurston, Ellsworth, Comins, Kilboum, Howard, Whit- 
more, Reed, Pratt, Avery, Carpenter, Bursley, Sargent, 
Barton, Secretary Stockwell and the Chair, a motion to 
postpone action until the annual meeting having been lost, 
the report of the committee was unanimously accepted and 
adopted. 

Adjourned. 



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PUBLIC WINTER MEETING 



Board of Agriculture, 



WORCESTER. 



Dkcember 4, 5 AND 6, 1900. 



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PUBLIC WINTER MEETING OF THE BOARD, 

AT WORCESTER. 



The annaal public winter meeting of the Board for lectures 
and discussions was held in Horticultural Hall, Worces- 
ter, on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, December 4, 
5 and 6. The weather conditions were unfavorable the first 
two days, but the meeting was generally considered a very 
profitable one. 

The opening session was called to order by Secretary 
Stockwell, who said : The hour to which this meeting was 
called has arrived. Prayer will be ofiercd by Rev. Dr. 
Scott. 

Prayer by Dr. Scott. 

Secretary Stockwell. I now have the honor of intro- 
ducing to you a farmer boy from Charlton, the mayor of 
this city of Worcester. His Honor Mayor Dodge will give 
an address of welcome to this city for our annual meeting. 

Mayor Dodge. As I am called upon to address the 
various bodies which meet within the borders of our city, 
one of the first things I have to do is to find some apology 
for addressing the body of people. I cannot, perhaps, claim 
any distinctive right to talk to the farming interests, but I 
can console myself with the fact that I have as good a right 
. to be here as Dr. Scott. I am as good a farmer as he is, I 
can hold a plow as well as he can, and I think I can pitch 
more hay. I had years ago some little genuine claim, per- 
haps. I began my career in Worcester by driving a milk 
wagon from beyond Tatnuck into the city, and I would like 
to call your attention to the difference between the standard 
then and that of the present time. In those days there was 
no question about the standard of the milk. We had six 
or seven Jersey cows at the farm where I lived. I would 
not vouch for their pedigree, but at least I know we sold 



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18 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Jersey milk from those cows, and no one ever questioned 
the fact but what it was Jersey milk. 

You can see, if a man breaks away from the farm, what 
a downfall he may have, going from an honest farmer to a 
city politician. We find the same difficulty, I notice, in 
trying to impress the fact upon the farmers to-day that has 
always apparently attended the efforts of the people to con- 
vince farmers that they have the best occupation there is in 
the world. I have heard it repeated by all classes of men : 
office holders and bankers, merchants and every class in the 
professions and the businesses that we ever heard of, each 
and all have told the farmer that he is the happiest man 
living, engaged in the very best occupation. But somehow 
or other the intelligent farmer refuses to take that view of 
it, and still insists that it is hard work and poor pay which 
meets the efforts of the average farmer. 

We have had our attention called to one phase of farming 
in New England, and that is the abandoned farms. That 
has two sides. It is rather depressing, I confess, to go 
through the country and see the abandoned farms, — the 
farms that are practically abandoned for agricultural pur- 
poses; and yet, after all, we should consider this phase of 
it, — while the land of New England is not all occupied to 
the extent it might be for agricultural purposes, it is there 
ready to receive the attention of the farmer when the time 
comes that there is sufficient demand for it, and it gives the 
opportunity for growth and expansion in that branch of 
New England life ; it always furnishes and will furnish until 
it shall have been fully occupied, an opportunity for an 
increase of that industry. 

What is more depressing to me than the fact that there 
are some farms unoccupied is the fact that I am afraid we 
must confess that after you get beyond the circle that is 
stimulated by the demands of a city or a large village you 
find, not abandoned farms in the sense that they are not 
inhabited, but have been abandoned by the neglect of the 
owner, and these places that were once the homes of vigor- 
ous farm life are going to decay. The buildings are not 
kept up, the land is not kept up, and there is a general 
appearance of inactivity. It is but one of the same things 

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No. 4.] ADDRESS OF WELCOME. 19 

touching your life that touches every branch of life, and it 
is not to be attributed at all to the decadence of the farming 
occupation. It has touched the shoe shop ; it has touched 
the factory. There has been a great inclination on the part 
of the people, undoubtedly growing out of circumstances 
over which they have no control, to go to the cities and to 
the lai^e villages, where they can have employment and 
certain things in life that they are unable to get in the more 
rural districts. It has touched every business, every branch 
of life, so that it is not alone the abandoned farm in New 
England, — it is the abandoned factory and the shop. The 
tide has flowed toward the centres of population ; but the 
time will come when it will flow back, when the advantages 
of these places in the country towns will so over-balance 
the advantages in the more concentrated form of living that 
the tide will flow back again, and the factories will be occu- 
pied and the farms will be used. 

You have met here in the centre of the county, in the 
place where almost all bodies as they are organized for their 
various purposes meet. You have a right to meet here. It 
is appropriate that you should come to this centre of popu- 
lation and the centre of the great industries of the county, 
because, however much we may pride ourselves on the great 
prosperity of Worcester and the phenomenal groWth of 
Worcester, at the same time we recognize the fact that 
Worcester has drawn largely for her prosperity and her 
success from those towns that circle round about in the 
good old county of Worcester, and we shall never forget 
how much our farms have done for the city ; we shall not 
forget that outside of the circle of very successful farmers 
in our city, making it prominent in its production of agri- 
cultural merchandise, — that outside of that in the towns 
throughout the whole county there is pouring into Worcester 
every year that vigorous manhood and womanhood which is 
founded and established by a sinewy life upon these farms 
in the hilltops and the valleys of good old Worcester 
County. 

We bid you welcome to this prosperous and beautiful 
city, which is our pride and your pride ; the centre of a 
virtuous and industrious people, the character of whom is 

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20 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

not excelled anywhere in the United States and equalled in 
very few places. 

Agriculture in New England is not dead. It never will 
sink out of sight, however much there may be sent on by 
the carload from the West. There never will come a time 
when this interest in New England will drop out from 
among the important industries in this part of the country ; 
and, contrary to the theory of some, there never will come 
a time when old New England will not be prominent in this 
industry. Notwithstanding all the advantages of the West 
in certain directions, they never can take the glory of New 
England away from the locality made historic and made 
successful by the intelligence and enterprise that will con- 
tinue to abide here and will compare favorably with that 
which can be found or produced or cultivated in any other 
part of the United States. Let us have faith in New Eng- 
land ; faith in Massachusetts ; faith in the institutions which 
have been planted here and nourished by the greatest in- 
telligence of the race, giving to each and all the encourage- 
ment due to the honest effort of the people of good old New 
England, and especially our own Bay State ; and chief, of 
course, among all the cities of the State and chief among all 
the counties of the State we must be especially patriotic to 
the city of Worcester and to the county of Worcester, 
which has stood forth at all times prominent in the history 
of the State, and worthy of the attention of the thinking 
people that inhabit this part of the gi*eatest country on the 
face of the earth. 

The Secretary. In response to the inspiring address by 
the mayor of Worcester, we will listen to Hon. Wm. R. 
Sessions of Springfield, first vice-president of the Board, 
who will act as presiding ofiicer at this meeting. 

Mr. Sessions. It is my pleasant duty to respond to this 
address of welcome in behalf of the Board of Agriculture, 
with which I have been connected for the last twenty years 
and with which I am still identified. The mayor spoke of 
his experience as a milk peddler in the city of Worcester, 
and it brought to my mind a fact which a friend related to 
me. Some years ago, perhaps about the time when the 
mayor was driving a milk cart, this man was supplying milk 

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No. 4.] RESPONSE BY WM. R. SESSIONS. 21 

to certain families in Worcester. He was anxious to get 
the best trade. His milk was taken on trial by one of the 
wealthy families of the city. To make sure to please the 
femily he selected the milk from the best cow, knowing, of 
course, which gave the richest milk. The next morning he 
asked how the milk suited. The servant girl said : " I am 
afraid it didn't suit very well ; the mistress wants to see 
you." She came to the door, and he asked about the milk. 
The lady said : "I do not like that milk ; it was all covered 
with a nasty yellow scum." I think perhaps that kind of 
people traded with the mayor. Since that time there has 
been a great advance in the taste and knowledge of the 
people of Worcester in regard to this prime article of 
food supply, so bountifully produced within the city of 
Worcester. 

I do not wish to weary you with a long address. The 
Board of Agriculture has always looked upon Worcester 
County with as much appreciation as the mayor desires. 
Worcester County, you all know, stands, among some four 
or five of the counties of the country, first in the amount of 
agricultural products. I think it has stood as high as third 
in the United States of America, which is something won- 
derful, when we remember at the same time the enormous 
amount of manufactured products which this county pro- 
duces from year to year. 

I had occasion, in talking with a man who had come to 
Boston from the far west, and who had passed through 
Worcester County, to ask him what he thought of New 
England. He said : " If I have seen a sample of New 
England to-day, I do not want any of it. I could get more 
off a quarter-section of land in Dakota than from a whole 
county in New England." I asked him if he knew he had 
passed through a county that has only one or two superiors 
in the United States in the value of its agricultural prod- 
ucts. He could not believe me, but it was a fact. That 
being the case, we need not feel that it is necessary for the 
agriculture of Massachusetts to take a back seat at all. The 
agriculture of this part of the country is different from that 
of the west or the south or the middle States. Its prod- 
ucts will continue to increase in value, and those who follow 

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22 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pab. Doc. 

it will, I trust, continue to prosper. Those to whom the 
mayor referred as allowing their places to run down are 
farmers in name only. They are farmers because they were 
not enterprising enough to be anything else. Many and 
many a farm in Massachusetts and in New England is oc- 
cupied by some son of an enterprising farmer, who had the 
least enterprise of any of the half-dozen boys who grew up 
on the farm. The enterprising ones went out to the city 
of Worcester, to Boston and to Lowell, and made a mark and 
a name for themselves. The one who had no gimp to get 
up and hoe his row was the one who stayed on the farm. 
The decadence of New England farms is more largely from 
that cause than any other. Many of the farms are occupied 
by the least enterprising son of the farmer, because he had 
the least enterprise. But where you find a farmer who loves 
his work and respects his calling you will find thrift, pros- 
perity and happiness. 

This Board which meets here to-day is an old Board ; it 
is one of the oldest in the country. It was organized by act 
of the Legislature in 1852, and since that time, aknost fifty 
years, it has been working for the advantage of agriculture. 
It has seen, largely through its efibrts, a wondrous change 
in the agriculture of the State. If we were to compare the 
agriculture of 1852 with that of to-day, we would find a 
tremendous advance and improvement. 

The Board has always had among its members men of 
the highest scientific attainments, of wide reputation, who 
had the respect of the community ; men who were known 
throughout the United States, men of whom we were proud ; 
and also among them have been men who have been success- 
ful and practical farmers ; men who have made a success of 
the business of agriculture. These two classes have given 
wise counsel to the farmers of Massachusetts, instruction 
that has enabled them to succeed in business, and that has 
caused an improvement in agriculture from the time of the 
institution of this Board. I may mention a few of the men 
who have been members of the Board and prominent in 
this work : Charles L. Flint, Dr. Edward Hitchcock, Mar- 
shall P. Wilder, Simon Brown, James S. Grinnell, Robert 
C. Winthrop, Ephraim W. Bull, President Wm. S. Clark, 

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No. 4.] RESPONSE BY WM. R. SESSIONS. 23 

Dr. Jabez Fisher, Paoli Lathrop, Levi Stockbridge, Dr. 
Greo. B. Loring, John B. Moore, Asa Clement, Thomas 
Motley, Prof. Louis Agassiz, President Paul A. Chad- 
boume, Avery P. Slade, James F. C. Hyde, John T. Ells- 
worth, Richard Goodman, O. B. Hadwen, Thomas P. Root, 
Dr. Horace P. Wakefield, Charles S. Sargent, Ensign S. 
Kellogg, Henry S. Russell, Benjamin P. Ware, Dr. James 
R. Nichols, John E. Russell, E. Frank Bowditch, Dr. J. P. 
Lynde, Calvin L. Hartshorn, Merritt I. Wheeler, E. W. 
Wood, George Cruickshanks, Elbridge Cushman, W. W. 
Rawson, G«o. L. Clemence, Prof. N. S. Shaler, Wm. H. 
Bowker, J. D. W. French and Prof. Wm. P. Brooks. 

These men I have selected out of the list of members 
of the Board of Agriculture, because of their connection 
with some particular branch of agriculture. Along with 
them we have Dr. C. A. Goessmann, who is still a member 
of this Board, after thirty years' service. There are many 
members of the present Board who are worthy of mention 
in this list. From the labors of these men, supplemented 
by the influence of the Agricultural College and the Experi- 
ment Station, have come largely the improvements and 
advances in agriculture in this State. 

The plan of holding public winter meetings by this Board 
was inaugurated in 1863, and a meeting like this one has 
been held every year since, rotating from one county to 
another, that all the farmers might in turn have the advan- 
tage of a meeting of this kind. For these meetings the 
very best lecturers in the United States and Canada have 
been procured, without regard to expense. The lectures 
and discussions that followed have been printed each year 
in the volume " Agriculture of Massachusetts," and that 
book is printed at the State's expense for free distribution. 
One-half the edition is distributed by the Legislature, the 
other half by the secretary of the Board of Agriculture, 
through the agricultural societies, farmers' clubs, and by 
appointed agents in towns where they have no such society. 
An efibrt is made by the secretary that every farmer who 
desires shall have one of these reports ; and he is always 
ready to supply one, on application, to any person who has 
failed to receive a copy through the regular channels. 

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24 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

There are forty-six of these reports, which in themselves 
make an agricultural library. There is not a single line of 
the whole series but what will interest some farmer and 
give him something for his special line of agriculture. 

I have thus detailed one branch of the work of this old 
Board. If I were to take your time, I could detail other 
branches of it in which they have succeeded, but this is not 
the time or place for anything of that sort. The services 
of the members of the Board are gratuitous. No member 
of the Board has a salary except the secretary, and he is 
obliged to spend his whole time in the work, and thus has 
no other means of earning a livelihood. 

This is the fourth time that this Board has held its public 
winter meeting in the city of Worcester. The meetings 
have been held in the different counties of the State, four 
having been held in Hampden County, three in Franklin, 
three in Essex, five in Middlesex, four in Hampshire, four 
in Berkshire, two in Bristol, two in Plymouth, one in Suf- 
folk and ten in Worcester, including this meeting. This 
shows the appreciation the Board has of the county of 
Worcester and the city of Worcester. 

The city of Worcester, as the mayor has told us, is an 
important part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
While it is the second city in the State in population, it 
stands first in agricultural products. Its milk, market-gar- 
den products and fruits, produced entirely for the home 
market, make Worcester the banner city for agriculture ; 
while its diversified manufactures give employment to the 
thousands who consume these products of the farms and gar- 
dens within its limits. This makes the city of Worcester a 
typical place to illustrate the agriculture of New England 
to the rest of the country. 

Fortunate are the farmers who live in this queen city of 
the old Bay State. The Board of Agriculture is happy to 
meet here and enjoy the hospitality of the city, the agricult- 
ural society, the horticultural society, the grange and the 
individual farmers of the county. 

First Vice-President Sessions in the chair. 

The Chairman. The next on the programme is an ad- 
dress of welcome on behalf of the Worcester Agricultural 



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No. 4.] ADDRESS OF H. S. STOCKWELL. 25 

Society, by Preisdent Wm. J. Hogg. This morning a 
letter has been received from the president of this society, 
saying that he will not be able to be here, becaase of a busi- 
ness call that takes him out of the city, and he has dele- 
gated Hon. H. S. Stockwell to give this address of welcome 
in his place. 

Mr. Stockwell. In behalf of the Worcester Agricultural 
Society I tender to you our most hearty and sincere wel- 
come. We welcome you to this city, to the heart of the 
Conmion wealth, and to this agricultural society that has ex- 
isted over eighty years, — nearly the whole of the nineteenth 
century. This has been a society for the promotion of agri- 
culture. In looking over its history, we feel that there is 
no society in the Commonwealth that has done more for 
agriculture than the old Worcester Agricultural Society. 
It was organized in 1818. Its first president was Hon. Levi 
Lincoln ; its first secretary was Mr. Wheeler ; the present 
secretary is a descendant of our first secretary. It held its 
first agricultural fair on the grounds opposite where we are 
now located. It has been successful in all its undertakings, 
always paying all its bills, and has at the present time prop- 
erty valued at over $100,000. We have been fitting up 
grounds purchased some two or three years ago at an ex- 
pense of some $70,000, and we have $50,000 at interest. 
We feel that this society has done a great deal for Worces- 
ter County in its agricultural interests. We feel, too, 
that this society is identified with the State Board of Agri- 
culture. We have selected some of our best members to 
represent us upon the State Board ; the State Board in re- 
turn has come to this society for three of its secretaries, — 
Mr. Flint of Grafton, Mr. Russell of Leicester and Mr. 
Stockwell of Sutton. You can naturally see the fraternity 
that exists between this society and the members of the 
State Board, and we feel that it is fitting and proper that 
you should be with us at this time, upon the eve of the 
twentieth century, to look over the past with this old so- 
ciety that has lived almost through this century. 

In speaking of Worcester County and its agricultural in- 
terests, I think the old Worcester Society has done more to 
inspire this county in its efibrts for agriculture and has done 

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26 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

more to help it — and we stand in the foremost rank of 
any county in the United States in our agricultural prod- 
ucts — than anything else. I think you may go where you 
will in the United States and you will not find a county that 
has such beautiful scenery, such magnificent farms so well 
tilled and cared for, and such a contented people as you find 
here in the heart of the Commonwealth. 

Gentlemen, we are happy to welcome you here on this 
occasion. We hope that your stay with us will be most 
pleasant and profitable. 

The Chairman. I have been informed, since I called on 
Mr. Stockwell, that he is the new president of the Worcester 
Agricultural Society. Since the programme was printed, 
he has been elected. We will listen to a response to the 
welcome of the Worcester Society, by Mr. Augustus Pratt, 
second vice-president of the Board. 

Mr. Pratt. It has been my pleasure many times during 
my life to attend the agricultural fairs of the Worcester 
Agricultural Society. On all these visits I have received 
the same hearty welcome which has been extended to the 
Board of Agriculture to-day. Certainly the Worcester 
Agricultural Society is entitled to all the honor and credit 
that has been given it this morning. It was one of the 
earliest societies to receive the act of incorporation. I be- 
lieve there are but three before it, — the old Massachusetts 
Society for the Promotion of Agriculture was incorporated 
in 1792, the Berkshire Agricultural Society was incorpo- 
rated in 1811 and the Hampshire in 1814. These are the 
only three that started earlier than your society, Mr. Pres- 
ident ; and during these eighty-two years which this society 
has existed, I believe it has accomplished much good for the 
agriculture of Worcester County and other sections of the 
State. This society has reason to be proud of its record. 
It has truly been a successful society. 

There was wisdom displayed by those men in early days 
in selecting the grounds for the fair. These grounds ad- 
vanced rapidly in value, and have continued to increase in 
value each year until the day of the sale. If I remember 
correctly, your president, Mr. Ellsworth, ten years ago, in 
1890, in addressing the State Board at their gathering here, 

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No. 4.] RESPONSE BY AUGUSTUS PRATT. 27 

said that you had fair grounds valued at $125,000 ; and if 
I am rightly informed, within about eight years of that time 
you sold the grounds and received the sum of $185,000, — 
an advance of $60,000 in a little over eight years. I think 
there was wisdom displayed by the early managers of this 
society in selecting these valuable grounds. It does seem 
to me that you have done just the right thing in your sale. 
You have gone a little farther out of the city, and purchased 
an equally as good location for the purpose for which you 
wish to use it, at a much less price ; and have had the 
opportunity, as your president has said this morning, to 
deposit $50,000 in the bank to draw from if you have a 
rainy day' for the fair. Rainy days have been a great trial 
to the society with which I am connected. If after all our 
preparations a rainy day should set in at fair time, we would 
be financially embarrassed. You need Have no such fears, 
with your $50,000 on deposit and the large rentage which 
you will receive from letting the grounds. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Ellsworth, I had the privi- 
lege a year ago at the time of the fair to look over your 
new purchase, and I certainly concluded that it was an ex- 
cellent choice, a beautiful location, well adapted to the pur- 
pose for which you intend to use it. I am very glad to 
know that the Worcester Society stands on such a firm 
basis, that it is likely to continue to be a society to advance 
the cause of agriculture for many years. 

I wish to say a few words more in regard to the State 
Board of Agriculture. I think these winter meetings, as 
has been said by Mr. Sessions, were established in 1863, 
Springfield holding the first meeting, Greenfield the second, 
and the Worcester Society, in the city of Worcester, being 
entitled to the honor of having the third of the winter 
meetings. It does seem to me, Mr. President, that your 
society has been the pioneer in all good things. These men 
who got together and established the winter meetings of the 
Board did not then anticipate, did not then know, the good 
that they were doing to the agriculture of Massachusetts. 
Yet certainly in the thirty-seven years which these meetings 
have continued from year to year, in different cities and 
different parts of the Commonwealth, they have been the 

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28 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

means of greatly advancing the cause of agriculture. They 
have been a source of instruction to the farmers throughout 
the Commonwealth. 

I am happy to know that upon this platform is one of the 
gentlemen who was first in suggesting the farmers' institutes.. 
He was then a member of the Board of Agriculture. Each 
society is now required to hold three of these institutes 
each year. I am happy to know that Mr. Hadwen was one 
of the members of the Board who urged and pushed this 
matter forward, to have the farmers' institutes held through- 
out the Commonwealth. I know these institutes have 
accomplished much good. I think that the papers of infor- 
mation that have been presented at these institutes have 
been the means of making better farmers in Massachusetts. 

Another source of great good, I must say, to the agri- 
culture of Massachusetts is the college. The valuable liter- 
ature that is sent out each year and the competent instructors 
who come from the college each year to instruct the farmers 
have accomplished much. 

I think, with all these helps, with all this source of in-^ 
struction which we now have, that, as the mayor has told 
us this morning, the future is bright, that the agriculture of 
the future will advance. It does seem to me it cannot help 
it. We can with confidence look forward to a better state 
of agriculture for the coming years. 

It is to be regretted that the young men during the past 
few years do not enter the agricultural life as readily and 
as freely as they do some other branch of life. They choose 
some other means of support. I believe that there is a good 
opening in agriculture. I believe the fiiture of agriculture 
is to be brighter for young men than the past. I think that 
an agricultural life — and I speak from experience — is the 
life for happiness and for health. If there is any better 
life, I do not know it. Taking everything into considera- 
tion, health and everything else, I do not believe there is 
any better opening for a young man at the present time than 
to seek an agricultural education and assume an agricultural 
life. 

I thank you, Mr. President, for the cordial welcome you 
have extended to the members of the Board of Agriculture 

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No. 4.] ADDRESS OF O. B. HAD WEN. 29 

this morning. We are here with you for a few days, and 
we trust, in fact, we know, that we shall have a pleasant 
and enjoyable time. 

The Chairman. The next on the programme is a wel- 
come from the Worcester County Horticultural Society. 
You may all know that we meet in a hall owned by that so- 
ciety, that they tender to the Board of Agriculture gratui- 
tously the use of this beautiful hall and its conveniences for 
this meeting. This society joined with the Worcester Agri- 
cultural Society in inviting the Board to meet here. It is 
one of the oldest horticultural societies in the State. It has 
done a wonderful work. Mr. O. B. Hadwen has been con- 
nected with it I do not know but from the very beginning. 
He will extend the welcome to the Board. 

Mr. Hadwen. In behalf of the Worcester County Horti- 
cultural Society I tender you a most cordial and hearty 
welcome. I do this with greater pleasure, as twenty-four 
years have elapsed since I had the pleasure to extend to your 
Board a welcome from this very platform, to this our horti- 
cultural hall, the headquarters in this city of one of the im- 
portant interests you have especially in keeping. 

Great changes have taken place during this period of 
time. Agriculture and horticulture and their kindred call- 
ings have become more intense, new modes of cultivation 
have sprung up, new implements are used, new products 
are grown, to supply the wants of higher and better living. 

We are a progressive people. The requirements of the 
day are study and work. The man who is unwilling to 
study and work will find he is superseded by knowledge 
with industry, and must go to the wall. 

The study of the mechanics, the manufactures, the trades 
and of agriculture occupies the larger portion of our people, 
and they work out the practical results of many improve- 
ments with the aid of improved machines and implements. 
The man who would attempt to manufacture or to carry on 
his farm or garden on the conditions practised or pursued 
fifty or sixty years ago would certainly find he was pursuing 
an unprofitable business and being outstripped by his more 
thrifty neighbor. 

Agriculture is yearly becoming more intensive. The 

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30 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

farmer must learn by what course of husbandry he and 
his farm can secure the greatest benefit to his family and at 
the same time enhance the value of his estate, that his pro- 
ductive industry must more than equal his increasing modes 
of living, that he must live equally well with those engaged 
in other pursuits. 

Happily the era is fast passing away in which farmers, 
either rich or poor, in any section of our county, deem it 
incompatible with their interests and with the dignity of 
their vocation to live in homes deficient either in comforts 
or embellishments such as the age now demands. 

I haven't time to speak fittingly of but few of the places 
of interest which surround us here. We all have a com- 
mendable pride in the city of our homes. At the beginning 
of the nineteenth century it contained 2,411 people. Within 
the lifetime of the speaker this place has grown from a town 
of 3,500 inhabitants to a city of 120,000, having a valuation 
of more than $112,000,000, with an annual productive in- 
dustry of more than $45,000,000. 

These vast results are not largely caused by inherited 
wealth, but by inherited brains and energy. We have not 
only learned to produce a dollar more but to earn our 
dollars better. With the increased facilities of the present 
day, our agriculture and horticulture, with their various 
phases, must compete with the whole country. 

Worcester County, lying in the central portion of the 
State, traversing its entire width, compares favorably in 
respect to its fertility of soil with any county in the Com- 
monwealth. The farming pursued here is usually termed 
mixed farming, the dairy being the most prominent and 
leading interest, together with all the cereals, fruits, roots 
and grasses that this latitude favors. Our farmers have 
taken advantage of information obtained from exhibitions 
of agricultural and horticultural societies, from institute 
meetings of agriculture and horticulture, and are well- 
trained producers of all the farm and garden products that 
an intelligent community demands. 

It is especially gratifying to those of us who have had the 
privilege of watching the progress of agriculture for the 
past fifty or sixty years. While some call its progress slow. 

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No. 4.] ADDRESS OF O. B. HADWEN. 31 

I think its progress has denoted an energy fully equal to 
that of other callings. There are so many who have devoted 
their lives to the progress of agricultural pursuits; and 
when we recognize the fundamental truth that the ground 
we cultivate is the primary source of all wealth, and without 
the products of our industry all other industries would be 
paralyzed, we may justly feel proud of our calling, and con- 
tinue to persevere. 

The city of Worcester, comprising the original town of 
about five miles square, and having a great variety of active 
industries in various directions, together with the vast 
number of factories and buildings covering so large an area, 
still contains room for a large number of highly cultivated 
farms. The farm and garden products are equal to those of 
any town within the Commonwealth, and its live stock per- 
haps is in a corresponding ratio to its product. I learn 
from the books of the assessors as follows : there are kept 
within the city 5,411 horses, 1,708 cows and 240 other 
cattle, 425 swine, 49 sheep and 8,887 hens. 

The location of this city, in the very midst of an agricult- 
ural and manufacturing region, with her system of steam 
and electric roads radiating in every direction, with her 
university and colleges, her polytechnic and normal schools, 
together with her vast system of public schools, her free 
public libraries, her Antiquarian Society and Society of 
Antiquity, with her public halls and buildings and her vast 
manufacturing plants, will compare favorably with any city 
of her size in the country. There is also within her limits 
a system of ten public parks, comprising more than four 
hundred acres, extending out from the centre in all direc- 
tions, containing prominetit natural and artificial features of 
landscape, and planted with all the deciduous and conifer- 
ous trees, with all the hardy flowering shrubs and plants 
adapted to this climate, and where every advantage is 
afforded to her citizens for rural outing and health-giving 
enjoyment. 

Such in part and in brief is the city of Worcester, in 
which you are to-day assembled at the closing of the nine- 
teenth century. To her hospitalities we again welcome 
you, and may the purpose of your coming be accomplished, 

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32 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub, Doc. 

and may oar lectures and discussions promote and improve 
the agriculture of the Commonwealth. 

I have thus endeavored, gentlemen, to speak to you, let 
me hope not entirely inconsistent with the time and the 
spirit of the occasion, and for the honor of your presence 
we thank you. 

The Ceuurman. I find by the programme that Mr. Ells- 
worth of the Worcester Agricultural Society will respond 
to this address of welcome. He is known to you, and I 
need not introduce him. 

Mr. Ellsworth. On behalf of the State Board of Agri- 
culture and also the Worcester Society, from which society 
I am a member of the Board of Agriculture, I wish to thank 
the president for his very kind words of welcome, and I 
wish to assure him that they are appreciated by the mem- 
bers of this Board. 

I am aware of the fact that these addresses have taken 
considerable time. I have been very much interested, and 
I know of no speech that can better afford to be curtailed 
than mine. I had thought of a few things that I would 
mention, some of them in relation to the Board of Agricult- 
ure, but they have been well referred to by the president 
of the day and by other speakers. 

There is one thing that comes to my mind at your meet- 
ing to-day, and that is the gradual and the quite wonderful 
change that takes place from time to time. As we look 
back we can see the changes, and some of us are not so 
very old, for all that. Changes here in Worcester have 
been gradually taking place from year to year. It is but a 
few years ago that land now occupied by city residences 
was used for raising crops for the markets of Worcester 
and elsewhere. I can well remember where cows were 
pastured and corn and potatoes grown, and now there are 
beautiful residences built on these places. We can see 
changes in the farming in Worcester. But a short time ago 
stock was raised, butter and cheese made, and beef and pork 
were raised for the market. Now the land is taken up with 
milk farms. Where the milk farms were formerly located, 
the places are occupied by farmers who raise early vegeta- 
bles and fruit for the market. And I might continue to 
speak in this way. 

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No. 4.] RESPONSE BY J. L. ELLSWORTH. 33 

ReferriDg to the Board of Agriculture a moment, you can 
see by the annual reports that changes are taking place. I 
took down my large black books and looked over the ad- 
dresses. Some of the first reports were mostly taken up in 
discussing the breeds of cattle, — the different breeds for 
milk, butter and beef, the care, etc., of the same ; the rais- 
ing of com, roots, potatoes ; subsoil plowing, irrigation. 
If you take down a volume of our last year's report you 
will see a great change. In that is the report of the chemist, 
the entomologist who treats of the insects, such as the gypsy 
moth and the San Jos6 scale, and other things we never 
heard of thirty years ago ; we also find interesting accounts 
of experiments with special fertilizers. 

I will not take more of your time. There are others to 
follow me. 

I wish to again thank the president of the Horticultural 
Society, and through him the society, for the very cordial 
welcome we have had here to-day. 

The Chairman. The next is a welcome from the State 
Grange. The headquarters of the grange are where the 
State master resides. The present State master is an 
honored citizen of Worcester. The Board will be delighted 
to hear from Mr. W. C. Jewett. 

Mr. Jewett. As a citizen of Worcester I am glad to 
welcome you to our city, of which we are so proud, — a city 
noted for its manufacturing interests. We probably have 
the largest variety of manufacturing of any city in the 
United States. A city, as you have heard to-day, noted 
for its agriculture, for its successful farmers. Every ap- 
proach is guarded by a successful farmer. It makes the 
strongest bulwark that could be thrown around any city or 
nation. I wish to welcome you to this hall. More agri- 
cultural societies have been formed in it than in any hall 
in the United States, and its walls echo back the words of 
many men gone before us who were interested in the same 
work that we are to-day. I wish to welcome the Board of 
Agriculture and welcome your work, and I will promise to 
give any possible assistance to the Board in carrying out its 
work in increasing the interest in the farms in Massachu- 
setts and in increasing our production. 

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34 BOAED OF AGRICULTUKE. [Pub. Doo. 

I believe in every agricultural organization ; I believe 
there is a work for them to do. 

I believe the grange oflTers the best opportunities of any 
organization in the land. Why ? Because it starts in the 
home; it brings to our wives and our children the same 
advantages and the same opportunities that it brings to the 
fathers, which is certainly doing away with the social and 
educational barrier that did exist and does eidst in many 
farm homes to-day. We believe the social branch is doing 
a great work. It is bringing back the social position of 
the farmer where it was years ago, — the highest position 
in the land. We believe the educational advantages are 
making better men and women, better business men, better 
in every way to carry on the different walks of life. 

I can hardly stop when I begin to talk of what the grange 
can do. I again welcome the Board of Agriculture, trust- 
ing that your meetings will be pleasant, and that the inspi- 
ration that goes out will lighten the burden of many farmers 
in this community. 

The Chairman. The Massachusetts Board of Agriculture 
has representatives from all parts of the State, and the 
gentleman who is to reply to this address of welcome is 
from Cape Cod. You will see when he appears before you 
that Cape Cod can raise a likely specimen of a man, if it 
does not raise great crops of com. Mr. Bursley, delegate 
from the Barnstable County Agricultural Society. 

Mr. Bursley. As you have seen in the last hour, farm- 
ers love to talk ; but, as well as liking to talk, they like to 
get pretty near the dinner table some time between twelve 
and one o'clock, and it is not my purpose to keep the farm- 
ers here. I know nothing but an interest in agriculture 
would have brought out a hundred people to the opening 
meeting of the Board of Agriculture. Therefore, I will 
simply thank you, as a representative of my own subordi- 
nate grange, the Old Colony Pomona Grange. I believe 
the day is not far distant when to be a patron will be con- 
sidered a necessity for a man to be a member of the Board 
of Agriculture. The last appointment by His Excellency 
the Governor was in strong recognition of that fact, when 
he appointed our worthy master to our Board. I believe 



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No. 4.] RESPONSE BY JOHN BURSLEY. 35 

we shall all work better and do more for the cause of agri- 
culture in Massachusetts when we are connected with that 
order. 

To-day the Board of Agriculture is doing its work ; the 
college its work; and the grange, represented by over 13,- 
000 people in this State and entering probably more than 
5,000 homes, is broadening and extending the work and the 
good feeling among agricultural classes. 

Mr. President and Worthy Master, we thank you, know- 
ing that this meeting here cannot but be profitable for the 
Board, for the agriculture of Massachusetts and for the 
Order of Patrons of Husbandry, second only to the good 
that will be brought to pass in your gathering here next 
week. 

The Chairman. This completes the programme for the 
public meeting this morning. The public meeting is, there- 
fore, adjourned to 2 p.m. 

Afternoon Session. 

The meeting was called to order by Chairman Sessions, 
who said : I feel it a pleasure to introduce the speaker of 
the afternoon. He is a friend of mine. I have been asso- 
ciated with him for eight or nine years in public work. 
You know the old adage, *' To know a man you must sum- 
mer and winter him." I have summered and wintered this 
man for eight or nine years. He is an honorable man, is a 
man who knows his business, and a man on whose word 
you can depend. What he tells you about birds in Massa- 
chusetts you can depend upon as matters that he has him- 
self investigated, and knows whereof he speaks. 

The lecturer has requested me to say that the lecture will 
be given first and the slides later. 

I have the pleasure of introducing Mr. E. H. Forbush, 
ornithologist to this Board, and a former president of the 
Worcester Natural History Society. He is well known in 
Worcester, and will now speak on '< Birds useftd to agri- 
culture." 



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36 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 



BT E. H. FORBUSH, ORNITHOLOGIST TO THE BOARD. 



Studies of the economies of nature show that in a wild 
country, untrovhled by civilized or semi-civilized man^ the 
interactions of nature's multitudinous organisms tend to pre- 
serve a finely adjusted balance of her forces, which furthers 
the survival and perpetuation of the best adapted forms of 
animal and vegetable life. In such a region, as elsewhere, 
certain of the higher animals feed on the lower, while some 
of the lower subsist on the higher. In the end, however, 
both vegetables and animals, while continually at war, flour- 
ish, wax strong and perpetuate their kind. There birds, 
mammals and insects, although filling important places in 
the economy of nature, cannot be classed as beneficial or 
injurious, for there is no agriculture. Introduce primitive 
man into a country like this, and he would flourish without 
interfering to any appreciable extent with the balance of 
forces. Wild grains, fruits and vegetables grow in pro- 
fusion, wild animals and birds are unsuspicious and readily 
taken. The simple wants of the primitive individual man 
are readily supplied, and his desires go no farther. The 
story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden typifies this 
condition of man. 

If in the early days, through some apparent miscarriage of 
nature's laws, the fine adjustment of some of nature's forces 
was,' for a time, disturbed, man, like the lower animals, 
adapted himself to tlie changed conditions. If locusts over- 
ran the country, devouring man's vegetable food, he followed 
the example of the lower animals, and fed for the time on 
locusts. No doubt the food of John the Baptist in the 

• Illustrated by stereoptioon. 

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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 37 

wilderness — '* locusts and wild honey " — was very accept- 
able to him. If mice or rats abounded and destroyed a part 
of man's vegetable sustenance, he took it second-hand by 
feeding on rats and mice, as all other rapacious animals do 
if occasion requires. The individual was seeking only his 
own subsistence and that of his family. There was no agri- 
culture, no money and no trade. But in an evil day man 
'* ate of the tree of knowledge." To provide against possible 
want, he undertook to protect and propagate useful plants, 
with a view to increase his store of non-perishable food 
products. He also undertook to domesticate animals. This 
was the beginning of agriculture and civilization. Imme- 
diately birds, mammals, insects and plants became his 
enemies, and he has had to earn his bread by the sweat of 
his brow ever since. 

With a new source of food supply and attention given 
to the arts of peace the population of the earth began to 
increase, man grew in intelligence, civilization succeeded to 
savagery, and man, by reason of his arts, became the princi- 
pal factor among other animals, — bending all others to his 
will. By his artificial protection and propagation of species, 
he committed serious infractions of nature's laws. In thus 
disturbing the balance of nature, he brought upon himself 
the consequences. But in the course of centuries there came 
a gradual adjustment to the conditions of agriculture, so that 
in the older civilized countries to-day man and nature are 
more in harmony than in lands recently brought under the 
plow. 

Now let us turn to the western hemisphere, where agri- 
culture and civilization together have come hand in hand in 
comparatively recent times, and see some of the results of 
the settlement of the civilized agriculturist in the primeval 
wilderness. 

When the Pilgrim Fathers landed at Pljrmouth, in 1620, 
they found there a wild country, sparsely inhabited by 
savages. Nature had been practically undisturbed by aborig- 
inal man, and agriculture was in its most primitive condi- 
tion. In the course of settlement the white man at once 
began to '* improve" the wilderness, outraging nature's laws 
in many ways, and setting up serious disturbances among the 

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38 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

nicely balanced and finely adjusted series of organisms by 
which he found himself surrounded. He cut away the forest, 
which had clothed much of the country for ages. He intro- 
duced new plants and new animals. Trees, shrubs and 
vines, which had surrounded the country homes of the 
settlers in England or in other lands, were brought here and 
planted upon the virgin soil of the new country. Insect 
pests and noxious weeds were undoubtedly, though unin- 
tentionally, brought with them in some cases. The intro- 
duction of new plants and animals, something which nature 
without man's aid would not have accomplished perhaps in 
thousands of years, was undertaken and completed by man 
in a month, to be followed later by serious results, as in 
the recent cases of the introduction of the English sparrow, 
the gypsy moth and the Russian thistle. 

The settlers, while subduing the aborigines and pushing 
them westward, began to make war on the lower animals. 
The bears, wolves and panthers, which attacked the flocks 
and herds, were the first to go. The deer and wild turkey, 
which attacked the growing crops and were good for food, 
soon followed. Then, under one pretext or another, the 
destruction of other native mammals and birds was begun, 
and is still continued throughout the country even to this 
day. As the march of civilization continued westward, large 
areas were devoted to special crops. These broad fields of 
Indian corn, wheat and other grains, of potatoes, peas and 
other vegetables, with great vineyards and orchards, offered 
an almost unlimited opportunity for the insect enemies of 
such plants to multiply. Thus the people, while destroying 
many of the enemies of the native insects, kindly provided 
those insects with an abundance of succulent food, giving 
them the very conditions needed to insure that tremendous 
increase in numbers of which they are capable. Under such 
conditions, insects like the chinch bug and the Colorado 
potato beetle were fostered and overran the land. In the 
primitive condition of the country these insects were un- 
doubtedly harmless. This policy has been continued, until 
the United States has become noted as the greatest sufferer 
from insect pests of any country on the face of the earth. 
When, under bounty laws, the early colonists in New Eng- 

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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 39 

land shot and trapped the crows and blackbirds because they 
ate com, an increase of white grubs and cut worms followed 
soon after, which entirely destroyed the grass crop, so that 
the farmers were obliged to import hay from England for 
their cattle.* Nevertheless, the settlers continued the whole- 
sale destruction of other birds. The wild turkey, prairie 
chicken and wild pigeon were very nearly exterminated. 
These and other grasshopper-eating birds being greatly 
reduced in numbers, plagues of grasshoppers or locusts 
appeared, t We are told that these insects so increased that 
the preachers felt obliged at their services in the churches to 
pray for deliverance. The local killing of blackbirds in the 
interior States has been followed by a great local increase 
of white grubs. One farmer from "Wisconsin told me that 
he lost four hundred dollars' worth of grass in one year from 
the depredations of these insects. During the great locust 
invasions in the western States many farmers lost their all. 
But the people at last realized the value of the birds, and 
passed protective laws, which resulted in an increase of 
birds in those States. One farmer writes : — 

In aDswer to your qaestion about the birds and the locusts, I 
must say this : every farmer that shoots birds must be a fool. I 
had wheat this last spring on new breaking. The grasshoppers 
came out apparently as thick as the wheat itself, and indeed much 
thicker. I gave up that field for lost. Just then great numbers 
of plover came, and flocks of blackbirds and some quail, and 
commenced feeding on this field. They cleaned out the locusts so 
well that I had at least three- fourths of a crop, and I know that 
without the birds I would not have had any. I know other farmers 
whose wheat was saved in the same way. % 

So in time the value of birds began to be recognized 
among the native population ; but many of the later im- 
migrant farmers, lacking such experience, continued the 
slaughter of beneficial birds, and even some native American 
farmers have yet to learn that most of the birds which live 
about them are beneficial. Many still shoot the birds that 

• See Kalm'8 " Travels in America." 
t Williamson's •* History of Maine," pages 102, 103, 172. 

t First annual report of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877» page 
342. Letter from S. £. Goodmore, Fremont, Neb. 



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40 . BOAED OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

eat their fruit or those that visit their com fields. How 
many of us are aware that even the water birds are beneficial 
to agriculture ? 

USEFXILNESS OF THE WaTER AXD ShORE BiBDS. 

Gulls, terns and many so-called shore birds often feed 
largely on insects. In England, where sea gulls are now 
protected, they will follow the plow in their search for 
grubs and other injurious insects. In this country they are 
so persecuted that they usually keep well away from inhab- 
ited shores, hardly daring to trust themselves near the 
habitations of man except about our city harbors, where 
shooting is prohibited. As an illustration of the usefulness 
of gulls during insect invasions, let me cite the oft-related 
experience of the early Mormons at Salt Lake. It is said 
that soon after they emigrated to Utah the black cricket 
(Anabrus simplex) appeared upon their crops in immense 
swarms, destroying the entire crop of wheat and other grains, 
and reducing many of the settlers nearly to the point of 
starvation. The next year these pests appeared again. Says 
Hon. Geo. Q. Cannon, << Promising fields of wheat in the 
morning were by evening as smooth as a man's hand, 
devoured by the crickets." At this juncture sea gulls came 
by thousands, miraculously, or providentially, as the Moi^ 
mons believed. Their flocks whitened the blackened fields, 
and they destroyed the crickets so utterly that they were 
almost eradicated, thus saving the remainder of the crop, 
which was all the half-starved Mormons had to rely upon for 
food for the next season. The thankful people passed a law 
forbidding any one to kill these birds, and fixing a penalty 
for the oflTence. This occurrence was witnessed by many 
people, and a number of accounts of it have been published.* 

Dr. A. K. Fisher of the Department of Agriculture says 
the gull referred to is Franklin's gull (Lanes Franklini)^ 
which occurs in enormous flocks in the north-west, and feeds 
in such companies on grasshoppers, crickets and similar 
insects, t 

• Report of the United States Commissioner of Agricnlture, Townend GloTer, 
Entomologist, 1871, page 79. Second report United States Entomological Commis- 
sion, 1878-79, page 166. *' Agricoltnre of Massachasetts,*' 1871, page 26. 

t «♦ Insect Life," Vol. 7, No. 3, page 276. 



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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 41 

The United States Entomological Commission, when in- 
vestigating the locust outbreaks in the west with a view to 
finding some means of controlling them, reported that locusts 
had been found in numbers in the stomachs of most of the 
water birds. 

These birds are not only of practical use to farmers, but 
they are also valuable to mariner and fisherman. In foggy 
summer weather the longshore fisherman is often able to 
guide his course for the harbor by observing the direction 
in which the sea birds fly with food for their young. The 
fishermen are often made aware of the presence of schools 
of fish by the gulls or terns hovering over the sea, and 
watching for an opportunity to pick up the small fish on 
which the larger ones feed. The navigator is also fre- 
quently warned of the rocks in such weather by the cries 
of the birds breeding upon them. 

The sea birds have been so persecuted along the Atlantic 
coast that they have deserted many of the islands where 
they formerly bred, and it is only within a few years 
that any attempt whatever has been made to protect them. 
Protective measures have now been inaugurated, largely 
through the action of members of the bird protection com- 
mittee of the American Ornithologists' Union. The union 
has begun steps to protect the sea birds in their breeding 
places. The work on the Atlantic coast was first com- 
menced in Massachusetts by Mr. Geo. H. Mackay of Boston, 
a member of the committee from Massachusetts. Through 
his labors the terns and gulls on Muskegat and some other 
islands have received a measure of protection, which has re- 
sulted in a large increase of their numbers within two years. 
Mr. Wm. Dutcher of New York, another member of our 
conmiittee, has in charge a fund which this year has been ap- 
plied to the protection of birds breeding on various islands 
and shores from Maine to Virginia.* At the recent meeting 
of the union in Cambridge he made a very full and inter- 
esting report, which indicated that in most cases the num- 
bers of the birds were largely increasing on the protected 
breeding grounds. If this work can be continued, a greater 

* Great credit is dae and should be giTen Mr. Abbott H. Thayer, a member of the 
imion, who secured the contribations to this fund. 



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42 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

measure of protection given, and the promiscuous shoot- 
ing of the sea birds for millinery purposes stopped, these 
beautiful and useful birds, which have few enemies beside 
man, — and woman, — will again occupy their breeding 
places along our coasts. 

Berds and Soil Fertilization. 

Aside from their usefulness as insect eaters, the sea birds 
have benefited modem agriculture in another way. In the 
Garden of Eden fertilizers were not necessary. The natural 
decay of organic matter, resulting from the death of plants 
and animals, maintained the fertility of the soil. When 
population increased so that fertile land was not plenty, man 
learned by experience how to treat the soil to make it pro- 
ductive, and began to apply diflTerent materials as fertilizers. 
It is said that the Pilgrim Fathers in 1620 found that the 
Massachusetts Indians, when planting com, placed a dead 
fish (herring or shad) in each hill. The Peruvian Indians 
were known to have recognized the importance of guano as 
a fertilizer more than three centuries ago. It is said to have 
been held in such high esteem in the time of the Incas that 
the deposits on the Chincha Islands were jealously guarded, 
and the birds which resorted there were carefully protected, 
the death penalty being inflicted on any one killing birds 
there during the breeding season. In 1804, Humboldt, 
returning from his travels in America, carried to Europe 
some samples of this guano, and called attention to the value 
of these deposits. His announcement received little notice 
at the time ; but within fifty years guano had revolutionized 
methods in progressive agriculture, and the possession of 
certain islands occupied by sea birds and the revenue there- 
from had become a bone of contention between nations. 
These guano deposits are found on the breeding places of sea 
birds. The material consists mainly of excrement, combined 
with the rejected portions of the food. These birds, pen- 
guins, albatrosses, pelicans, gulls, terns, petrels and others, 
feed largely upon fish; therefore the manurial matter de- 
posited by them contains quantities of nitrogen, phosphate 
and phosphoric acid. 

The introduction of guano into civilized countries gave a 
great impulse to intensive cultivation. Some idea of the 

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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 43 

apparently inexhaustible amount of this material found on 
the Chincha Islands may be gained from the fact that the 
deposits covered the three islands in some places to a depth 
of ninety to one hundred feet. The demand for this material 
grew to such an extent that by 1850 the price in the United 
States had advanced to fifty dollars per ton, and it is stated 
that five million tons have been imported into England alone. 
In 1853 the Peruvian government, which controlled the 
islands, surveyed them, and reported that there were still 
more than twelve million tons available. So great has been 
the demand, however, that this enormous quantity has now 
been practically exhausted. The call for the new fertilizer 
became so great and its price so exorbitant that American 
enterprise (under the encouragement of an act of Congress) 
began to explore the Pacific and the Carribbean Sea in a 
search for unclaimed islands. Claims under this act have 
now been filed with the United States government to about 
seventy-five islands, and many others have been discovered 
by the citizens of other nations in different parts of the 
world.* Of late years, however, the demand for concen- 
trated fertilizers has resulted in their manufacture, so that 
they have largely taken the place of guano in intensive culti- 
vation. But this subject presents itself in another aspect. 

All along the Atlantic coast, from Maine to Florida, there 
are rocky or sandy islands which were once the breeding 
places of innumerable sea fowl. There are also many 
swamps and marshes where countless ducks, herons and 
other water and wading birds once bred. These birds were 
constantly gathering a harvest from sea, lake and river, in 
the shape of fish and other marine or fresh-water animals. 
The digestion of these birds is remarkably rapid. They 
require an enormous quantity of food. Therefore, they must 
have contributed considerably toward the building and 
enrichment of the soil of our originally barren coasts and 
islands. If they increase under protection and reoccupy 
their former breeding grounds, a double benefit to agricult- 
ure will ensue. 

Aside from soil fertilization, the relation of birds and 
other animals to agriculture depends mainly upon the char- 



♦ *♦ A ReTiew of Economic Ornithology in the United States," by Dr. S. T. Palmer, 

Year Book, Department of Agriculture for 1899, pages 278, 279. 

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44 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

acter and quantity of their food. By obtaining a knowledge 
of the various components of the food and their comparative 
amounts, we may form some judgment as to the comparative 
value of beneficial birds to the farmer. Birds are useful or 
injurious to agriculture according to the extent to which 
they feed on the crops of the farmer, on animals useful to 
him, or upon those which are injurious to his interests. 
There are birds which live almost entirely on injurious 
insects, and do not attack any crop. Such birds are certainly 
among the farmer's best friends. There are others which 
live largely on injurious insects and weed seeds, and do not 
materially injure any crop. Such birds are also eminently 
useful to agriculture. There are omnivorous birds which are 
often among the farmer's best friends, — destroying many of 
his worst enemies, — yet they are at times very injurious, 
attacking crops or poultry and destroying other beneficial 
birds. Whether the omnivorous birds are beneficial or not 
depends largely upon conditions and circumstances. To this 
class crows and magpies belong. 

There is another class of birds which feeds almost entirely 
upon animals. These, the Raptores, or birds of prey, always 
have been classed by the majority of people among the aixih 
enemies of the farmer. Science and expert experience do 
not, however, agree altogether with popular opinion on this 
question. 

Hawks and Owls. 

Admitting that the eagles are injurious, let us consider 
briefly the hawks and owls (Falconidce and Strigidce) in 
their relation to agriculture. It is only within recent years 
that any information has been generally disseminated here 
in regard to the usefulness of these birds. In England and 
Scotland, however, the value of certain hawks and owls 
has been known for centuries. We find that in Stowe's 
*' Chronicle" in 1581 it is quaintly stated that '* About 
Hallowtide last past (1580) in the marshes of Danessy 
Hundred in a place called South Minster in the County 
of Essex there sodainlie appeared an infinite number of 
field mice which overwhelming the whole earth in said 
marshes did sheare and gnaw the grass by the rootes spoiling 
and tainting the same with their venimous teeth in such sort, 
that the cattell which grazed thereon were smitten with^ 

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Screech Owl, 





COMMON USEFUL OWLS (Jfeffa»cop» aaio), 
[From Warren, after Audubon.] 



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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. - 45 

murraine and died thereof; which vermine by policie of man 
could not be destroyed till at the last it came to pass that 
there flocked together such a number of owles as all the 
shire was able to yield, whereby the marsh holders were 
shortly delivered of the vexation of said mice. The like of 
this was also in Kent." 

While we may be permitted to doubt the accuracy of the 
deductions which attributed the cause of the murraine, his- 
tory has often repeated itself in regard to these outbreaks 
and their suppression. . Similar sore plagues of mice were 
experienced again in Essex in 1648, in Norfolk in 1745, and 
they occurred regularly at this time about once in seven 
years at Helgay near Downham market, but a prodigious 
flight of ** Norway owls" always appeared and destroyed 
them. Such outbreaks as these have occurred in different 
parts of the British Isles for centuries, but they have always 
been checked, by the appearance of hawks and owls, until in 
1892 in the south of Scotland. Then, their natural enemies 
having become somewhat reduced, they appeared in vast 
herds over an area of eighty thousand to ninety thousand 
acres. A preponderance of opinion among the farmers was 
reported, tracing the cause of this outbreak to a scarcity of 
owls, hawks and weasels and other so-called vermin. There 
have been somewhat similar experiences in the United States. 
In recent years the shooting, trapping and poisoning of car- 
nivorous animals and rapacious birds in the west has been 
followed by a tremendous increase in numbers of the prairie 
hare or *' Jack rabbit." These rabbits have become such a 
nuisance that whole communities have to turn out and drive 
them into prepared enclosures, where they are clubbed to 
death. 

Some of you may recall how Dr. B. H. Warren, State 
ornithologist of Pennsylvania, standing on this platform, once 
told you of the experience of the people of that State with 
bounty laws, framed to secure the destruction of crows, 
hawks, owls, foxes, etc. You will not remember, perhaps, 
that the different counties of the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania paid out of their respective treasuries in one year 
nearly eighty thousand dollars in bounties on the heads of 
hawks and owls killed in that State under the so-called scalp 
act of 1885 ; that finally the stomach contents of three hun- 



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46 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

dred and fifty of the birds on which bounties had been paid 
were examined by Dr. Warren and by Dr. C. Hart Merriam, 
government ornithologist at Washington, or his assistants, 
and that it was found that ninety-tive per cent of the food 
of these hawks and owls consisted not of poultry or game, 
but of field mice and other destructive mammals or grass- 
hoppers and other destructive insects. The scalp act was 
repealed at the next session of the Legislature. 

Ever since the settlement of this country hawks and owls 
have been proscribed by both farmer and law maker, and 
shot at sight by nearly every one who owned a gun. They 
have been classed as the thieves, thugs and assassins among 
birds ; but many of them are now known to be useful in the 
highest degree to agriculture, while only a few can possibly 
be classed as injurious in the main. There are a few hawka 
which are inveterate enemies of poultry. The goshawk. 
Cooper's hawk and the sharp-shinned hawk are very destruc- 
tive to poultry, birds and game. The first occasionally win- 
ters with us, and in that season of scarcity secures more or 
less poultry and much game. The other two are noted for 
their depredations mainly in the spring, when their growing 
young in the nests require a great amount of animal food for 
their sustenance. The red-tailed hawk occasionally takes 
poultry at this season, and now and then a marsh hawk 
becomes addicted to chicken stealing ; but as a rule they and 
all the other hawks common in Massachusetts, with the 
exception of the first three mentioned, are now believed to 
be beneficial to agriculture, some of them highly so. Of the 
owls, there is but one — the great homed owl — which feeds 
to any great extent on poultry. This species is so hunted 
that it is fast becoming rare in this State. If fowls are shut 
up at night, this bird will seldom secure any. The hawks 
and owls not only benefit the farmer by constituting a check 
on the too great increase of mice, rats, squirrels, hares, 
moles and other destructive rodents, but they also assist 
greatly in checking insect outbreaks, as they feed on such 
injurious insects as May beetles, the larger caterpillars, 
grasshoppers and locusts. 

The volume entitled ** The Hawks and Owls of the United 
States," by Dr. A. K. Fisher, one of the ornithologists of 

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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 47 

the United States Department of Agriculture at Washington, 
D. C, should be in the hands of every farmer. It contains 
excellent colored plates of the more common species, with 
much on their habits and food. Having made an exhaustive 
study of the subject, having corresponded with many field 
ornithologists and examined the contents of the stomachs of 
some two thousand hawks and owls. Dr. Fisher says, *'It 
may be stated with confidence that owls are the most bene- 
ficial of all birds." This bulletin has long been out of print. 
This Commonwealth could perform no greater service to the 
farmers than to publish a reprint and distribute it freely 
among the agricultural community. " Unless the farmer has 
some means of identifying these birds, how is he to distin- 
guish the good from the bad ? " When once fully identified, 
they may be distinguished as readily as the difierent animals 
on the farm. They are large birds, and their diflferences are 
fully as well marked as those of the standard breeds of poul- 
try. The farmer or poultry-man who will make it a rule to 
shoot or trap only those of the hawks and owls that actually 
take poultry, will, by his forbearance, benefit mankind. We 
might go still farther, and say that some even of those that 
occasionally steal a chicken should be spared for the good 
they do in the pasture, orchard, meadow and woodland. 

Cuckoos {Family Cuculidce). 
The cuckoos are about the only birds that were generally 
known to feed extensively upon hairy and spiny caterpillars, 
until an investigation in Massachusetts gave evidence that 
many other birds were killing these insects. This habit of 
the cuckoos is so conspicuous that it has been observed by 
nearly all writers who have studied either cuckoos or cater- 
pillars. The caterpillar habit of the cuckoos became so well 
known in the work on the gypsy moth that a gathering of 
cuckoos anywhere was looked upon as a sign of a caterpillar 
outbreak. It is a well-known fact that these birds eat so 
many caterpillars that their stomachs sometimes become 
lined or felted with the hairs from the bodies of the insects. 
Some of the most destructive insect pests suffer from the 
attacks of these birds. The tent caterpillar, forest cater- 
pillar, gypsy moth, brown-tail moth, black-spined caterpillar, 

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48 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

fall web worm and the canker worms are all greedily 
eaten. Mr. F. H. Mosher saw a yellow-billed cuckoo go to 
a nest of fall web worms, tear it open and take twenty-two 
of them in a few minutes. Many such occurrences as this 
are now on record. The cuckoo should be welcome every- 
where. 

WOODPECBLERS (Picidod) . 

Thanks to the writings of foresters, ornithologists and 
entomologists, the woodpeckers, which were long considered 
fair game for the gunner, are now recognized almost every- 
where as useful birds. Our largest common species, the 
flicker, is so fond of ants that it will alight on an ant hill, 
thrust in its bill to bring out the inmates, and then gorge 
itself on the agitated ants as they swarm from the opening. 
Ants form a large portion of the food of many wookpeckers. 
The sapsucker was considered an injurious bird for many 
years, but Frank Bolles showed that its tapping trees ordi- 
narily produced no serious injury. Some farmers will 
persist in applying the term sapsuckers to the black-and- 
white woodpeckers. Ornithologists have always claimed 
that these birds are not sapsuckers, but now it seems that 
possibly the farmers have not been so much in error after 
all. In regard to this, I beg leave to submit the following 
field notes, from my friend Mr. C. E. Bailey of Winchendon, 
dated Maiden, Mass., April 6, 1899 : '* At 12.30 I found a 
downy woodpecker, and watched him till 2.45 ; he took 
three larvae from a maple stub, just under the bark. He 
next tapped two small swamp maples, four and six feet from 
the ground, and spent most of the time taking sap. He 
ta[)ped the tree by picking it a few times very lightly ; it 
looked like a slight cut, slanting a little. The bird would 
sit and peck the sap out of the lower part of the cut. The 
cut was so small the sap did not collect very fast. The bird 
would go and sit for a long time in a large tree and not 
move, then it would come back and take more sap. It did 
this three times while I was watching it. It did not care to 
take any food but the sap. I could get within six feet of the 
bird without any trouble when it was taking sap. It then 
left and went into a large tree, and I lost it ; but if I had 
stayed by the tree it tapped I think it would have come back 



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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 49 

before night, as it had done before when I was watching it. 
It was gone half an hour at one time." 

While this cannot be considered as proof that the downy- 
woodpecker is a sapsucker, still, it shows that one bird cer- 
tainly did take sap, though not from a fruit tree or in any 
harmful quantity. Therefore, it seems probable that an 
occasional individual of the same or allied species may have 
the same habit, and that the only reason it has not been 
observed before is that the birds have not been watched with 
sufficient care. For the good they do, woodpeckers are 
deserving all that they can ask at the hands of the &rmers. 
One useful trait of the downy woodpecker not generally 
known is its feeding upon the woolly aphis, which is so often 
seen on our apple trees. This has been observed by Mr. A. 
H. Kirkland. Woodpeckers not only secure many wood- 
boring insects which are injurious to trees, but they destroy 
many eggs and hibernating pupae during the winter months. 

The Goatsuckers (Caprimilgidce). 
These, represented in Massachusetts by the night hawk 
and whippoorwill, are without doubt of great utility. Both 
these species destroy such night-flying insects as the May 
beetle, which is the parent of the white grub. They also 
eat night-flying moths, so many of which escape diurnal 
birds. Dr. B. H. Warren reports the whippoorwill as 
feeding on potato beetles.* Dr. L. O. Howard says that 
night-flying birds, such as night hawks and whippoorwills, 
destroy the adult mosquitoes, f Mrs. Aaron, in the 
**American Naturalist,"* says that Harvey found six hundred 
mosquitoes in the stomach of a single night hawk. J Unfort- 
unately, these birds have been so hunted that there are now 
few where once there were many. 

Swifts {Micropodidce) , 
The swifts, of which our chimney swallow, so called, is the 
sole example inhabiting this State, are believed to feed 

• «« Birds of PennsylTania/' revised edition, 1890, page 180. 
t Dr. L. 0. Howard : •• The Mosquitoes of the United States," Bulletin 26, new 
series, United States Department of Agricaltnre, Division of Entomology. 
t " American Natoralist,'* 1880, page 896. 



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50 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc^ 

entirely on insects, which they take on the wing. They 
pick up in this way such caterpillars as the canker worms, 
which often hang suspended by a thread they have spun 
from the branches. We have very little accurate information 
as to the exact character of the food of these birds. 

Humming Birds (TrochUidce) . 
Even the little humming birds eat many minute but 
nevertheless destructive insects, which they take not only 
from the leaves and flowers but even from the branches. 
The ruby throat may sometimes be seen hovering beneath or 
about a limb, pecking insects from the bark. 

Flycatchers (Tyrannidce) . 
The true flycatchers take their food largely upon the wing. 
Although they eat caterpillars and other larvae and also some 
pupsB, they feed in the main upon the mature insects taken 
in flight. They are no doubt beneficial to agriculture, but 
perhaps not so highly useful as it would seem at first sight, 
as they destroy many parasitic insects after these creatures 
have reached the winged state. The kingbird, which has 
received in some sections the name of bee eater or bee 
martin, probably does more good in destroying robber flies, 
bee moths and other insects than it does harm by killing 
bees. The stomach dissections made by Professor Beal of 
the Department of Agriculture resulted in favor of this bird. 
Kingbirds nesting near the poultry yard will keep hawks 
and crows away. 

The Crow Family (Corvides). 
This Board has already published a report on the crow in 
Massachusetts. Since that time more facts in the crow's 
history have come to light. It seems to be true that in the 
Middlesex Fells reservation, where all birds have been pro- 
tected, the crows have increased at the expense of the smaller 
birds, which certainly appear to* be less plentiful there than 
they were before the Metropolitan Park Commission took 
the land. On the other hand, the grouse and hares have 
greatly increased. Our observers have reported that many 
nests of robins, vireos and other small birds in the reserva* 



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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 51 

tion were being robbed by crows and jays. Hence we may 
conclude that if crows are allowed to increase too rapidly 
they may do much harm. Still, those who regard the crow 
as an evil must certainly admit that it is a necessary evil,, 
where grubs, caterpillars or grasshoppers become numerous. 
The blue jay is a sad rascal, no doubt. It has a great 
appetite for grain and fruit, and desti'oys some birds' eggs. 
On the other hand, it is a noted caterpillar hunter, and is 
one of the few birds that eat the eggs of the tent caterpillar 
and other harmful insects in winter. As this bird remains 
in Massachusetts most of the winter, it must do a vast 
amount of good unnoticed during the colder months of the 
year, when it can do little harm. 

The Stablings and Blackbirds. 
The members of this family are, as a rule, highly bene- 
ficial to agriculture. The bobolink and some of the black- 
birds are rightly considered great pests in the southern rice 
fields ; the redwings and crow blackbirds, when too numer- 
ous at any point for their normal food supply, do much 
injury in grain fields, especially among Indian com. But 
the amount of grain eaten by each bird for the season is of 
little consequence, compared with the enormous number of 
insects it destroys. The difficulty is in this case that the 
good the birds do is distributed unnoticed over a wide region 
and through many months of each year ; while the harm done 
is confined to a few months and to more limited areas, and so 
attracts much more attention. The injury is largely done in 
the fall, when, the breeding season being over, the birds 
collect in immense flocks. Where these flocks descend upon 
the grain fields, the farmers whose crops so sufler receive 
little consolation from the fact that the birds that have 
destroyed their grain have but recently been rendering price- 
less service to their neighbors or to other farmers over a 
wide stretch of territory. It seems hard for the southern 
rice planter to be obliged to pay the bobolinks and black- 
birds from his fields the price they exact for protecting 
from the ravages of insect pests the grain fields, grass crops 
and gardens of the north. Here the bobolink is one of the 
most useful birds. It remains here during the breeding 

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52 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

season only, when it feeds largely on insects, helping to hold 
in check some of our most important pests. During army 
worm invasions the bobolink has become known as the army 
woi*m bird, because of its persistent attacks upon the worms. 
Ants, wasps, grasshoppers, harmful beetles (including wee- 
vils), caterpillars, plant lice and many other injurious insects 
are eaten in numbers ; also grass and weed seeds. Prof. F. 
C. Beal says that this bird destroys many parasitic hymenop- 
tera. These are useful insects, and this seems to be the only 
harm done by this bird in the north. During the past twenty 
years the bobolink has greatly decreased in many parts 
of Massachusetts. The early mowing, by machines, of the 
fields in which it breeds, may be partly responsible for this, 
for in this way many nests are either destroyed or exposed to 
destruction by the bird's enemies. 

The cowbirds, as you all know, follow the cattle about the 
fields and pastures, feeding largely on the insects which 
always fly from the towering presence of large animals. 
They seem to court the vicinity of the cattle for this reason, 
as chickens often do and as swallows sometimes do for much 
the same purpose. Such being their habit, their food is such 
as might be expected, and they feed largely on grasshoppers 
and other grass-inhabiting insects and cutworms. Their 
young are sometimes raised at the expense of the lives of 
other birds, although occasionally they are brought up in the 
nest with the children of their foster parents. One often sees 
young cowbirds tended and fed by other birds much smaller 
than themselves. It is quite probable that the cowbird is as 
useftil to the farmer as the majority of the birds it displaces. 

The redwing and crow blackbirds are noted for their fond- 
ness for white grubs, cut worms and other caterpillars. 
Wilson says he believes that fifty of these larvae per day 
would be a very moderate allowance for a redwing. He 
estimates that a million pairs of these birds and their young 
occupying this country in summer consume sixteen thousand 
two hundred millions of such insects in four months. The 
crow blackbirds certainly destroy some of the eggs and 
young of other birds, but it is doubtftil if this is a con- 
stant habit of the species. Although individuals manifest it, 
stomach examinations show little of it. All farmers know 

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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 53 

that certain hens habitually break and eat eggs. Undoubt- • 
edly individuals among birds have a similar habit, and it 
will crop out sometimes where least expected. It cannot be 
doubted that catbirds, wrens and cuckoos occasionally have 
this habit, as do jays and crows. Even the Baltimore oriole 
— a member of the family we are now considering — has 
now and then been seen to attempt to destroy the eggs of 
other birds. That it sometimes succeeds is shown by the fol- 
lowing note from Mr. Mosher: ** Monday, June 12, 1899: 
While making observations on a pair of rose-breasted gros- 
beaks, my attention was called to the cries of two male 
orioles. They were having a pitched battle every few min- 
utes. On going to the spot, I found that one of the males 
was fighting the other away from the nest, which was in the 
top of a small birch. The bird that owned the nest would 
perch just above the nest and keep guard. In a few minutes 
the other would make a rush at the nest from a neighboring 
tree, and they would grapple and sometimes come nearly to 
the ground. They kept this up all of the three hours I was 
near them. The bird without a mate went to a redstait's nest 
that had two eggs in it, and, taking the eggs in his bill, 
threw them out of the nest to the ground. He then attacked 
the nest, using his beak and feet, and exerting his strength to 
the utmost, until he had tipped the nest out of the crotch and 
it fell to the ground, ffhen he went hack to the trees near 
the other orioles. Tuesday, June 13, 1899 : An oriole, 
probably the same observed yesterday, went to a red-eyed 
vireo's nest and threw out one of the eggs, and would prob- 
ably have thrown out the others if the vireos had not 
attacked him and driven him off. " 

With the oriole this habit so far as observed has been con- 
fined to male birds which were probably unmated. It may 
be a mere eccentricity. The oriole is certainly one of our 
most useful birds. It is a great destroyer of the canker 
worm and tent caterpillar. It is, in fact, an inveterate feeder 
upon caterpillars and other orchard pests. It also eats 
great numbers of grasshoppers, injurious bugs and beetles. 
Wire worms are also eaten by it. The farmer should not 
only welcome the oriole, but furnish it with nesting material 
and fruit if necessary. 

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64 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

The meadow lark is one of the most useful birds of the 
fields. Grasshoppers and other grass-eating insects, May 
beetles, caterpillars and other leaf-eating insects constitute a 
large part of its bill of fare, and it is not known here at 
least to have any really harmful habits. This is another bird 
which has been greatly reduced in numbers in this State, 
partly by gunners and partly, perhaps (as in the case of the 
bobolink), by early mowing in the fields and meadows. 

Sparrows {Fringillidce) . 
And what shall we say of the great sparrow family, well 
represented here by numerous species ? These birds, though 
nominally seed eaters, are second only to some of our most 
truly insectivorous birds in their value to man. Not only do 
they and their young destroy vast numbers of insects in the 
spring and summer, but they also eat innumerable weed seeds 
in the other months they remain with us. Very few of them 
can be said to be harmful in any respect. The rose-breasted 
grosbeak is one of the few birds that eat the Colorado potato 
beetle. Among the most useful sparrows are the chipping 
sparrow, so common about the farm-yard, and the indigo 
bird, the male of which is so conspicuous for his bright blue 
plumage. These birds eat many of the worst pests of the 
garden. The indigo bird is particularly useful in the corn- 
field. The junco and tree sparrow a»e useful winter species. 

Tanaoers (Tanagridoe) . 
The scarlet tanager, which is the only member of the 
fietmily at all common here, is largely a bird of the woods, 
though frequently seen in the orchard. It is pre-eminently 
a tree bird, and feeds upon many insects, which in their turn 
feed on the leaves or twigs of trees and shrubbery. Its 
characteristic song and beautiful plumage of black and scarlet 
make it a general favorite. It is especially the guardian and 
protector of the oaks, living mainly among them and feeding 
on their insect enemies. Large moths, like the Luna and 
polyphemus, are captured by the tanager, which shears off 
their wings and legs with its beak and then devours them. 
This bird also catches and beats to death the hairy cater- 
pillars, and either swallows them entire or tears them to 

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THE TREE SPARROW {Spizella montlcolor). 
[A useful winter bird feeding: largely on weed seeds.] 



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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 55 

pieces. Leaf galls are pecked open by it and the grabs 
extracted from them. I have elsewhere recorded the fact 
that a male tanager was seen to eat over thirty newly hatched 
small gypsy moth caterpillars within five minutes, when he 
was joined by a female, and both together continued eating 
at this rate for eighteen minutes. Most of the numerous 
host of oak tree insects must reckon with the tanager as a 
vigilant and remorseless pursuer. This bird is also exceed- 
ingly useful in the garden or orchards, near its favorite white 
oak groves. 

SwAiiLOWS (Hirundinidce) . 

It is unfortunate that the swallows are not so numerous 
now in this State as they were thirty years ago. Many bam 
lofts where the bam swallows once bred no longer resound 
to their twittering. Many colonies of eave swallows have 
been broken up. The white-bellied or house swallows and 
the purple martins have been driven away from their nesting 
places largely by the imported English sparrow. The bank 
Bwallow has almost disappeared from some sections of the 
State. I know of no present breeding place of these birds in 
Essex County. As all the swallows feed almost entirely upon 
insects, when they can secure them, they will, when abun- 
dant, do much to clear the air of flies, gnats, mosquitoes and 
other winged hosts. They are said to destroy many of the 
flies which trouble cattle, and they also feed upon caterpillars 
like the canker worms, and many destructive beetles like the 
so-called " rose bug." 

Their food habits in this State have never been closely 
studied. Their decrease of late years is partially owing to 
unusual cold and storms in the south, which have destroyed 
many during their southern migrations. It is partially due 
also to their persecution by man, and in the case of the bank 
swallow it may be due in some measure to a contagious 
disease. 

Waxwing (Ampelinoe). 

The cedar bird or cherry bird is surely a useful bird, and 
it would pay the farmer to plant cherry trees, if only for the 
purpose of attracting these birds to the orchard and garden. 
Although they feed to a great extent on cherries and wild 
berries in summer, and in winter on the fruit of the red 



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56 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

cedar, yet they are voracious feeders on such pests as the 
canker worm. In this respect few birds can be more useful. 
They have been thoughtlessly decimated by the shot gun in 
many localities in this State. Although they possess no 
power of song, they are among our most beautiful and 
delicate birds. 

ViREOS (Vireonidoe) . 
This feimily of birds, famous for their vocal powers, should 
also receive recognition from the farmer as caterpillar 
hunters. At this occupation they almost equal the cuckoos. 
The red-eye seems to stop singing only to hunt for or eat a 
caterpillar. Their graceful movements, their powers of 
song and their elegant pensile nests should make them wel- 
come everywhere. 

Warblers (MniottUidce) . 
Of the great family of wood warblers we know only that 
which is good. They migrate through this State in spring 
and £bi11, leaving many of their number to summer here ; but 
all or nearly all leave for the south in the fall, to appear 
again only when the spring sun mounts high in its daily 
course and the numerous hibernating insects awake to a new 
year. These warblers' graceful forms, bright colors and 
feeble lisping songs have made them favorites among orni- 
thologists. Their valuable services in destroying insects 
should insure the favor of all. Every spring and fall their 
hordes pass through this Commonwealth unnoticed by most 
people. There are few of the insects of the orchard, fruit 
garden or wood lot on which these birds do not feed, and the 
number of insects destroyed by them must be entirely beyond 
man's comprehension. 

Wrens and Thrashers {Troglodytidce) . 
The house wren, though perhaps locally common, is now 
in most parts of the State a rare or uncommon bird. Un- 
doubtedly the introduction of the English sparrow had much 
to do with its disappearance from Worcester County. It has 
been proved that it is possible in some cases to tempt the wrens 
back to their former homes by putting up nesting boxes with 
an auger hole seven-eighths of an inch in diameter as their only 

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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTUKE. 57 

entrance. Through this small hole the sparrow cannot enter, 
and, if the wren can only keep the sparrows out of its nest, 
it will give a good account of itself. This bird is an inde- 
fatigable worker in the garden, and delights in destroying 
cabbage worms, currant worms, onion flies and all such 
vermin. It eats also many spiders. The winter wren is not 
often seen except in the woods, and its food habits are not 
well known. 

The brown thrasher, sometimes called the red mavis or 
planting bird, and the cat bird, are both familiar and useful. 
Their special province is to clear the shrubbery and low 
growth of caterpillars and other pests. 

Titmice, Cbeepebs, etc. 

We cannot overlook in passing that interesting group of 
familiar winter birds that are seen in company during this 
inclement season busily searching over trunk, branch and 
twig, prying into every hole and crevice, — the creepers 
(^Oerthtidce) f titmice and nuthatches (Paridoe) and kinglets 
(Hegulince). 

Every village orchard, every isolated farm, every wood 
lot in the State, undergoes their searching scrutiny. They 
go in small companies, sometimes one or two species 
together, sometimes three. Often they are joined by one 
of the smaller woodpeckers. Almost exclusively insec- 
tivorous, they rely on other food only when driven by 
extremity. They must labor almost incessantly to secure 
sufficient food to keep up the vitality necessary to resist cold 
and storms. Still they always appear cheerful and contented. 
Searching the trees continually during daylight, they destroy 
vast quantities of the eggs of injurious lepidoptera and 
aphides. They drag from their hiding places thousands of 
hibernating insects. The bark beetles are haled forth, the 
tineids sought out, the scales destroyed. In the warmer 
days, when the pregnant female moths leave the ground and 
climb the trunks preparatory to depositing their eggs, they 
are gladly pounced upon and hailed by these little bird 
waifs, perhaps as a sign of coming spring. All through 
the winter, when other birds have fled to a warmer clime, 
these birds remain steadfastly with us, battling with the 



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58 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

elements and delivering our trees from a host of potential 
insects, which, otherwise, would develop and swarm upon 
them in the spring. Many of these birds are destroyed by 
cold and storms, but the survivors, undaunted, still linger, 
seeking protection from the fury of the elements wherever 
they can find it. 

My friend Mr. C. E. Bailey once discovered two chickadees 
hiding during a snow storm in a cavity beneath a deserted 
crow's nest. It was snowing hard, and night was coming 
on. Mr. Bailey, seeing something moving among the twigs 
and leaves of which, the nest was composed, climbed the 
tree. The birds remained until his hand was quite near 
them, when they flew out, but they returned to their shelter 
before he had reached the ground. There they probably 
passed the night. On another occasion a storm of cold rain 
and sleet had covered the trees with ice. Mr. Bailey saw 
two poor chickadees, almost exhausted from exposure and 
lack of food and their tails covered with ice, crawling beneath 
the loosened clapboards on an old building for shelter from 
the storm. 

The chickadee is, perhaps, the most useful bird of this 
group. It will well pay tfie farmer to provide food and 
shelter for these birds during the winter months and so keep 
them about the orchard and farm buildings. He can secure 
no better return for a small outlay. 

The clock warns me that there will be no time to more than 
mention the useful thrush family. But it is always expected 
that something will be said about the robin. My own opinion 
of the robin may be judged by my treatment of the bird. 
There is a white pine grove within a few rods of my home, 
where the robins resort to roost in August and September. 
They come after sunset by hundreds, roost in the pines 
all night and scatter round about to feed at early dawn. 
Among them is one albino bird, white with a black head. 
If those robins continue to come there that white pine 
grove shall continue to furnish them a place of refuge. I 
have ordered two dozen cherry trees to be planted in the 
vicinity, as a further attraction to the birds. They are the 
most expert bird at digging out and killing white grubs, — 

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THE WHITE BREASTED NUT HATCH (SiUa CarolinenHi), 
[A destroyer of tree pests.] 



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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 59 

except, perhaps, the crow. The cut worms have no worse 
enemy. 

It may be inferred from all of the foregomg that most 
birds are believed to be useful to agriculture. 

Food Relations of Bibds and Other Animals. 

And now a word about the food relations of birds. It is a 
general rule that any animal or plant which, through circum- 
stances particularly favorable to its multiplication, becomes 
abnormally numerous, will at once, in the struggle for ex- 
istence, become unduly destructive, and therefore a pest. 
When crows, blackbirds, rabbits or any bird, mammal or 
insect become too numerous, or when too many of any one 
Bpecies are crowded too closely on a limited area, then only 
do they become pests. What animal so harmless as a 
rabbit ? Yet in Australia great tracts of land have been 
made barren by the multiplication of these little animals. 
Man himself tried in vain for years to check them. 

It is often said that birds destroy both useful and benefi- 
cial insects or other animals, and that this fact detracts from 
their usefulness. But it must be remembered: (1) that 
the species of injurious insects out-number the so-called bene- 
ficial insects enormously, therefore the vast majority of insects 
destroyed by birds are the injurious ones, and that these 
fewer beneficial insects alone could never hold the many 
injurious insects in check; (2) certain beneficial insects 
themselves would become injurious if not for the check put 
upon them by birds which devour the surplus. 

One never can tell what any creature will eat if pressed by 
hunger, or what change may occur in the food habits of any 
species when that species becomes abnormally numerous. 
Any arbitrary classification of animals by their food habits, 
as absolutely insectivorous, carnivorous, etc., will fail in 
view of this fact. The animals themselves are not aware of 
our distinctions, and refuse to be bound by them. In my 
earlier years I was surprised to find the wolf, a carnivorous 
animal, subsisting on berries, and swallows, insectivorous 
birds, also living on the same food. Later we found a 
climbing cut worm eating the pupae of the tent caterpillar. 



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60 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

We now know that predaceoos beetles, such as the Harpa- 
lidcj when they become numerous sometimes attack grain or 
fruit. Granting, that a species may change its status from 
beneficial to injurious the moment it becomes too numerous, 
birds are certainly performing a great service, provided 
they keep insects or other animals within normal bounds. 

But it may be said that there are some species, like the 
predaceous beetle of Europe, Calosoma st/ccpharUaj and 
perhaps our own CalosomaSy which feed entirely on other 
species of insects except when such food is scarce, and 
then they eat each other, and that such species, therefore, 
would never become pests. This is true, but the usefulness 
of these cannibalistic species is likely to be abridged by their 
own vomcity, and only a few birds are known to eat them. 
We must admit, however, that, if these birds seriously reduce 
the numbers of such insects, then they do harm, which must 
be counterbalanced by their general usefulness in destroying 
other insects. 

Birds are especially fitted by structure and habit to destroy 
insects. They will do it effectually wherever they are 
sufficiently numerous and are allowed to work unhindered. 
That they are not now sufficiently numerous in Massachu- 
setts is largely the &ult of the inhabitants. 

Man the Destboyeb. 
Some of our useful birds have been almost exterminated 
from this State, within my memory. The passenger pigeon 
has gone within twenty-five years. A hundred years ago 
their flocks darkened the sun. Bartram's sandpiper, other- 
wise known as the upland plover, bred not uncommonly on 
the hills about Worcester thirty years ago. This is an 
exceedingly valuable bird in gi*ass lands. It was wanted, 
however, by the epicures. The pot hunters got after it. 
Now you may occasionally hear one flying over in the spring 
or fall, but we do not know where they now breed in the 
State. The woodcock has bred commonly in eastern Massa- 
chusetts within thirty years. The young birds were raised 
in some numbers about Worcester twenty years ago. Breed- 
ing birds are now rare. The pot hunter has destroyed 
them. Most people are unaware that the northern quail is 

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No. 4.] BIRDS USEFUL TO AGRICULTURE. 61 

now an exceedingly rare bird. This remarkably useful bird 
— one of the few that feed on the Colorado potato beetle — 
has been so nearly exterminated that the smaller, darker 
southern variety has been introduced by sportsmen to fill its 
place. These birds have probably interbred with the larger 
northern birds, and have practically wiped out the remnants 
of the race. Our sportsmen have at last awakened to the 
fiact that even the wily grouse may go the way of the quail, 
plover and woodcock ; and a law has been enacted making it 
a punishable offence to sell any of these birds shot in this 
State. 

Many of the smaller birds, once very common here, are 
now comparatively scarce. A western naturalist, coming 
east, at once noticed the scarcity of birds, as contrasted with 
their abundance now in certain of the western States. It 
will not do to say that we can do nothing toward increasing 
their numbers. We certainly have done much to reduce them. 
We know that it is in man's power to make conditions which 
will fevor their increase. Our bird laws are feirly good, but 
they are not enforced. Birds are slaughtered, by thousands, 
as they ever were, by boys, cats, immigrants, pot hunters 
and would-be sportsmen. Of those birds which escape the 
slaughter, only about one pair in five manage to rear their 
young to maturity. When this destruction of our birds can 
be checked, then, and then only, will the birds begin to 
reoccupy their rightful economic position in our midst. 

It is gratifying to note that the United States government 
is now taking an active interest in bird protection. The 
passage of the ** Lacey act" by Congress and the measures 
taken for its enforcement by Dr. T. S. Palmer, the capable 
and energetic assistant chief of the Biological Survey, give 
promise that the illegal slaughter and sale of birds for milli- 
nery purposes, as well as their illegal sale in the game mar- 
kets, may in time be stopped. This is a work in which the 
authorities here should heartily co-operate. 



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62 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc, 

Evening Session. 

The meeting was called together by President H. H. 
Goodell of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, who 
said: The subject of the lecture this evening is **Some 
Lessons from the Census." I think some of you may have 
said in your hearts that a skeleton made up of fiicts and 
figures would be dry. I am sure if any man could quicken 
into life that same skeleton of bones, it is the lecturer 
to-night. 

Those of you who are old enough will doubtless remember 
that seven and thirty years ago the Legislature of this Com- 
monwealth accepted a grant from Congress of three hundred 
and sixty thousand acres of public domain, with the proviso 
that the money derived from the sale of that land should 
establish and maintain at least one college of agriculture and 
mechanic arts. The Legislature immediately founded and 
established the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, giving 
them one-third of the income derived, and three days later, 
I think it was, they established the Massachusetts Agricult- 
ural College, in that way providing for the college of agri- 
culture and mechanic arts. I have the great pleasure of 
introducing to you Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, the president 
of our twin institution, the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. 



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No. 4.] LESSONS FEOM THE CENSUS. 63 



SOME LESSONS FROM THE CENSUS. 



BY DR. HENRT 8. PRITCHETT, BOSTON. 



My object in speaking to you concerning the census is not 
so much to present the results of the twelfth census of the 
United States, which is now being prepared, but rather to 
call attention to the work of the census; to indicate the 
value of the data collected, particularly as it affects those 
engaged in agriculture ; and, finally, to bring forward cer- 
tain general considerations which the results of recent cen- 
suses have seemed to establish. 

The idea of a census, so far as the enumeration of the 
population is concerned, comes down to us from antiquity. 
One of the first of which we have record is that taken by 
David and mentioned in the twenty-fourth chapter of Second 
Samuel. The census concerned itself with the enumeration 
of men capable of bearing arms, and was completed in about 
nine months, which may be considered rapid work for that 
day. It revealed a fighting strength in Judah and Israel 
of about 1,300,000 men, — an exhibit of military resources 
sufiicient to cause the heart of any king to swell with pride. 
The result was most disastrous, and, as a punishment for 
the pride and presumption which were displayed, David, 
who had caused the enumeration to be made, was given a 
choice of three evils, as the following extract shows : — 

So Gad came to David, and told him, and said unto him, Shall 
seven years of famine come unto thee in thy land ? or wilt thou 
flee three months before thine enemies, while they pursue thee? 
or that there be three days' pestilence in thy land ? now advise, 
and see what answer I shail return to him that sent me. 

And David said unto Gad, I am in a great strait : let us fall 
now into the hand of the Lord ; for his mercies are great : and let 
me not fall into the hand of man. 



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64 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel from the morning 
even to the time appointed : and there died of the people from 
Dan even to Beersheba seventy thoosand men. 

Whether the unhappy coincidence of this census with the 
plague is responsible for the widespread aversion to the exact 
enumeration of inhabitants which existed both among Chris- 
tians and among Mohammedans for many centuries I am not 
able to say, but such a feeling undoubtedly existed. As late 
as 1753, when a measure for the institution of a census 
was pending before the British parliament, a member who 
opposed it placed his opposition on the following ground : 
"The people looked upon the proposal as ominous, and 
feared lest some public misfortune or an epidemical distemper 
should follow the enumeration." 

In the tabulated results to which I am going to invite your 
attention will be found many evidences of the astonishing 
growth and power of the American people. Happily the 
time has gone by when such evidences of greatness bring 
superstitious fears. Such tabulated results, if accurate, must 
serve not only to bring to our attention those things in which 
we excel, but also those things in which we are falling be- 
hind. They serve to remind us not only of our greatness, 
but of our weakness ; not only of our relative growth, but 
of our true position with respect to competitors ; and they 
are therefore valuable not only in upholding our spirit of 
pride and security, but in pointing out also those sources 
of weakness of which it is well to be reminded from time to 
time, ** lest we forget." 

The census, in the modern sense, as does the word itself, 
comes to us from the Romans. With them it was a political 
military and fiscal agency, and was taken every five years. 
The enumeration and consequent registration were accom- 
panied by religious ceremonials and sacrifices for purification 
of the people, — an idea which is somewhat akin to that fear 
of an enumeration to which I have just alluded. The census 
was taken under the conduct of two officers whose powers 
were the highest in the State, who were called ** censors." 
Ultimately the powers of the censors were so extended as to 
include the supervision and correction of morals, and even to 

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No. 4.] LESSONS FROM THE CENSUS. 65 

the purging of the Senate of unworthy members, — a public 
duty which in this day is not delegated to formal officers, but 
for whose absence from our political system there may be 
reason for regret. 

With the dissolution of the Roman empire the census as a 
statistical agency disappeared from history, and accurate 
enumeration of population, property and productions were 
only undertaken among modern nations within comparatively 
recent times. 

By the constitution of 1787, a census, to be taken every 
ten years, became a part of the political system of the United 
States. It was a necessity of the federal representative 
character of our government, in which both representation 
and direct taxation were apportioned according to population. 

The first census, which was taken in 1790, referred only 
to population. As time went on, however, the scope of the 
census has been extended so as to include all those statistics 
which refer to population, births and deaths, manufacturing, 
transportation, agriculture and mining. Practically all of 
the people of the United States may be said to be engaged 
either in agriculture, in manufacturing, in mining, in trans- 
portation, in trade, or in rendering personal service. For 
those comprised in the last two classes there will be no 
inquiries during the census year which will disclose the 
extent of their business, the amount of capital which they 
have invested or the returns which they receive, but for all 
the other classes mentioned these data will be furnished in 
addition to those which concern vital statistics. How com- 
plete the inquiry is which is now being conducted, and how 
wide a field of information the data which the census will 
collect will cover, can only be realized by an inspection of 
the act of Congress of March 3, 1899, which provided for 
taking the twelfth and subsequent censuses. The extent of 
the inquiries, however, may be judged by noting that section 
which refers to agriculture, and which is as follows : — 

The schedule relating to agriculture shall comprehend the follow- 
ing topics : name of occupant of each farm, tenure, acreage, value 
of farm and improvements, acreage of different products, quantity 
and value of products, and number and value of live stock. 



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66 BOARD OF AGRICULTUEE. [Pub. Doc. 

The work which the census is undertaking to do in col- 
lecting statistics of agriculture has also been planned with 
reference to the work now being carried out by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in the annual collection of statistics 
which it presents in its Year Book. The inquiries of the 
census are intended to supplement and to make complete 
these valuable papers. 

A most important advance has been made in census work, 
in the perfection of electrical machines for recording the 
data gathered. The method is called after its inventor, the 
Hollerith system. By this method a card some three by six 
inches is used to record the facts for each person in the 
United States. A section of this card is reserved for the 
information brought out by each question on the schedule, 
and a part of each section is reserved for each possible 
answer to the question. Thus a narrow strip near the left 
of each card is reserved for the answer regarding race or 
color. Five race divisions are recognized, namely, white, 
black, Chinese, Japanese and Indian. Entry is made on the 
card by punching a hole in the proper place. 

In the case of the present census the tabulating card 
will be used not only for each person but for each f&mily, 
and will give the age of the family, number of children, 
the occupation of the various members and other relating 
statistics. 

Without going further into detailed description of what 
the census undertakes to do, it will be evident, from what 
I have said, that the information collected will not only 
enable us to judge of our progress in wealth, in population, 
in agriculture and in mining, but also it will enable us to 
compare our own progress and our own development with 
that of other nations ; and that, moreover, the information 
is suflSciently full and sufficiently definite to furnish in large 
measure a comparison of the progress and success of various 
occupations. 

It is too early as yet to give the results of all these 
Inquiries, as determined by the census which has been taken 
during the present year. We have, however, the final re- 
sults in population, and approximate results are to be had 
with regard to other lines in inquiry. The census has issued 

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No. 4.] LESSONS FROM THE CENSUS. 67 

already a series of bulletins with regard to these first deter- 
mined data. From these, and from the information which 
the oflScers of the census have been kind enough to furnish 
me, I am able to present to you certain comparisons between 
the results of 1900 and the results of former censuses ; and, 
while these are not definitive, they are sufficiently accurate 
for the purpose of drawing general conclusions. My pur- 
pose, as I am glad to state again more specifically, is not 
so much to present to you the results of a strict analysis of 
certain statistics as it is to call your attention to the great 
mass of information which the government is here gathering 
for the use of all its citizens, and to emphasize the fact 
that when it appears in complete form it will furnish to men 
of all classes data of the highest interest, not only for deter- 
mining our standing with respect to other nations, but also 
for determining something of the opportunities which each 
individual has in the field of energy to which he has applied 
himself. The value of these great sources of information 
which the government furnishes with so liberal a hand is not 
always understood, and I beg to commend to you a study 
of the results of the twelfth census when those results appear 
in their final form. You will, therefore, consider that to-day 
I am not giving you the real results of the twelfth census, 
except in the most general form, but I am simply pointing 
you to that valuable collection of statistics when it is ready 
for your use. In other words, I am giving you to-night not 
the feast itself, but simply the menu card. 

First of all, the cursory inspection of the census, in com- 
parison with those of other nations, cannot fail to impress 
one with the strength and power of this country. Several 
considerations enter when one undertakes to estimate the 
relative places of the great world powers. One must con- 
sider not only the number of separate units which compose 
the population, but the efficiency and potential of the par- 
ticular unit, and, finally, the organization which can wield 
these units effectively. Considered from the first two points 
of view, the United States is doubtless the most powerful 
nation on earth ; for, although her population is less than 
that of Russia, which now has 136,000,000 people, the in- 
feriority of the units is so great that the pre-eminence of th^ 



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68 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

United States cannot be questioned. In strength, as com- 
pared the one with the other, the great world powers would 
be arranged in the following order : the United States, Great 
Britain, Russia and Germany of equal strength, with France 
a doubtful fifth. This, in fact, is the order which Sir Robert 
Giffen, statistician to the English Board of Trade, admits. 

Lest, however, this superiority on land should make us 
unduly boastful, we may well look for a moment at the ton- 
nage of the navies of the world, as recently compiled by 
the Navy Department. Arranged in the order of naval 
supremacy, the great nations would stand : England, France, 
Russia, United States, Germany, Italy, Japan, — with Eng- 
land so enormously in the lead as to equal the strength of 
her three nearest competitors, France, Russia and the United 
States. An exhibit of the commercial marine would be even 
less likely to minister to our self-glorification. On the great 
lakes we have an enormous tonnage, where we have no com- 
petition ; but in the open sea, where the nations of the world 
are free to compete, we cut a figure so small that it is hardly 
worth while to repeat the actual figures. They do not sound 
well to American ears. Let us hope that the decade just 
beginning may tell a different story, and that our ships of 
commerce may once more carry the American flag to as 
many quarters of the world as they did in the palmy days 
of American shipping. 

Taking up, briefly, the separate items upon which the 
census will throw light, let us consider them with respect to 
the developments of former decades. During the decade 
ending 1900, the annual increase of wealth was closely that 
which held between 1880 and 1890. The total wealth of the 
country will reach approximately 90,000 millions of dollars, 
and the average wealth for each inhabitant will amount to 
$1,200. The growth of wealth in New England has appar- 
ently not kept pace with the population, while in the Middle 
States each inhabitant seems to have gained a slight increase. 
The general increase for the Union is, approximately, $155 
per head. In California the average wealth per inhabitant 
is approximately $2,500, while in Massachusetts the average 
wealth is $1,080, which is a slight decrease, compared with 
the average wealth of citizens of Massachusetts in 1890, 

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No. 4.] LESSONS FROM THE CENSUS. 69 

The data concerning public schools and public education 
will form one of the interesting divisions of the work of 
the twelfth census. The school population in 1900 is approx- 
imately 22,300,000, with an average attendance of a little 
over 11,000,000, and with an annual expenditure for educa- 
tion of something like $210,000,000. The average attend- 
ance daily is now 48 per cent, whereas thirty years ago it 
was only a little over 30 per cent, showing that enormous 
strides have been made in thirty years in the matter of public 
education. Thus, while the population of school age has 
advanced only 85 per cent, the average school attendance has 
risen 175 per cent. As in former censuses, it will be seen 
that New England has the most liberal expenditure, while 
the schools of Southern States still show a meagre support. 

In this connection let me add a word as to agricultural 
education in the United States. I have already suggested 
that the census statistics in agriculture are supplementary 
to those gathered by the Department of Agriculture, and 
which are presented in the Annual Year Book. The Year 
Book for 1899, which has just been distributed, presents to 
the reader a most interesting account of the development 
of agriculture in the United States during the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and of its condition at this closing year of the century. 
Among other subjects treated in this Year Book is that of 
agricultural education and the attempts which have been 
made to introduce instruction in agriculture into elementary 
rural schools. The report shows that these attempts have 
been practical failures. A new movement, however, has re- 
cently been started by the College of Agriculture at Cornell 
University, and by other State colleges, for the introduction 
of what are called «* nature studies" into the elementary 
schools. To accomplish the object aimed at, which is to 
call attention early in the student's life to the practical prob- 
lems of agriculture and to the help which science may give 
in the solution of these problems, object-leaflets, containing 
suitable matter for lessons, have been issued, and model 
lessons are given in the schools by travelling inspectors. 
Up to the present time, however, little has been done toward 
the establishment of second-grade agricultural schools, and 
agricultural subjects are as yet not taught in the high schools. 

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70 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub, Doc. 

In the United States the State college, with the experiment 
station attached to it, have been the prime movers in agri- 
cultural education. In this connection I venture to quote a 
private letter, received a few days ago, from the Secretary 
of Agriculture : — 

Permit me to say one thing, outside of your inquiries, that 
applies to our work here. In round numbers, half the people of 
the United States are employed in producing from the soil. 
Where scientific education is offered by State institutions, some 
of these young people are going to college. K scientific instruc- 
tion along the line of their life's work is not offered, they do not 
go to college. When they do go, these agricultural institutions 
are giving them something with regard to the soil, the plant and the 
animal, and other things relating to agriculture. Many of these 
institutions are making progress and strengthening their courses 
of study. They are really doing good work toward the helping 
of young farmers along the lines of their future life work. Their 
education is weak along certain lines ; they perhaps do not get as 
much literature as they should have. The question is, Are the 
farmers helped by what they do get? The universities and col- 
leges of the land are doing nothing for that part of the community, 
including the producers from the soil. They have never consid- 
ered their cases. They have qualifications for entry into college 
that absolutely prohibit these young people from going. Not 
only so, but from the industrial stand-point our great institutions 
of education do nothing along the line I mention (agricultural 
education). For that reason, we in this department are encour- 
aging young farmers to go through the agricultural college, get 
what they can, and after graduation come here, when we give 
them something along their own line. 

I have read this letter for two reasons : first of all, it is 
from a man, himself a farmer, who is profoundly interested 
in the advancement of agriculture, and therefore interested 
in all that helps the farmer ; secondly, it voices a sentiment 
which I think is widespread among farmers, namely, that in 
some way or other the farmers as a class are not receiving 
the benefit of the scientific training which has become so 
marked a feature of the world's progress. This question I 
do not feel able at this moment to discuss. I do not feel 
sure in my own mind what the best method is for bringing a 
technical training within the reach of those who spend their 

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No. 4.] LESSONS FROM THE CENSUS. 71 

lives on &niis, but this, I think, needs to be emphasized. 
The last quarter-century has brought into our possession not 
only a new series of facts, but what may be called a new 
method. " It is generally called the scientific method. This 
is nothing other than to get possession of the facts, and to 
apply these in accordance with common sense. All the arts 
and most of the industries have been practically recast by 
reason of this scientific development. Manufactures, min- 
ing, transportation, all industrial arts, avail themselves freely 
of the results of modem science. The farmer must do the 
same thing, if he is to keep pace with the developments in 
manufitctures, in mining and in other directions. A whole 
series of facts relating to the soil, to the climate, to the life 
of plants, of insects, to the rotation of crops, are available 
for his use. The applications of chemistry and botany and 
geology and zoology bear directly upon his work. Of all 
these things he must avaU himself. The twentieth-century 
farmer must use his head as well as his hands, if he is to keep 
step with progress. Just how this is to be done is perhaps 
your problem rather than mine ; but the significance of the 
statements which I have just made will, I am sure, be appar- 
ent a few minutes later, in considering the £act that agri- 
culture has failed to advance as rapidly during the past few 
decades as manufactures, mining or population. 

The statistics for agriculture, as collected by the census, 
are not as yet in final form, but, taken in connection with 
the publications of the Agricultural Department, a fair esti- 
mate may be given. One of the interesting developments 
of the last thirty years has been the change in the relative 
size of farms, — a &ct which is made more evident by the 
diagram which I present than it can be by any table of 
statistics. On the whole, and particularly in the south and 
west, the average size of farms has diminished greatly since 
the civil war. 

Grain and cotton are the chief products in agriculture. 
Since 1890 the area employed in the cultivation of these 
staples has increased 12J^ per cent. The value of all farm 
products, however, including not only those mentioned, but 
potatoes, hay, tobacco and sugar, will amount, during the 
current year, to approximately 4,500 millions of dollars, 

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72 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

being at the rate of about $61 for each iuhabitant, which is 
slightly less than that in 1880, which was about $67. The 
decline is chiefly in the pastoral products, particularly in live 
stock. Thus in 1880 we raised nearly as many horses, 
cattle, sheep and pigs as in 1900. The total number of 
persons engaged in agricultural pursuits is 10^ millions, and 
their production, therefore, amounts to about $430 per person, 
as against $2,000 per person engaged in manufactures. 

Let us look at it in another light. During the last twenty 
years population has increased 52 per cent ; school popula- 
tion has increased 58 per cent ; wealth has increased 109 per 
cent ; manu&ctures have increased 150 per cent ; mining has 
increased 83 per cent ; agriculture has increased only 36 per 
cent, as measured in the same way, by the value of its prod- 
ucts. There is food for serious reflection in these figures. 
The &ct that agriculture has not kept pace, either with 
population or with other branches of industry, is one that 
concerns not only those who live on &rms, but it concerns 
as well the whole country. I commend to your considera- 
tion the data of the census, which bring out these results, 
and an intelligent study of the problem as to how the former 
may avail himself, as other men engaged in industry have 
availed themselves, of the work of modern science. 

It goes without saying that this discrepancy between the 
gain in agriculture and in these industries, for instance, 
manufactures, is due to a variety of reasons, of which the 
one to which I have alluded b only one. The enormous 
growth of manufacturing is also due to a number of causes. 
But, notwithstanding all this, it is still a fact that agriculture 
does not seem to have availed itself, as have other industrial 
branches, of the fruitage which science has brought to the 
last quarter of the century. 

The data which the census will furnish concerning manu- 
factures will be most complete and most interesting. The 
value of the output in 1900 will show an increase from about 
9,300 millions to 13,300 millions of dollars ; and the manu- 
fecturing hands, in 1900, compose about 9 per cent of the 
population, as against 7^ per cent in 1890. The separate 
items which go to make up manufactures will themselves form 
interesting problems in the growth and in the developmenbof 

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No. 4.] LESSONS FROM THE CENSUS. 73 

the nation, but these may be best brought out by study of 
the final statistics themselves. 

Transportation in its various lines of employment occupies' 
the time of a large proportion of the citizens of the country. 
Naturally we are approaching conditions in which the devel- 
opment of the railroad is slower than during the decade from 
1880 to 1890. At the census of 1890 railroads represented 
15 per cent of the wealth of the nation ; in 1900 they will 
only stand for about 12^ per cent. 

Without asking your attention to the many other lines of 
inquiry concerning the resources and the productive power 
of the nation, I will close this brief statement with a few 
facts concerning the population. The aggregate population, 
as fixed by the new census, is 76,295,220, as against a trifle 
more than 63 million ten years ago. The gain is something 
over 13 millions, or 21 per cent. 

There are many interesting developments shown by the 
figures of the census as to the relative growth of States and 
of sections. Thus, New York State still remains much the 
largest in population, having gained the full 21 per cent of 
increase. All the States, with the exception of Nevada, 
show increases. That singular State, with large area, with 
resources for a population of a half million, shows a net 
decrease of 7^ per cent. There is food here for the political 
economist who desires to struggle with a real question in 
economics, which demands a real solution. 

Of the larger States, having a population of 1,000,000 and 
^ more, the State which makes the smallest gain is Nebraska, 
whose population increased just 9,991 in ten years, or at the 
rate of a little less than 1 per cent. It may be that there is 
also a story here not without interest and not without value, 
but this is scarcely the time to trace it out. It is significant 
that the adjoining State of Kansas, with approximately the 
same population, gained only 3 per cent, while its neighbor 
on the east, Iowa, gained 18 per cent. 

The largest percentages of gain were those of Idaho, 
Montana and North Dakota, which were respectively 92, 84, 
and 75 per cent, — a gain in large measure accounted for by 
the development of new territory. Of the larger States, 
having populations of 1,000,000 or more, Texas and Minne- 

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74 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

sola show the greatest gain, the former having increased her 
population 36.4 per cent, and the latter 34.5 per cent. One 
of these States is at the southern end of the great Mississippi 
Valley, the other at the northern end. They have wide 
differences as to climate, soil, population and politics. The 
result may tend to show that growth depends on many 
factors. 

The increase of population in the territories has been, as 
might have been expected, far more rapid than elsewhere. 
Arizona has increased 105 per cent; the Indian Territory, 
117 per cent ; while Oklahoma shows the enormous gain of 
544 per cent. She now has a population ten times that of 
Nevada, and is knocking vigorously at the doors of Congress 
for admission to the sisterhood of States. 

A glance over the various States of the Union will show a 
far wider range of percentages of growth among individual 
States than is to be found between different sections. In 
general, it may be said that New England, as a whole, has 
fallen behind the average growth in population. The same 
thing is true in a less degree of the southern States. The 
middle States have kept up about the average percentage of 
growth, while the western States have grown far faster than 
the average. Thus the average growth in population in New 
England has been 14.7 per cent. In the middle States, in- 
cluding New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
Maryland and the District of Columbia, the gain has been 
21 per cent. In the southern States, including the two 
Virginias, the two Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, Kentucky,, 
Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas and 
Arkansas, the gain has been 20.5 per cent. With regard to 
New England, it is to be noted that one group of States, 
Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont, the agricultural 
group, are far l>elow the average, their growth in population 
being only 5.8 per cent; while the other group, Massachu- 
setts, Rhode Island and Connecticut, the manufacturing 
group, are above the average, their average growth being 
23.7 per cent. Massachusetts leads all the New England 
States, with a percentage of 25.3. This short comparison 
serves to emphasize the fact that particular advantages for 
manufacture, for commerce or for agriculture, will largely 



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No. 4.] LESSONS FROM THE CENSUS. 75 

change the growth of different localities. A comparison of 
birth rate in these separate States will go far to show what 
has been the emigration from one State to another, and 
how largely this factor affects the growth which we have 
seen. 

A significant item from the new census, and one which 
calls to mind the stirring events of the last few years, is that 
which records the population of Hawaii. A bulletin of the 
census just issued gives the population of that new territory, 
as of June 1 last, 154,001. This shows a growth of 41 per 
cent since the census taken in 1896, and is th6 largest per- 
centage of growth indicated in any of the twelve censuses 
of the islands taken since 1832. There was, in fact, a steady 
decline in population between 1850 and 1870. During the 
forty-three years ending in 1896, the pure-blood natives had 
decreased from 71,000 to 39,500, and there is no reason to 
believe that this decline has been checked. The causes of it 
are the same as those which have decimated other islands of 
the Pacific. The native Hawaiians, as most aboriginal 
peoples, are very susceptible to contagious diseases. One- 
fourth of them died of measles in 1848, and they are great 
sufferers from leprosy, although this dreadful disease is now 
being held in check, and there is good prospect that it will be 
stamped out altogether. The largest cause, however, for the 
decrease in numbers is the growing frequency of marriage 
with foreigners, — Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese and Ameri- 
cans. The Hawaiians are destined to lose their identity as 
a distinct branch of the Polynesian people, and the increase 
in population which has been noted is due entirely to the 
influx of foreignera from Asia, America and Europe. The 
only city of the island of any size is Honolulu, which now 
has a population of 39,306 persons, and has nearly doubled 
in the last decade. To-day it is the metropolis of the central 
Pacific, the great way station at which converge the routes 
between Asia and Australia on the one hand, and America 
on the other. The government of Hawaii, as a Territory of 
the Union, is a problem in administration whose solution 
will be watched with great interest. The government insti- 
tuted there last March, in consequence of the passage of the 
territorial bill through the two branches of Congress, took 

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76 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

the place of one of the best examples of administrative repub- 
lican government in existence, and it will be a source of no • 
small degree of shame to us if the Hawaiians have cause to 
regret the change of events which brought them into the 
sovereignty of the United States. 

It is too soon to give the final results of the twelfth census 
relative to immigration, birth rate and other vital statistics 
concerning the population. From the annual reports, how- 
ever, of immigration, it is possible to know very closely the 
rate of immigration from year to year, and the sections of 
the country whither the streams of incoming foreigners flow. 
The graphical representation which I show you conveys in a 
moment's study what a large collection of figures would show 
less distinctly. It gives the result from year to year of im- 
migration into the United States since 1820, starting from 
about 38,000 at the first period, reaching a maximum in 1882 
of nearly 800,000, and showing a fairly regular diminution 
since. At the present time, again, immigration seems to be 
increasing, and during the present year will amount to some- 
thing over 420,000. The total immigration since 1820, by 
races, is shown on the chart next following. The Germans 
have furnished our greatest source of supply, over 5,000,000 
having entered the country since 1820. Next in order are 
the Irish, British, Scandinavians, Austro-IIungarians and 
Italians. Their respective immigration, however, can be seen 
better from the diagram itself than from any description. 

How great a change has taken place in the last thirty years 
in the character of this immigration will be evident from a 
study of the next diagram. It shows, in brief, that the per- 
centage of immigration from Great Britain, Ireland and 
Scandinavia has steadily diminished during the last fifteen 
years. The immigration of Russians has on the whole re- 
mained constant, while the Italians have been coming in 
vastly greater numbers, and now form a very large propor- 
tion of the total immigration ; and that, whereas fifteen years 
ago over 50 per cent of the total immigration came from 
Great Britain, Geimany and Scandinavia, to-day those coun- 
tries ftirnish only about 43 per cent of the total inmiigration. 
The distribution of this foreign population among the sepa- 
rate States is shown in the next diagram, in which the States 

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No. 4.] LESSONS FROM THE CENSUS. 77 

are arranged in the order of their proportion of native-bom 
white citizens. 

Another classification of interest, as showing the direc- 
tions in which the energy of this imported population goes, 
is shown by the next diagram, which gives a classification 
of wage earners as shown in 1890, both for native whites, 
for foreign born, and for negroes. 

The seven great States of the Union in point of popula- 
tion are, in order, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, 
Missouri, Texas and Massachusetts. In this group Ohio has, 
since the last census, been displaced by Illinois, and Massa- 
chusetts has had to give place to Texas. The great States 
have, on the whole, grown at about the average rate, their 
percentage of increase being 21.7. 

The general result of an examination of the census returns 
can but be favorable to American pride and American hope- 
fulness. The country is growing in strength and in wealth 
at an enormous rate. Every day shows an addition to the 
population of 4,000, increases the number of school children 
by 800, adds 29,000 acres to the cultivated farms, shows an 
increase of $1,000,000 in manufactures, and contributes 7J^ 
million dollars to the national wealth. These figures are 
striking, and the numberless small streams which go to make 
up this total in population, in wealth, in resources, come 
from many directions. A study of their sources and of their 
character may well form a part of the equipment of the 
student, as well as afibrd the basis of practical decisions to 
the manufacturer, the farmer and to all others engaged in 
practical affairs. 

As incomplete as this review of the work of the census 
has been, it cannot fail, I think, to call to your attention 
the fact that this great collection of material furnishes 
abundant food for thought for the serious man, whether he 
belongs to one of the professions, whether he is in agricult- 
ure or in manufactures, whether he is in a trade or a private 
business of his own, and whether he is native born or a son 
of the country by adoption. Furthermore, problems which 
are here suggested are not alone those which refer to material 
advancement, to the increase of wealth, to the development 
of agriculture, manufactures or the arts ; they have to do, 

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78 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

likewise, with the quality of our citizenship and the perpetu- 
ation of our institutions. The character of that great stream 
of immigration, of which I have just spoken, and its effect 
upon the industrial and social life of the nation, are of great 
concern alike to native born and to the immigrant himself. 
There has teen much foolish talk, by those who appeal to 
class prejudice, concerning the ** ignorant foreigner.'' Very 
little has been said, on the other hand, concerning the intel- 
ligent, the industrious, the patriotic foreigner. Very little 
acknowledgment has been made of the debt which this 
country owes to the men who have come from other shores, 
and who have brought here strength and energy and devo- 
tion to our institutions. No one can doubt that the stream 
of new blood which has been poured into our national life 
has contributed in no small measure to the strength of the 
American character. Nothing has been more wonderful in 
the growth of nations than the way in which this alien 
population has been absorbed and has become a part of the 
very life of the nation. And no study of American life and 
of American habits can be complete without reckoning with 
the influence upon it of those who have come from Great 
Britain, Germany, Scandinavia and all other countries of the 
world, to share with us the problems of developing a great 
continent. In determining this influence one must reckon 
not only with the inflow of foreign settlers, but also with 
the outflow. And such an examination shows that certain 
nations of Europe send us permanent settlers, while others 
send emigrants whose stay is but temporary, some who 
become citizens and some who do not. This quality and 
many others enter when one undertakes to determine the 
effect upon the country at large and upon its institutions by 
the inflow of emigrants from other nations. Whatever one 
may think of the effect which this or that nationality may 
impart, it must be evident that America has helped to solve 
not only her own problems but the problems of European 
nations as well. How far she may choose in the future to 
hold open to Europe an unrestricted entrance to her domain 
and to her citizenship is one of the problems to be seriously 
thought out. 

On our western coast the continent of North America 



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No. 4:] LESSONS FROM THE CENSUS. 79 

faces Asia, as oar Atlantic sea-board faces Europe ; and the 
problems of Asiatic life and of Asiatic institutions have been 
injected into the economic possibilities of the Pacific coast 
States. No one can doubt that in some way or other the 
Pacific coast is to share the problems of Asia, as our Atlantic 
coast has shared those of Europe. 

I was never more impressed with the possibilities of Amer- 
ican citizenship than while witnessing in San Francisco, in 
August, 1899, the reception given to the Californian troops 
returning from the Philippines. California and San Fran- 
cisco fairly outdid themselves in welcoming their returning 
sons. Every organization among the citizens was repre- 
sented in the column which welcomed the returning soldiers. 
The Society of the Native Sons of California — Native Sons 
of the Golden West, as they call themselves — turned out 
its thousands to swell the throng. Among these native sons 
was a regiment of Chinamen, American citizens, born in the 
United States, marching step to step with other citizens 
bom in California. They showed their full share of en- 
thusiasm, took their full part in welcoming those returning 
from the Asiatic campaign, and paid more than their share 
of the expense. Fifteen years before, such a demonstration 
would not have been permitted in the streets of San Fran- 
cisco; and the interest, enthusiasm and devotion of these 
Chinese citizens to American ideals and American institu- 
tions were fall of suggestions as to the possibilities of 
American citizenship and as to the final form of civilization 
which will become permanent on this continent. 

I mention this incident, not to suggest an unrestricted 
admission of Chinese into the United States, but to call 
attention to the fact that the problem of civilization in these 
United States of America is not to be wrought out without 
some regard to Europe and to Asia. No man lives to him- 
self, and still less does any nation, — least of all that in 
which we have the good fortune to live. There are those 
who, when they speak of all mankind, include only the 
inhabitants of their native city ; to others the term means the 
dwellers in a single Commonwealth; a still larger number 
have in mind, when they use this term, the inhabitants of the 
United States, and particularly the native bom. But the 

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80 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

man who believes in the ultimate greatness of his country, 
in the permanence of its institutions and the part which it 
is to take in the upbuilding of civilization, limits mankind 
to no race, to no country and to no climate. Such an one 
sees, in the far-reaching problems which stand before the 
American people, issues more important than those which 
concern a single nation or a single race. Out of the success- 
ful solution of these problems is to come that which, while 
conserving the interests of the United States, will take into 
account the interest of the world and the happiness of man- 
kind. Whatever the result of the statesmanship of the next 
hundred years, whatever laws may be enacted, whether they 
be wise or unwise, the government and the civilization which 
will persist will be neither that of New England, nor of the 
South, nor of the West, nor will it be European or Asiatic 
or African ; but it will be a combination of all these. Fort- 
unate will it be if the nation finds leaders suflSciently patri- 
otic and suflSciently far-seeing to deal with these questions 
from the highest stand-point. Already it is evident that 
higher considerations than those of mere material gain or 
even of national greatness are moving in the minds of 
thoughtful men. It is one of the evidences of that larger life 
into which as a nation we are coming. It helps us to realize 
that he spoke truly who said : — 

Through the ages one increasing pnrpose runs, 

And the thoughts of men are widened by the process of the suns. 



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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 81 

SECOND DAY. 

The meeting was called together at 10.30 a.m. by First 
Vice-President Sessions, who said : The lecture this morning 
is on "Fungous diseases.'* Those of you who are growing 
fruits and dealing with the finer parts of agriculture, such as 
market gardening, know very well that this subject is a very 
important one. As we have progressed and advanced in our 
work from year to year we have found these obstacles that 
have hindered our work and have been a serious detriment 
to our success. The lecturer has given years of study to 
this subject, and comes before us as well equipped as any 
man whom the Board of Agriculture could procure to speak 
on this subject. Dr. Wm. C. Sturgis, botanist, Connecticut 
Agricultural Experiment Station, will now address us. 



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82 BOAKD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



FUNGOUS DISEASES. 



BY DB. WM. C. 8TURQIS, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



The subject upon which I have been asked to address you 
is not a new one. For the past fifty years plant-diseases 
caused by the attacks of parasitic fungi have occupied, in an 
ever-increasing degree, the time and attention of scientists. 
The student of vegetable physiology can no longer confine 
himself to a study of the normal processes of assimilation, 
growth and reproduction, as exhibited in the world of the 
higher plants, for he finds that those functions are constantly 
being disturbed by external agencies, and that among such 
agencies are to be reckoned a host of lower plants which 
prey upon the higher, and by their attacks produce a pro- 
found disturbance of the normal activities. In other words, 
he is confronted with abnormal conditions, which, by analogy, 
he rightly calls disease. Thus there has arisen a compara- 
tively recent demand for specialists, — men of scientific 
training, thoroughly informed on the subject of the normal 
structure and life-processes of the higher plants, able to 
discern the smallest deviation from the normal course of 
plant-life, and sufliciently conversant with the many external 
agencies which may disturb that course, as to be enabled to 
diagnose the special case under consideration and to suggest 
a remedy. 

Such is the modem student of vegetable pathology. He 
is to the plant-world what the physician is to the animal- 
world ; and if, as is certainly the case at present, he succeeds 
in winning less regard for and support in his work, it 
is largely because the public, and particularly the farmers 
of the country, have but an inadequate conception of the 
vast amount of damage caused annually by plant-diseases, 
their extraordinary prevalence, and the incalculable benefits 
to agriculture which have, during the past quarter-century, 

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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES- 83 

marked the application of preventive measures suggested by 
the vegetable pathologist. Slowly, however, the latter is 
gaining recognition from practical men. He is no longer 
regarded as altogether an airy theorist, or, in the common 
parlance, a mere '* book-farmer;" and, on the other hand, 
he is gaining consideration as something more than a *< plant 
doctor" or ** bug man." Even the less intelligent and pro- 
gressive farmer is learning that, in order to grow a sound 
and healthy crop of fruit, some attention must be paid to the 
needs of the trees in the way of abundant nutriment, a healthy 
environment and constant tillage ; that, even if these con- 
ditions are fulfilled, he must guard against the attacks of 
insects which may ruin his fruit or otherwise curtail his 
profits ; and, finally, that he must take measures to prevent 
a host of ills formerly attributed to the weather, to *'hard 
luck," or the over-rulings of a hostile Providence, when, 
as a matter of fact, in nine cases out often, they are caused 
by parasitic fungi over which he may exercise a fair measure 
of control. The vegetable pathologist, then, has to deal 
with two main causes of plant-disease ; the one due to defec- 
tive methods of cultivation ; the other, to parasitic attacks 
on the part of either insects or fungi, or both. 

It is to the last-named topic, the fungous diseases of plants, 
that I desire to call your attention particularly. I am fully 
aware that to many of you this is a familiar topic. But, in- 
asmuch as it is to those to whom it is unfamiliar that I desire, 
if possible, to make my subject clear, I may perhaps be par- 
doned for considering somewhat at length the nature of those 
lowly organisms which we call fungi. 

At the outset let me say that a fungus is as truly a plant 
as is an elm tree. It is not an animal or an insect ; it is not 
the spontaneous product of wet weather. Like the higher 
plants, it absorbs nutriment, it grows under favorable condi- 
tions of warmth and moisture, it reproduces itself by bodies 
analogous to seeds or by vegetative portions analogous to cut- 
tings. But a fungus diflfers from a higher plant in several 
particulars. Usually it is very small, often of microscopic 
size ; its organization is less complex ; it has no true root, 
stem or leaves. Above all, it produces no true seeds and it 
possesses none of the green coloring matter distinctive of 

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84 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

most flowering plants. These points of difference are im- 
portant. The seed of a flowering plant consists essentially 
of a small embryo, usually surrounded by a mass of starchy 
matter, and enclosed in protective coats. It is a complex 
body. In fungi there are no flowers, and in place of seeds 
we find very minute spherical or elongated bodies, containing 
no embryo, and of very simple structure. They are known 
as spores. 

Most of the higher plants are provided with a green color- 
ing matter, contained in small spherical bodies within the 
cells, and known as chlorophyh By means of this chlorophyl 
the plant is enabled to transform such inorganic substances 
as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and the various 
chemical salts which it takes up from the air and water, into 
organic substances such as starch, gum, resin, sugar and the 
like. Fungi, possessing no chlorophyl, are unable to do 
this. Like animals, they must depend for their nutrition 
upon organic matter already prepared by living organisms. 
They may derive their nutriment from the substance of either 
living or dead plants or animals. In the former case they 
are called parasites^ in the latter saprophytes. It is to the 
faculty of growing as parasites that fungi owe their impor- 
tance as causes of disease. Growing upon the leaves of a 
living plant, they penetrate the tissues and absorb from them 
the organic matter which the plant has prepared for its own 
use and without which it cannot thrive. A diseased condi- 
tion of the part attacked, often ending in death, is the result. 

Yet, in comparison with the plant attacked, and known as 
the host^ the parasitic fungus is of insignificant size, often 
hardly visible to the naked eye. This smallness of size is 
by no means characteristic of all fungi ; they vary greatly in 
this respect. The fungus forming the bluish-green mold on 
damp bread, old shoes, etc., and those which, under the 
common names of '*scab," *' blight," **rust,'' ^^smut,** 
'< mildew," etc., infest and damage our crops, are so minute 
as to necessitate the use of a powerful microscope for their 
study. On the other hand, every one is familiar with the 
large fungi known as ' * toadstools," * ' mushrooms " and * ' puff- 
balls," which occur so abundantly in our woods and fields. 
These are sometimes very large, puff-balls having been found, 

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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 85 

a single one of which would fill a bushel-basket. Between 
these two extremes is a host of fungous forms, numbering 
over forty thousand species and presenting the most astonish- 
ing variety and beauty of form, though in microscopic pro- 
portions. All of these species, of whatever size or form, 
are characterized by the fact that they can live only upon 
organic matter, and that they are reproduced by means of 
minute bodies of simple structure, called spores. What the 
spores of fungi lack in size they make up in quantity. The 
number of spores contained within a small puff-ball, and 
issuing in the form of an impalpable dust, is almost incredi- 
ble. The same is true of the familiar fungus producing 
^'smuf on com; the top of a pen knife dipped into this 
black mass will come away loaded with over one million 
spores. 

With the aid of a good microscope we can see how a 
fungous spore germinates and to what it gives rise. If 
spores of the common bread-mold be placed under conditions 
suitable to their development, they each produce at one point 
on the surface a delicate transparent tube, which grows 
rapidly, branches profusely, and soon overruns and permeates 
the substance upon which the spores have been sown. Some- 
times, as in the case of the larger fungi, these minute tubes 
are produced so luxuriantly that they form white strands, 
visible to the naked eye. Such is the ** spawn'' familiar to 
growers of mushrooms. In the case of the parasitic fungi, 
however, these tubes are seldom visible, both by reason of 
their minute size and the fact that they are usually buried in 
the substance of the fruit, leaf or stem upon which the fun- 
gus is growing. 

Sooner or later, sometimes in the course of a few hours 
after the germination of the spore, these vegetative threads 
send up erect branches to the surface, and on the tips of these 
branches a fresh crop of spores is produced. These fall off 
readily, are swept up by currenta of air or water, or are 
carried by birds or insects to neighboring plants ; there they 
germinate, and the process is repeated so long as the condi- 
tions are favorable. Often as many as ten generations of 
spores may thus be produced in a single summer ; and when 
we consider the vast number of spores represented by each 

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86 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

generation, and the fact that theoretically each single spore 
is able to reproduce the fungus, as a seed does the plant to 
which it belongs, the wonder is, not that there are so many 
fungous diseases of plants, but that any plants escape the 
attacks of these minute but ubiquitous parasites. Nor would 
they, except for certain features characteristic of the fungi 
themselves. The first is the comparatively small number of 
strictly parasitic fungi and the partiality shown by most 
of these for a certain species or group of species of plants. 
This in itself is a mighty safeguard. Thus the fungus which 
causes the **8mut" of onions will not attack corn; the 
** downy mildew" of lima beans is limited absolutely, so far 
as I know, to that one plant ; the *' leaf-spot " of the straw- 
berry cannot be transferred even to so nearly related a plant 
as the blackberry. Similar instances might be cited almost 
indefinitely. So limited are the preferences of parasitic 
fungi that it is possible to arrange them in a fairly satisfac- 
tory artificial system, according to the host-plants which they 
severally affect. It is evident that in this fact is to be found 
one cause for the limited spread of fungous diseases. 

Another though far less important factor is the extreme 
delicacy of that particular form of reproductive bodies which 
I have spoken of as spores. Since they are borne freely 
exposed to the air and are produced only during the summer, 
they might more properly be called summer or atrial spores. 
Though borne in countless multitudes, characterized by such 
minuteness that the slightest breath of wind carries them 
hither and thither often over great distances, requiring but 
the thinnest film of water for their germination and growth, 
and therefore being able, under favorable conditions, to cause 
the rapid spread of disease, sometimes over a large area in 
the course of a few days, as in the case of the ** potato 
mildew," yet the delicacy of these summer spores is such that 
they cannot long withstand conditions adverse to their de- 
velopment. Some degree of moisture, however slight, is 
essential ; hence we find that the spread of fungous diseases 
is more rapid in damp, close or foggy weather than when the 
air is dry. Let the latter condition prevail, and the summer 
spores will perish unless protected. This result of course 
occurs more frequently where sunshine and air have free 



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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 87 

access than where they are shut off by the density of the 
foliage ; hence, as a rule, parasitic fungi attack more readily 
plants with a dense leafage or of a low, reclining habit than 
those of an erect habit and of thinner leafage. This fact is 
well attested by the comparative freedom from disease of 
tomato plants, tied upright to stakes and trained to a single 
stem, over the same plants permitted to grow as they please 
in dense masses close to the ground. Again, the summer 
spores have no means for successfully resisting low tempera- 
tures. Summer is pre-eminently their season, and, though 
they may occasionally resist the cold of the winter if covered 
over in leaf heaps or otherwise protected, as a general thing 
the first hard frosts mean their destruction. The burning of 
dead leaves, which might harbor them, has, therefore, more 
than an Aesthetic value. 

It is very evident, then, that there are several very salu- 
tary checks upon the universal prevalence of fungous dis- 
eases ; so much so, in fact, that we are led to wonder how it 
happens that any parasitic fungus requiring a host-plant in 
active life, and a fair degree of warmth and moisture, is ever 
able to resist the winter. Let us see how this is effected. 

I have heretofore spoken of the summer spores exclusively, 
and have perhaps given the impression that they constitute 
the sole means of fungous reproduction. This, however, is 
by no means the case. In many if not most of the common 
parasitic ftingi there are formed, by the intertwining and 
massing together of the vegetative threads, small globular 
receptacles, varying in size, but usually somewhat smaller 
than a pin head. The walls of the cells composing these re- 
ceptacles become hard and black, and within the latter, on 
the approach of cold weather, are formed numbers of little 
club-shaped sacs, each one containing a small number of 
spores. Sometimes these receptacles are completely closed, 
aiid they never have more than a minute opening at the top. 
They form a perfect means of protection from cold and drought 
for the spores borne within them, and thus the fungus is en- 
abled to pass successfully through the winter. During that 
period the leaves, fruit or twigs upon which this form of the 
fungus is borne, gradually decay, and with the advent of the 
warm spring rains the contents of the receptacles absorb water 

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88 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc, 

and swell up, thus forcing the spores out through the open- 
ing in the top. Carried by the wind or other agencies to the 
young foliage of the budding trees, they germinate, force 
their way into the succulent tissues, and finally produce the 
first crop of summer spores upon the leaves or twigs. 
Familiar examples of such winter spores are seen in the 
strawberry blight, the powdery mildews, and the black-rot 
of grapes. 

Again, some fungi produce, late in the season and gener- 
ally within and therefore protected by the tissues of the 
plant, peculiar roundish bodies, called resting spores^ from 
the fact that, unlike the summer spores, they require a 
period of rest, after they have reached maturity, before they 
will germinate. These resting spores may be formed either 
from a small portion of one of the vegetative threads, which 
swells slightly and takes on a hard, thick wall, or, as in the 
case of the downy mildews, from a special form of fruiting 
branch, the tip of which swells up into a globular vesicle, 
containing a single large spore with a very dense wall, buried 
in the tissues of the host-plant. As contrasted with the 
minute and short-lived summer spores, the winter and rest- 
ing spores are large and few in number, but their thick walls 
and protective surroundings enable them to resist extremes 
of cold and drought fatal to the other forms, and they thus 
serve in many cases to carry the fungi over the winter. 
With the approach of warm weather they start into growth 
again, and either directly or indirectly give rise to a crop of 
summer spores. 

Some fungi, however, possess neither of these forms of 
resistant spores, and other methods are resorted to, to main- 
tain vitality. The vegetative threads of some fungi when 
placed under conditions unfavorable to growth, become 
twisted into dense knots of a solid consistency and with a 
hard, black exterior. These knots are known as scleroiia^ 
and are sometimes as large as a kernel of corn. Familiar 
examples of sclerotia are seen in the ** ergot'* of rye and 
in the rot of lettuce grown under glass. They are extremely 
resistant, and maintain their vitality sometimes for years. 

In the case of other fungi the vegetative threads are per- 
ennial in the tissues of the plant afiected, and in such cases 

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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES- 89 

often produce peculiar swellings or distortions, within which 
the threads remain concealed and protected during the winter, 
ready to spring into pernicious activity as soon as conditions 
are favorable to growth. Such perennial vegetative threads 
are found in the swellings on the twigs of plum and cherry 
trees, known as '* black-knot," and in the mummified fruits 
of the peach affected with fruit mold. 

To recapitulate, fungi are minute plants, which, owing to 
a lack of chlorophyl, are obliged to depend upon organic 
food-material of vegetable or animal origin. They may 
derive their nutriment from the living tissues of the higher 
plants, in which case they are called parasites. Their vege- 
tative portion consists of delicate tubes, which, in the case 
of the parasitic fungi, traverse the living tissues of the host- 
plant, and by absorbing the contents of the latter, produce 
symptoms of disease. During the summer they are propa- 
gated by means of multitudes of very small, delicate spores, 
borne on atrial threads. They maintain their vitality during 
the winter by means of spores similar to the summer spores, 
but enclosed in dense receptacles ; by larger, thick-walled 
winter spores; or by the vegetative threads themselves, 
which either exist perennially within the tissues of the host- 
plant or else form small, solid knots, with thick external walls. 
From any of these forms the summer spores may be repro- 
duced with the return of warm weather. 

I have dealt thus fully with the ' nature of parasitic fungi, 
because an understanding of this matter is at the foundation 
of all methods of preventive treatment of fungous diseases. 
One further point, however, is deserving of note in this 
connection. It is, of course, the vegetative portion of a 
fungus which does the damage to the plant, and this damage 
is wrought in a variety of ways, largely dependent upon the 
location of the threads within the portion of the plant 
attacked and their effect upon the tissues. They may be 
deeply buried, and produce the decay or complete destruc- 
tion of the tissues, as in the **rot" of potatoes and the 
*• smut" of cereals and onions ; or they may infest only the 
surface tissues, and, without destroying them or causing 
decay, prevent their full development, as is seen in the scab 
of apples and in most so-called ^Meaf-spot" diseases; or, 

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90 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

finally, they may be wholly external, producing no change 
whatever in the tissues, but causing a diseased condition of 
the whole leaf attacked, by cutting off the free supply of air 
and by absorbing the juices from the external tissues. 

All these facts must be studied before we are prepared to 
recommend any definite line of treatment. Having, how- 
ever, ascertained the cause of a certain disease to be a specific 
parasitic fungus, and having observed the location of the 
parasite, its course of development and its methods of repro- 
duction, we can with a fair degree of assurance take measures 
to prevent it. I purposely use the word <* prevent" rather 
than *'cure," for, while we can prevent the inception or the 
recurrence of a disease with a fair degree of certainty, it is 
abnost impossible to cure it, after the fungus has become 
established within the tissues, by any means short of the 
destiniction of the parts affected. 

There are two definite lines of treatment of fungous dis- 
eases : the one hygienic, aiming to eradicate disease by the 
alteration of external conditions conducive to its spread ; the 
other consisting in the application, to the parts endangered, 
of some substance inimical to fungous growth. 

Enough has been said regarding the nature and life history 
of fungi to show you that if we can destroy both the spores 
and the vegetative threads of a fungus, while those organs 
are either dormant or have not yet reached maturity, we shall 
get at the root of the whole matter. Here a little common- 
sense is of great assistance. Fruit rots and falls prematurely, 
usually because it has been attacked by a parasitic fungus ; 
the same agency causes leaves to blight and fall from the trees. 
Such fruit and leaves are allowed to remain where they fall, 
because they are of no use. But the fungus within their tissues 
remains protected during the winter, develops slowly, and, 
with the approach of warm weather, produces its spores in vast 
numbers, each spore able to reproduce the fungus upon the 
budding leaves and young fruit of the tree immediately above 
it, if a slight breeze should cause it to lodge there. No pre- 
ventive treatment of any nature in spring or summer will 
protect completely fruit and leaves so wantonly exposed to 
disease. If the rotten fruit be not allowed to remain where 
it fistlls, it is usually fed to the pigs. The spores of the 

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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 91 

fungud pass uninjured through the alimentary canal of the 
animals, are carried with the manure to the compost heap, 
and thence are spread broadcast over our fields and orchards ; 
and then we wonder that our summer treatment of the trees 
with fungicides is of so little avail. The only reasonable 
method to pursue is to gather carefully at the time of harvest, 
and at once burn, all diseased fruit and leaves. 

But, as you know, ftmgi are not reproduced entirely by 
their spores. In a great many cases the vegetative portion 
exists perennially in the twigs and branches attacked, as well 
as in the discarded fruit, and is capable of propagating the 
fungus upon the return of favorable conditions. In the 
former case the unsparing use of the pruning knife is the only 
reasonable cure. Familiar examples of such are the ** black- 
knot" of plum and cherry trees, in which case it is only 
necessary to watch the growth of one of the '* knots" from 
year to year to convince yourselves that it renews itself 
annually from within the tissues of the branch ; the dreaded 
*' anthracnose" of raspberries, grape vines, etc. ; also all of 
our more common *< rust" fungi. Only by cutting out and 
burning all diseased tissue can such diseases be eradicated. 
The destruction of wild plants which harbor dangerous para- 
sites is another point of hygienic importance. Thus we can 
best protect our cherries from '* black-knot" by destroying 
neighboring wild cherry trees infected with the disease, while 
the ** rust" of apple leaves may be completely eradicated by 
the destruction of adjacent red cedars, which harbor, in a 
peculiar form, the winter stage of the fungus. 

Furthermore, most fungi require a considerable degree of 
moisture for their most rapid development. An unusually 
warm, damp season is accompanied by great fungous activity, 
and plants containing much water are peculiarly liable to 
fungous attack. This is perhaps more noticeable, and at the 
same time more readily controlled, in the greenhouse than 
in the field. In such cases thorough drainage, and the train- 
ing of the plants so as to secure free ventilation and the 
access of air and sunlight, will do more to prevent diseased 
conditions than any fungicide. 

I would also call your attention, in this connection, to the 
advisability of producing and selecting varieties of fruita. 

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92 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

etc., which are resistant to disease, I am convinced that in 
recent years we have limited ourselves too exclusively to the 
selection of varieties along the line of fruitage. The result 
has been a serious impairment of the constitutional vigor and 
the resistant qualities of the stock. To my mind, this is one 
explanation of the surprising increase of fungous diseases 
during the past few years. 

Finally, the judicious use of chemical fertilizers has an 
appreciable effect upon the prevalence of fungous diseases, 
both directly and indirectly. It is a well-known fact that 
the fungus causing the *' scab " of potatoes is able to live and 
thrive in the manure heap. Scabby potatoes fed to stock 
account for its presence there, whence it is carried directly 
to the seed potatoes. The use of chemical fertilizers evi- 
dently offers a means of preventing infection from this source. 
Moreover, the tendency of highly nitrogenous fertilizers is 
to produce a soft, succulent, ill-ripencd growth, which suc- 
cumbs readily to the attacks of fungi. It is evidently advis- 
able to balance this tendency by the use of fertilizers rich in 
potash and phosphoric acid, whereby firm, resistant tissues 
are secured. 

I believe that these hygienic and cultural methods of deal- 
ing with fungous diseases are deserving of far more attention 
than they usually receive on the part of men who are farm- 
ing for profit, and that in many instances practical immunity 
can be secured by them without the labor and expense of 
spraying. I should, however, belie my own experience were 
I to detract from the value of fungicides intelligently used. 
The case is much the same as with human beings. Ordinarily 
a person can maintain a condition of sound health so long as 
he obeys a few definite principles of hygiene, and keeps his 
surroundings in a clean and sanitary condition. Neverthe- 
less, occasions will arise, owing perhaps to some constitu- 
tional weakness or to the sporadic appearance of a specific 
diiaease, when recourse must be had to medical treatment. 
So it is in the case of vegetable pathology, and nowadays 
facilities for spraying with fungicides have become an essen- 
tial feature of farm and orchard practice. 

For convenience, we may divide fungicides into three 
classes, — liquids, powders and vapors. Of these, the first 

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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 93 

and second alone are adapted to field work, while the third is 
invaluable in the greenhouse or any enclosed space. Let us 
consider first the liquids. 

The salts of copper exercise, when applied in sufficient 
quantity, a most harmful eflfect upon all vegetation, the 
cheapest and most convenient form being the sulphate, com- 
monly known as <* blue vitriol." The delicate nature of 
fimgi renders them peculiarly susceptible to the action of 
this chemical, recent laboratory experiments which I have 
been conducting showing that comparatively resistant fun- 
gous spores failed completely to germinate in water contain- 
ing only .03 of one per cent of copper sulphate. K, there- 
fore, a solution containing one pound of copper sulphate to 
twenty-five gallons of water be sprayed upon fungi or their 
spores, many of the latter will be killed. We act upon this 
principle in our preliminary or winter spraying. In March 
or early April, before the buds have begun to swell, we give 
the trees and the subjacent ground a thorough spraying with 
a simple solution of copper sulphate made in the proportions 
just mentioned. The spores which have developed in the 
refuse lying on the ground, or which have lodged in the 
cracks and crevices of the bark, are thus largely destroyed. 
We start with our orchard or garden comparatively free from 
the germs of disease, and have only to persuade our neigh- 
bors to exercise the same sensible precaution. Unfortu- 
nately, despite all our eflbrts, fungi will appear later to some 
degree. If, when the trees are in full leaf, we should treat 
them with the strong solution of copper sulphate, we should 
indeed prevent fungous attack, but only by destroying the 
foliage. It is therefore necessary, at this stage, to use some 
other salt of copper, preferably an insoluble one. Fort- 
unately, it is a simple matter to transform copper sulphate 
in solution into the insoluble hydrate of copper, by merely 
adding to it a whitewash made of ordinary stone lime. If 
enough of this is added, all of the sulphate is changed to the 
hydrate, which remains suspended in the liquid. This is 
the famous Bordeaux mixture, the most generally useful of 
all known fungicides. The simplest method of preparation 
is as follows : Dissolve five pounds of granulated copper 
sulphate in twenty-five gallons of water. Slake five pounds 

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94 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

of good stone lime in a little water, and when thoroughly 
slaked add enough water to make twenty-five gallons. When 
cool, pour the two solutions together rapidly into a fifty- 
gallon cask, and stir thoroughly. The turbid, sky-blue 
mixture which results should be used within twelve hours 
after it is prepared. 

Another excellent ftingicide, especially valuable in cases 
where the unsightly spotting caused by the use of Bordeaux 
mixture is to be avoided, is the ammonia solution of copper 
carbonate. This is prepared by adding to eight parts of 
water one part of strong ammonia, and suspending in this a 
quantity of copper carbonate. Within a few hours the 
ammonia water will have dissolved all that it can of the car- 
bonate, and it will be of a deep-blue color. Unlike the 
Bordeaux mixture, this is a perfectly clear solution, and will 
not clog the finest nozzle. It must be diluted before use 
with twenty times its volume of water. 

One more liquid fungicide is deserving of mention, — a 
solution of one pound of potassium sulphide in forty-five 
gallons of water. This is a cheap fungicide, and in some 
cases moderately effective. The Bordeaux mixture, how- 
ever, presents certain advantages over any other fungicide. 
The excess of lime which it contains renders it very adhesive, 
so that a heavy rain is necessary to wash it off from the foli- 
age, and usually three treatments only are required during 
the season. Furthermore, the presence of lime allows of 
the addition of arsenical insecticides, such as Paris green or 
London purple ; the arsenite retains its insoluble form, and 
no burning of the leaves results, while its action as an 
insecticide is unimpaired, and we have a cheap and effective 
combined fungicide and insecticide. This is not true of any 
solution containing ammonia. If the arsenite be added to 
such a solution, it is rendered soluble by the ammonia, and 
extensive damage to the leaves is sure to result from its 
application. 

Lastly, the Bordeaux mixture presents one very peculiar 
property. It has been repeatedly proved that, if the mixture 
be applied to potatoes, for example, the latter experience a 
benefit over and above that caused by the prevention of the 
" mildew'* or "rot." Even when no disease is present, the 



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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 95 

vigor of sprayed vines is greater than that of adjacent vines 
which have received no treatment, all the other conditions 
being the same for both. Whether this distinctly beneficial 
action of the Bordeaux mixture is due to a decrease in the 
rate of transpiration of water from the leaves, caused by the 
presence of the copper salt, or whether the land plaster, into 
which the lime of the mixture is in a great measure changed, 
acts as a fertilizer, is a question which has not yet been 
settled ; but the fact remains as not the least of the advantages 
obtained by the use of Bordeaux mixture as a fungicide. 

This concludes the list of most generally useful liquid 
fungicides. But one or two adapted to special purposes 
should be mentioned. One of these consists of eight ounces 
of formalin added to fifteen gallons of water, and is used as 
a wash for seed potatoes, to disinfect them from the germs 
of the scab fungus. Formalin is a powerful antiseptic, and 
it bids fair to supersede the solution of corrosive sublimate 
formerly recommended for the treatment of potatoes, as it is 
equally efiective, and does not possess the extremely poison- 
ous character of the sublimate. 

Wherever cereals are raised in large quantities, the so- 
called Jensen hot-water treatment is becoming increasingly 
popular. It consists in immersing the seed-grain for five to 
ten minutes in water heated to 135^ F. By this means the 
smut of wheat, oats and barley may be practically prevented. 
The pecuniary advantage derived from this simple process by 
the large grain-growers of the West during the past decade is 
incalculable. In Idaho alone, in 1893, one-fifth of the oat 
crop, valued at $120,000, was destroyed by smut. Later 
experience showed that fully 90 per cent of this loss might 
have been prevented by the simple expedient of subjecting 
the seed-oats to the action of hot water for a few minutes 
before sowing. 

Among the many fungicides which are used as powders or 
vapors, sulphur, or mixtures the basis of which is sulphur, 
easily head the list. Even for out-door work, powdered 
sulphur is often an invaluable fungicide, as, for example, in 
treating the leaf-blight of celery, when no other fungicide 
seems to be quite as efiective. Experience has taught us to 
apply the sulphur to the plants on a dry day, in full sunshine, 



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96 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

though it is difficult to say why the treatment is more effec- 
tive under these conditions. 

In greenhouse work sulphur yapor has long been an 
accepted fungicide. Mixed to a paint with oil, and applied 
to the heating pipes, it exercises a mild but constant pre- 
ventive action upon fungous growth. If the latter is sudden 
and persistent, sulphur, or a mixture of linseed oil and 
sulphur, allowed to boil, without taking fire, in shallow iron 
dishes for five or ten minutes, will speedily rid the plants 
of all forms of ** mildew." In the case of the '< rusts," par- 
ticularly of carnations, and of the various leaf diseases to 
which violets are so frequently subject, the bleaching action 
of sulphur renders its use inadvisable, nor in such cases does 
it seem to have much effect. The destruction of the parts 
affected, thorough drainage, and the use of some liquid fungi- 
cide, will give decidedly better results. 

Now a word as to the means of applying fungicides. For 
the application of fine, dry powders, nothing is better than 
the ** powder gun," or some similar device for blowing the 
powder upon the plants. Sulphur, however, easily clogs 
such an apparatus, and is best applied by hand. In the case 
of liquids, it is almost needless to say that the old-fashioned 
methods of the watering-pot, rose nozzle, or whisk broom 
are inadequate. In order to insure the highest degree of 
efficiency, together with the least expenditure of labor, time 
and money, some form of apparatus must be used which will 
deliver a fine, mist-like spray, capable of just moistening, 
without drenching, every part of the plant to be treated, and 
which will develop sufficient force to carry the spray to a 
distance of at least ten feet from the nozzle. These two 
objects are attained by the use of some special form of nozzle 
which will break up the stream, and by the use of a force 
pump mounted in various ways according to the special work 
which it is required to do. 

Among the many patterns of spraying nozzles now on the 
market, perhaps the most generally useful is the Vermorel, 
which delivers a copious, mist-like spray of a conical form, 
with a wide spread and good carrying power. Attached to 
a long hose carried on a pole, or better still, attached to the 
end of a long, hollow bamboo rod connected with the hose, 

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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 97 

it is an easy matter with this nozzle to deliver the spray 
into the tops of the highest orchard-trees. For such work 
the double Yermorel nozzle, so adjusted that the adjacent 
sides of the two conical sprays will be parallel, is the best 
device with which I am acquainted. The single nozzle sells 
for $0.50; the double, for $1. An eight-foot, brass-lined 
bamboo pole to carry the nozzle can be bought for $2. 

In order to maintain a constant stream and to deliver it 
with sufficient power, a force pump is essential. These are 
now made in many patterns by almost all manufacturers of 
pumps. In my own work I have found that, when spraying 
is to be done on a small scale, as in the greenhouse, a vine- 
yard or potato field of an acre or less, and in gardens, some 
form of knapsack sprayer, to be carried on the back and 
shoulders, is serviceable. It consists of a copper tank 
holding four or five gallons, and fitted with a small force 
pump worked by a handle, which hangs over the shoulder 
of the operator. The catalogue price of such an outfit, 
with hose and nozzle complete, is about $12. A still 
simpler and cheaper device, which I have used even in 
orchard work on a limited scale, consists of a small pump, 
costing $7, which is made to clamp firmly to the side of the 
pail. By making use of a forty-pound candy pail, I have 
found such an outfit fully as convenient as the knapsack 
sprayer. For work on a larger scale, as in orchards, exten- 
sive vineyards or potato-fields of two acres and upwards, a 
large receptacle and force pump are essential. In its usual 
form such an outfit consists of a fifty-gallon cask (a kero- 
sene barrel, for example), mounted on a low wagon and 
fitted with a force pump of considerable power, made for the 
purpose. Such a pump is usually provided with a double 
outlet and two lines of hose, so that two rows of trees can 
be sprayed simultaneously. The essential points to l>e noted 
in a spraying pump are: (1) a good-sized air chamber, 
sufficient to maintain a steady spray for at least a minute, 
without pumping; (2) all the working parts to be made of 
brass, as Bordeaux mixture corrodes iron ; (3) the valves to 
be of brass ; (4) a low head, so that the outfit may be driven 
underneath fairly low-hanging branches; (5) an automatic 
agitator, to keep the mixture thoroughly stirred. Pumps 



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98 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

embodying these features can be bought for $10, and $2 or 
$3 extra will purchase the necessary hose, nozzles and bamboo 
extensions. 

Within the past few years a number of expensive mechan- 
ical spraying outfits have made their appearance on the 
market ; but they do no better work than the simpler ones 
just described, and are not as well adapted to general farm 
and orchard use. 

A special adaptation of the barrel pump for spraying 
potatoes was devised a few years ago by one of our Con- 
necticut farmers, and has proved extremely satisfactory. 
The pump is mounted in a barrel on a cart, as usual, but, 
instead of being provided with two outlets, it has but one, 
which connects with a half-inch hose. This projects over 
the tailboard of the cart, and carries the mixture to a piece 
of gas pipe nine feet long, fitted with Vermorel nozzles three 
feet apart. The pipe is carried, at right angles to the wagon, 
by a man walking behind, or it may be fastened to the rear 
of the wagon itself. By means of this device four rows are 
sprayed simultaneously, and two men can easily spray ten 
acres of potatoes in a day. 

But, after all, does it pay? This is the only practical 
question in the whole matter. We may take for granted 
that fungicides are effective in preventing fungous diseases ; 
but will the quality of our apples, potatoes, etc., be enough 
improved by spraying to make of that operation anything 
more than a harmless fad for rich men and a means of em- 
ployment for scientific theorists ? These are days of high 
wages, keen competition and low profits. Can the average 
fisirmer, with, say, fifty apple and other fruit trees, an acre 
of vines, two or three acres of small fruits and the same of 
potatoes, spend money on a spraying outfit, with any hope 
of finding himself richer rather than poorer at the close of 
the season? To this question I should reply emphatically in 
the negative, if that farmer thinks that he can starve his 
trees, leave his land untitled and disregard every rule of 
orchard sanitation, and then expect a little Bordeaux mixture, 
carelessly prepared and applied at hap-hazard, to make good 
all his omissions and give him a sound and abundant crop. 
But, given an orchard which receives intelligent and proper 
care in the way of culture, spraying becomes a most valuable 

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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 99 

adjunct in increasing profits. The two must go hand in 
hand, if the best results are to be attained. The up-to-date 
farmer cannot afford to take any chances. 

Let us look at a few figures representing the results of the 
practical use of fungicides. A few years ago a circular letter 
was sent out to the vineyardists of New York, asking for 
information regarding the prevalence of black rot and the 
value of spraying. Eeplies were received from 250 growers 
of grapes. They reported a yield of perfect fruit amounting 
to 37,000 pounds, valued at $13,000, as the net profit in one 
season from the use of Bordeaux mixture. The average cost 
per vine, for four treatments, was stated to be three cents. 
One grower reported that, of two acres of vines, one sprayed 
six times and the other not sprayed, the former gave a yield 
of 1,750 pounds, valued at $52.50; the unsprayed acre 
yielded 500 pounds, valued at $15. The total expense of 
spraying one acre six times, exclusive of the initial cost of the 
outfit, was $7.25, leaving a net profit of $30.15 per acre as 
the result of spraying. 

The Vermont Experiment Station has for some years con- 
ducted experiments in spraying potatoes on a commercial 
scale, with great though not unusual success. Their results 
are of special value, from the fact that the work was very 
carefully done, every item of expense was noted, and the 
profits were figured out by comparing the yields from two 
large areas identical in every respect, except that one was 
sprayed and the other was not. One acre, sprayed three 
times with strong Bordeaux mixture, yielded 223 bushels of 
sound potatoes ; an adjacent acre, not sprayed, yielded 110 
bushels; gain in favor of the sprayed acre, 113 bushels, or 
103 per cent. At 80 cents per bushel, the gross profit per 
acre amounted to $90.40. The cost of spraying one acre 
three times was $4.35, divided as follows : — 

Thirty-six pounds of copper sulphate, at 5 cents, . . . . $1 80 

One barrel of lime, 1 65 

Labor, two men at $1.50 per day, 90 

Total, $4 86 



On this basis the net gain from spraying amounts to $86.05 

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per acre, exclusive of the cost of the outfit. 

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100 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

It costs proportionately less to spray ten acres than one 
acre, owing to the fact that it pays to buy lime by the barrel, 
and one barrel will serve for much more than ten acres. 
Taking the Vermont results from one acre as a basis, the 
gross profit on ten acres, at 70 cents per bushel, would be 
$791. The cost of spraying, including the necessary outfit, 
would be about $44, leaving a net profit of $747. 

A year or two ago I compiled, from various authentic 
sources, the possible profits from the spraying of an apple 
orchard. The orchard was supposed to contain 200 trees, 
of which 190 were sprayed and the remainder left untreated, 
as a check. From the results of actual experiments the yield 
of fruit from the ten unsprayed trees was calculated as 
follows : — 

First quality, 20 bushels, at $2.25 per barrel, 
Second quality, 22 bushels, at $1.75 per barrel, . 
Third quality, 24 bushels, at $0.10 per barrel, . 



Total, 



Ten of the sprayed trees gave the following yield 

First quality, 110 bushels, at $2 25 per barrel, . 
Second quality, 20 bushels, at $1.75 per barrel, . 
Third quality, 5 bushels, at $0.10 per barrel, 



Total, 




$32 10 



$79 80 
12 60 

20 

$92 60 



On this basis the value of the crop from 190 sprayed trees 
would be $1,759.40 ; from a like number of unsprayed trees, 
$609.90; leaving a balance of $1,149.50 in favor of the 
sprayed trees. 

Now as to the cost. I allowed in this case for the cost of 
the outfit ; for the cleaning up of the orchard in the spring ; 
for one winter treatment with the simple solution of copper 
sulphate, one pound to twenty-five gallons of water ; for one 
early spraying with strong Bordeaux mixture, containing 
five pounds each of copper sulphate and lime to fifty gallons 
of water; for three subsequent treatments with the same 
mixture, to which Paris green was added at the rate of one- 
half pound to each barrel ; and, finally, for one late treat- 
ment with half-strength Bordeaux. The items are as follows 
for 190 trees : — 

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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 101 

Outfit, complete, $16 40 

Labor in cleaning up orchard, one man for two days, . . 3 00 

One winter treatment (copper sulphate), 5 60 

One early treatment (strong Bordeaux), 9 29 

Three summer treatments ($10.47, $12.48, $14.99) (strong Bor- 
deaux and Paris green), 37 94 

One late treatment (half-strength Bordeaux), . . . 9 75 

Total cost, 190 trees, $81 88 

Cost per tree, including outfit, $0 43 

Cost per tree, not including outfit, 35 

Subtracting this total cost from the gross profits leaves a 
net profit from 190 sprayed trees of $1,067.62, or $5.61 per 
tree, over those not sprayed. It is furthermore interesting 
to note the individual differences between sprayed and un- 
sprayed fruit. According to observations made at the Cor- 
nell Experiment Station, one bushel of King apples from a 
sprayed tree contained 202 apples, averaging 4 ounces in 
weight. A bushel from an unsprayed tree of the same 
variety contained 317 apples, averaging 2^ ounces in weight. 
The sprayed fruit, then, shows a very marked increase in 
size and weight over the unsprayed, owing to the healthy 
foliage of the sprayed tree. 

As to the keeping quality of sprayed apples, — a most 
important factor, — an experiment of my own is striking. 
Three years ago, I stored two barrels of the same variety 
of carefully selected apples, one from a sprayed tree, the 
other from one not sprayed, in a cool, dry cellar. On 
November 1 the unsprayed apples showed signs of shrivel- 
ling and decay, while the sprayed fruit was as firm and 
plump as at first. By January 1 the unsprayed apples were 
completely ruined ; the others were still sound, and remained 
so until February. 

If it be true that ** figures cannot lie," those which I have 
given present strong testimony in favor of spraying. I do 
not, however, wish to give the impression that such large 
profits will accrue every year, or even in the long run. An 
exceptionally fisivorable location, a high state of cultivation, 
judicious pruning, the selection of resistant varieties, — 
these and other factors all unite to diminish the profits 

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102 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

directly attributable to spraying. Different seasons, also, 
show great variation in the prevalence of fungous diseases, 
a dry season reducing them to a minimum. I can readily 
imagine circumstances under which the profits accruing from 
spraying in a single year would hardly cover the expense ; 
but there is no question whatever that the man who sprays 
his fruit-trees or his potatoes thoroughly, persistently and 
intelligently, will, other things being equal, realize profits 
far in excess of the man who neglects spraying, or practises 
it spasmodically and without any intelligent plan. 

The truth of this statement is not always apparent, simply 
because the average farmer neglects what seems to an out- 
sider a feature of primary importance in farm economics. 
In every other successful line of business, except farming, 
the operator knows what he is about. He knows what re- 
turns he is getting on every branch of his investment, and 
once a year at least he prepares a balance sheet of receipts 
and expenditures. The farmer usually does nothing of the 
kind. A supposed improvement in methods is adopted 
by him, if adopted at all, on hearsay. He does not, and 
the chances are he never will, know whether that practice 
really nets him a profit or not. It appears, when adopted, 
to be an advantage, but he may be deceived by appearances. 
He may go on for years actually losing money, when all the 
while he is congratulating himself on the supposed fact that 
he is thoroughly **up to date," and therefore necessarily 
prosperous. As a matter of fact, no practice is of certain 
value unless approved in every instance by the balance 
sheet. 

I have told you, for example, that it pays to spray pota- 
toes; now, the last thing you should do is to believe my 
word without further proof. You know nothing of me per- 
sonally. I may be mistaken in this matter, or, for anything 
you know to the contrary, I may be in the pay of some pump- 
manufacturer. Or it may be that results obtained in Ver- 
mont cannot be duplicated in Massachusetts. What, then, 
are you to do? The only proper proceeding is, in case you 
have any confidence in my statements and in the experience 
of others, to test the matter for yourselves, and to test it 
intelligently. Buy or borrow a pump, and spray your 

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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 103 

potatoes, — not all of them, of course, for in that case you 
will know no more regarding the eflScacy of spraying at 
the close of the season than at its beginning. You must 
have a basis of comparison, and that basis must be a portion 
of your own field which you leave unsprayed. Make the 
test a thorough one, even if it costs a little more to do so ; 
note carefully every item of expense connected with the ex- 
periment ; compare the product ; note the exact compara- 
tive yield ; keep a record of the cash received for every peck 
of potatoes from that field. To the keeping of such an ac- 
count spraying lends itself more easily and accurately than 
any other farm operation ; and within three months after the 
close of the season you will know to a dollar the net result 
of spraying potatoes on your land and in that particular sea- 
son ; and you will have learned in one year more than any 
human being could teach you in ten. 

With this advice I must close, only urging you, in conclu- 
sion, to bear in mind the main features of what I have told 
you regarding the fungous diseases of plants t that they are 
not mysterious agents of destruction, with no attributable 
origin, but are plants of definite and known habits, which 
prey upon their higher relatives; that, like weeds, they 
propagate and spread if not destroyed ; that by cleanliness 
and care the damage which they do can be lessened ; and, 
finally, that by the intelligent use of fungicides they can in 
many cases be practically controlled, to the great advantage 
of the farmers' pocket-book. Accept with hesitation the 
suggestions of others, but, if they commend themselves to 
your own judgment, test them for yourselves, and spare no 
pains to make the test a conclusive one from a business 
stand-point. 

Mr. B. P. Ware (of Marblehead). We have had one 
of the most instructive and practical lectures on this sub- 
ject that I have ever listened to. I would like to draw 
attention to the wonderful intelligence that appears from 
that little black spot, the onion smut. I have unfortunately 
had a good deal of experience with onion smut, and can 
testify that these spores will remain year after year in the 
soil, and when onions are grown again they will appear. 



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104 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Now, it seems to me that that little black spot, that will lie 
in the ground year after year, let any crop of other vege- 
tables be grown, manifests very much intelligence, and 
knows that that year the farmer has planted onions where 
before he has planted turnips and potatoes and carrots. 
This black smut has taken no notice of the other crops, but 
all at once it appears, and the question arises, whence that 
intelligence. 

Dr. Sturgis. I should hardly call it a matter of intelli- 
gence. It merely grows where it can. As the little seed- 
ling onion bursts out from the seed and begins to push up 
through the soil, the spores come in contact with it and 
germinate, simply because it is the soil it needs for germina- 
tion. The very contact with the onion tip is sufficient to 
stimulate that onion smut spore into growth. It is not 
intelligence, it is a matter of environment. It is bringing 
together two organisms that can grow together. 

There is one way of getting around the onion smut spore. 
It will only attack the onion seedling tip. Get the tip of 
the onion above ground and it will grow in a bed of spores. 
It is only through the delicate tip of the seedling that the 
onion smut gets into the plant at all. If you can start the 
seedlings in a greenhouse and transplant them to the field, 
you will never see a sign of the smut. I have experimented, 
as a means of demonstration to the onion growers of Con- 
necticut, on the comparative results of planting onions by 
seeds and seedlings. With transplanting you get rid of 
thinning, the first weeding^ and the smut, and, instead of 
having them of a small si^e and crowded in the rows, you get 
big onions and get them three weeks earlier. The Connecti- 
cut farmers laughed at me when I said they could get onions 
three weeks earlier, with bigger bulbs and free from smut. 

Mr. Ware. I am very thankful that my remark has 
brought out so much additional information. The smut 
attacks the seed when first sprouted, as I understand it. 

Dr. Sturgis. Yes. It is only through the extremely 
delicate tip of the onion that the spores can gain entrance. 

Mr. A. M. Lyman (of Montague). What causes the 
colored spots in the apples ? 

Dr. Sturgis. I suppose you refer to the little brown 



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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 105 

specks. No one knows the cause. It is not a fungous dis- 
ease. Spraying has no value in checking it. It is supposed 
to be due to the thinness of the skin of certain varieties of 
apples, whereby in a dry season the water is given off from 
the interior of the fruit. We always find these little brown 
specks with perfectly sound flesh all around them. 

Mr. Lyman. Are the black knots of the plum and cherry 
identical ? 

Dr. Sturgis. Yes, sir. 

Question. Is there such a thing as canker of the cherry ? 

Dr. Sturgis. It depends on what you mean by canker. 
A great many things have been given the name of canker. 
I have seen it caused by the woolly aphis. There are dis- 
eases of the apple, pear and quince where canker is caused 
by fungus. I never happened to see it on cherry or plum. 

Prof. Wm. p. Brooks (of Amherst). It occurs to me 
that we need a little more light on the question of the intelli- 
gence of the spores. I wish the speaker would make it 
clear whether it is not a fact that if one of those spores got 
into the right position in the soil it will, whether onions are 
planted there or not, germinate. But of course it is not 
able to carry itself over into another year because it does 
not find the proper plant to go through its different stages. 

Dr. Sturgis. If the spore germinates without finding 
the proper plant, undoubtedly it perishes. 

Professor Brooks. It will germinate, will it not, pro- 
vided it gets into the right position in the soil ? 

Dr. Sturgis. I hardly think it probable that it could. 

Professor Brooks. Certainly, if the onion spores are 
buried too deep to germinate, it will take many years before 
all of them will be brought into the right position in the 
soil, which I judge must be near the surlEace. 

Dr. Sturgis. It is a matter of supposition. I think 
burying it deep would kill it, if anything would. That 
would be the natural course with most fungous spores. I do 
not know that experiments have been made on the germina- 
tion of the spores in the soil. 

Professor Brooks. I did not question the speaker's 
knowledge of this matter. The spore is to be looked upon 
as similar to the weed seed. If a weed seed happens to get 

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106 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

in the right position in the soil, sufficiently near the surface 
to get air, moisture and warmth, it will grow. If buried too 
deep, it will not grow. I had supposed that these spores 
were similar, and that slowly the resting spores of the onion 
would lose their capacity to injure later onion crops. They 
would not all lose this capacity the first year, some the first 
year and some later. I would like the speaker to give the 
audience his opinion. 

Dr. Sturgis. It is a perfectly impossible question to 
answer, simply because there are no experiments, so far as I 
know, to show whether an onion spore will germinate apart 
from the presence of an onion plant. Land may lie fallow 
or be plowed successively for different crops year after year 
for six, seven or ten years, and yet reproduce onion smut the 
eleventh year in as large a degree as it did the first year. 
This would indicate that the process of destruction must at 
any rate be an extremely slow one, and one which we cer- 
tainly cannot count upon for practical results. 

Professor Brooks. Is it not easy to understand that that 
might be the case, when we consider the enormous number 
of these spores ? We know it takes a great many years to 
get rid of a weed, and we must remember that the number 
of weed seeds as compared to the number of spores is small. 

Mr. Geo. P. Smith (of Sunderland). What is the nature 
of the spore that causes the blight of the onion? 

Dr. Sturgis. There is a regular mildew of the onion, 
something like the mildew of potatoes. There is also an- 
other trouble, which looks something like mildew, that is 
caused by a very minute insect of the genus thrips. There 
are a numl>er of fungous diseases, and it is hard to tell what 
one is meant by the term '* blight." If I could know the 
appearance of the diseased plant, I might be able to say more 
about it. 

Mr. S. R. Maynard (of Berlin). How many gallons of 
Bordeaux mixture are required to spray an acre of potatoes 
if the tops are well grown ? 

Dr. Sturgis. I cannot answer from memory. I should 
say that between sixty and seventy gallons of Bordeaux mix- 
ture would spray an acre of potatoes pretty well. 

The Chairman. Perhaps Mr. Kirkland could give us 
some information in this line. ^ , 

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No. 4.] FUNGK)US DISEASES. 107 

Mr. A. H. KiRKiiAND (of Melrose). I had the good 
fortune this summer to make three trips into the Aroostook 
region, Maine, where the most enterprising potato growers 
make a business of spraying their potatoes. They use the 
Aspinwall sprayer, with four nozzles. They calculate that 
something like twenty-five gallons to the acre is suflScient 
for the first spraying, when the potato tops are just noticed. 
A fifty-gallon cask is sufficient for two acres. When the 
tops are full grown they try to put on fifty gallons to the 
acre, but do not always get it all on. They find the use 
of Bordeaux is a very practical matter. I was in Aroos- 
took about two weeks ago, and was talking with a farmer 
who had 47 acres of potatoes ; 33 acres were in one piece. 
He sprayed his whole field of potatoes with Bordeaux mix- 
ture. He had 13,365 bushels of potatoes, or about 280 
bushels to the acre. The near-by fields this year yielded 
only two-thirds of that crop. There are dollars and cents 
in this matter of spraying. 

Mr. J. L. Ellsworth (of Worcester). Did they spray 
more than once ? 

Mr. Kjrkland. The best growers sprayed three and 
some four times. They began when the tops were about 
six inches high, and kept it up until the vines were so rank 
they could not drive between the rows. Their potato crop 
is their main dependence, and they find it best to apply the 
Bordeaux mixture every week or ten days. 

Question. How much Paris green should be used? 

Mr. KiRKLAND. Some use as much as two pounds to 
fifty gallons. These goods are probably adulterated. One- 
half pound to fifty gallons should be sufficient. 

Dr. Thompson (of Worcester) . I have grown fruit in New 
York State, and have been deeply interested in the lecture. 
While I am not a fruit grower at present, I am deeply con- 
cerned in everything that helps the farmer. While in New 
York I was much interested in spraying. I have seen the fail- 
ures that they have met with, and also the successes ; and I 
have been interested in the improvement that is noticed on 
land sprayed over that not sprayed, and in the large profits 
reaped from the crops sprayed over those not sprayed. They 
have had to spray in New York more than you have here. 
You have more woodland and more birds than we have im^ 

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108 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

New York State. New York State is largely occupied with 
fruit growing. Spraying has become a matter of real profit 
with them. Hull Brothers of Gosport, N. Y., make the best 
pump. The nozzle the lecturer mentioned is, no doubt, a 
good one. My experience was that the Niagara and the 
Dewey nozzles were the best. The pump having two cylin- 
ders is not liable to wear out as soon as those with one 
cylinder. I saw this used with two, three and four nozzles, 
and it thoroughly filled the air with a fine spray. The 
Friends are running their factory night and day, and still find 
it hard to fill orders. If you will write them and mention 
Dr. Thompson, they will use you right. I have distributed 
some of their circulars. I am not an agent, I am a clergy- 
man ; but as I am interested in the farmers and in fruit 
growing, I thought it a wise thing to present this this 
morning. 

Austin Heywood (of Worcester). Fungus has attacked 
the rauskmelon and the cucumber this year. Do you use 
Bordeaux mixture for that? 

Dr. Sturgis. Yes, but not with great success. We have 
been investigating this for five years, with practically no 
success. I am inclined to think it is in the constitution of 
the vine more than it is in the spraying. I am beginning to 
think that we can feed our plants. Instead of giving them 
the whole of the fertilizer at once, give them half the amount 
at first, and the other half sown broadcast before the vines 
begin to run. Give them two or three meals instead of one, 
and I think we will have more vigorous plants. I am very 
much taken with the experiments with lime on melon plants, 
— the extraordinary benefits coming from liming the soil 
before attempting to grow melons. 

Mr. BoYLSTON. We have discarded Paris green, and used 
a powder called ''Bug death." Certainly with potatoes we 
get a great deal better results. In two or three hours' time 
the slug is dead and disappears from the potato vines. They 
claim also that this **Bug death" acts on the fungus and 
destroys it. I would ask the doctor if he is at all acquainted 
with it and the results ? 

Dr. Sturgis. No, I never have experimented with that 
at all. As a rule, at the experiment station we have to stick 



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No. 4.] FUNGOUS DISEASES. 109 

close to recognized things. Some of the stations make a 
business of analyzing a good many things put on the market. 
Coraell has done a great deal of it. We have done very 
little except with Paris green. Every year there are things 
sent to us that will cure all diseases of plants. We have not 
the time or money to give them the test that they ought to 
have, to decide if they are of value. After all, tlie farmer 
must test these things for himself. He must have a little 
experiment station on his own farm. 

Question. What is the cause of the Sheldon pear crack- 
ing when about half grown, and turning dark colored? 

Dr. Stubgis. It is a fungus very nearly related to the 
apple scab. It can be controlled in the same way by spray- 
ing. I know of no other way. 

Mr. C. H. Parker (of Holden). I want to express my 
satisfaction with the lecture. I think it about time for the 
farmers, even if they grow a small acreage of potatoes, to 
adopt some of these methods. I heard it said that the pro- 
gressive farmer sprayed his potatoes. Now, there are a good 
many in my town who are not progressive, that I really 
supposed were fairly up in the line of progress. I had five 
acres this last year, and the crop was an absolute failure, for 
the blight struck the potatoes before they were half grown, 
and it hardly paid to dig them. I shall either spray my 
potatoes in the future, or cease to plant them. 

The Chairman. The time has been fully occupied, and 
we will have to postpone Professor Maynard's talk on apples 
until after the afternoon lecture. 

Adjourned to 2 o'clock. 

Afternoon Session. 
The meeting was called to order at 2 o'clock by Second 
Vice-President Pratt, who said : We have for our consider- 
ation this afternoon a very important subject, — the subject 
of ventilation. The lecturer is a graduate of the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College and the professor of veterinary 
science at that institution, and is thoroughly acquainted with 
his subject. I take pleasure in introducing Dr. Paige, who 
will speak on ** Stable ventilation." 



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110 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



STABLE VENTILATION.' 



BY JAMES B. PAIGE, D.V.S., VETERINARIAN TO THE BOARD. 



I know of no agricultural topic upon which there is as 
great a diversity of opinions as upon the subject of the lecture 
at this session. 

Every farmer, large or small, educated or uneducated, 
rich or poor, seems, in this matter of stable construction and 
ventilation, to be a **law unto himself." From the brains 
of the farmers there have been evolved plans of stables and 
systems of ventilation without number ; and, strange as it 
may seem, there are no two alike, with the exception of the 
old-style New England stable ; and each has been equipped 
with a ventilating system peculiar to itself, except that in the 
old stable no especial provision was made for ventilation. 

If we take the more modern stables of the better class, 
those, for instance, that have been erected on our best stock 
farms during the past decade, we find that this same wide 
variation respecting general arrangement and provisions for 
ventilation exists. This wide variation must have been a 
necessity to a greater or less extent, so far as general plans 
were concerned. 

The style of architecture and arrangement of each have 
been largely influenced by the contour of the surface of the 
site, position of other buildings, special purpose for which it 
was intended, etc. * 

If there is this great difference in architecture and plans to 
be found, there is still a greater difference to be noted in the 
systems of ventilation that have been introduced into them. 
In no two are the systems alike in every particular, and in 
many of them we find the arrangement entirely different in 
principle and detail. In some instances there are ventilators 

* Abstract of paper, illustrated by stereopticon. 

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No. 4.] STABLE VENTILATION. Ill 

arranged to take the foul air from the bottom of the stable ; 
in equally good stables it is arranged for it to escape from 
the top. In some, fresh air enters near the floor ; in others, 
near the ceiling. Some builders provide separate openings 
for the admission of fresh air and the escape of the foul ; 
while others, still, provide at great expense shafts, ducts and 
cupolas, that shall serve as both inlets and outlets. 

The arrangement of the inlets and outlets is frequently 
such that it is by no means possible for them to serve the 
purpose for which they have been intended. 

In some of the more modern barns, in the construction of 
which large sums of money have been expended, there exist 
the worst of sanitary conditions, — even worse than in the 
old-style stable of fifty years ago. In the latter no attempts 
were made to secure good sanitary conditions, no thought 
was given to supplying fresh air for the occupants of the 
stable. Every effort was directed toward keeping the stable 
warm by excluding the outside air. In spite of all these 
efforts, the animals received a liberal supply of fresh air 
through openings in the walls. At that date matched boards 
were diflScult to secure, hand-shaved clapboards were too ex- 
pensive for use upon stables, and rosin-sized sheathing paper 
had not been thought of. Open bam cellars at that time 
were the rule and not the exception. The inevitable results 
of such a form of construction were a cold, airy, uncomfort- 
able bam; but animals kept in such buildings were tough 
and hardy, with strong disease-resisting constitutions. 

With the advent of greater demands and higher prices for 
dairy products it became apparent to the dairyman that he 
could inci-ease the products by keeping the animals warm. 
Practical experience soon taught that a cold stable and a full 
milk pail were incompatible elements. The agricultural 
press and agriculturists have for the past twenty-five years 
been instructing the farmer that to secure the greatest return 
from his animals it was necessary that they be kept warm. 

The results of this teaching are to be observed to-day in 
the old as well as in the modern stable. In the former the 
cellars have been closed, the cracks in the walls have been 
battened over, and so far as possible every opening through 
which fresh air could get in has been tightly closed; in 

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112 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

addition, the manger fronts have been closed in with shutters. 
In the modern stable, in place of the wall of single thick- 
ness of straight-edged boarding we find one of matched 
boards, sheathing paper, clapboards, and with inside walls 
sheathed or plastered, — a condition quite in contrast to that 
found in the old stable, so commonly seen in some of our re- 
mote rural districts. I would not have you think that the 
modern stables possess no advantages over the old-style one. 
There can be no possible olyections to keeping animals in a 
warm barn, provided they are supplied with the essentials 
of good health, such as fresh air, sunlight, wholesome food 
and water. 

It is possible, in a stable with walls constructed of several 
thicknesses of board, sheathing paper and plaster, to regu- 
late conditions of temperature, distribution of air currents, 
etc., to a much greater extent than in one with only a single 
wall. The trouble in the past has been that in using sheath- 
ing paper, clapboards and plaster to make the stable warm 
no provision has been made for the introduction of fresh air, 
which in the old-style stable sifted in through the cracks. 
In general, the sanitary condition about our stables has been 
very bad. 

In many instances an attempt to improve them has resulted 
in converting them into hotbeds for the propagation of dis- 
ease. Our experience during the past five years with bovine 
tuberculosis has shown that the disease is most prevalent in 
those herds kept in our so-called " best barns." This is not 
wholly due to influence of stabling, but to a forced system 
of feeding, lack of exercise, close in-and-in breeding, the 
most potent predisposing factor being defective ventilation. 
Good sanitation, together with a rational system of feeding, 
breeding, etc., favor the development of strong constitutions 
in animals, which is the one quality above all others that 
aflfords the greatest protection against disease. 

Experience has taught and statistics prove that infectious 
diseases are more prevalent, spread more rapidly and are 
more fatal among animals kept under unsanitary conditions, 
in damp, poorly lighted, badly drained and unventilated 
stables, than among those surrounded by hygienic influences. 
Parkes says, *' Disease and health are in the direct propor- 

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No. 4.] STABLE VENTILATION. 113 

tion of foul and pure air." Our work in Massachusetts during 
the past ten years in the suppression of tuberculosis among 
cattle has shown that the prevalence of the disease in a herd 
bears a close relation to the hygienic conditions under which 
the animals are kept. The more defective the sanitation, the 
greater the prevalence of the disease. It has also been ob- 
served that the spread of the disease is much more rapid and 
the course of it more acute among cattle under unsanitary 
conditions. The arrest of the disease in animals and its 
transmission to others can be better controlled by sanita- 
tion than by the administration of drugs. Animals showing 
marked symptoms of the disease, such as emaciation and 
general unthrirtincss, are frequently so much benefited by an 
improvement in the sanitary conditions about them, or being 
allowed to run in pasture, that it is quite difficult to detect 
the disease in them by physical examination ; and it is quite 
generally believed among veterinarians that the disease in its 
early stages of development may be completely arrested by. 
this method of treatment. 

Glanders among horses furnishes us with another striking 
example of the relation of poor sanitation to the spread and 
development of a disease. 

In the early part of the present century the yearly loss of 
horses in the French army from this one disease amounted to 
2.3 per cent. By an improvement of the sanitary condition 
about the stables, increasing the cubic capacity and providing 
a larger supply of fresh air, the deaths from this cause were 
reduced to .7 per cent. 

It is a well-known fact that horses may suffer from glanders 
in a chronic form for months, without showing marked 
symptoms of the disease or without a rapid development of 
it, provided they are subject to hygienic influences. On the 
contrary, the disease develops rapidly and assumes an acute 
character when such animals are removed to damp, dark, 
ill-ventilated stables. Wounds that under ordinary circum- 
stances would prove trivial, frequently become gangrenous 
and prove fatal under similar conditions. 

The same relation exists between unsanitary surroundings 
and the cause and spread of diseases among other domestic 
animals as has been shown to exist in tuberculosis in cattle 



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114 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pab. Doc. 

and glanders in horses. Hog cholera, swine plague in pigs, 
distemper in dogs and catarrhal inflammation in poultry are 
familiar examples. 

Malnutrition, enervation, emaciation and inflammation of 
the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, are some 
of the general eflfects to be observed of the action of impure 
air. Its tendency is to depress the vital functions and to 
weaken the natural resistant forces of the body by which 
disease is prevented. 

Properly, the subject of stable ventilation ought to be 
considered together with other subjects of veterinary 
hygiene, such as stable construction, including construction 
of floors, stable drainage, the removal of excrement, stable 
fixtures, lighting, etc. 

Smith, in his treatise on ** Veterinary Hygiene," says: 
"The objects of ventilation are the supply of pure air to 
the lungs, the removal from the stable of the products of 
respiration and cutaneous exhalations and the effluvia arising 
from the fluid and solid excreta deposited in it." 

Ventilation is produced, says Billings, '*By the move- 
ment of air, and such movement is due to some force, either 
derived from what may be called the natural conditions of 
the locality, or specially developed and applied for the pur- 
pose of producing currents." 

We recognize two great systems of ventilation, namely, 
artificial and natural. In artificial ventilation, some other 
than natural forces are usually employed to move the air. 
This system is frequently referred to as a forced ventilation, 
from the fact that the ventilation is efiected by the use of 
artificially heated chimney flues, by the use of blowers 
driven by machinery, etc. This system has no practical ap- 
plication in ordinary stable ventilation, owing to the expense 
of operation. In the natural system of ventilation we 
depend upon natural physical forces to rid the stable of im- 
pure air and to bring in fresh air to take its place. The 
forces that act are three in number : — 

1. The difierence in weight of masses of air of unequal 
temperatures. 

2. The law of diflfusion of gases. 

3. The force of the wind. 

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No. 4.] STABLE VENTILATION, 115 

The first of these forces is the chief one of the artificial 
system of ventilation, where heated air is used in flues to 
remove the foul air, and to bring in pure air to take its 
place. Its action is based upon the fact that heated air is 
more rarefied and lighter than cold air, and therefore has a 
tendency to rise above it. In artificial systems of ventila- 
tion, heaters, radiators, steam coils, etc., are placed at the 
bottom of flues, which have openings into the rooms which 
are to be ventilated, to create an upward and outward cur- 
rent of heated air, which draws the foul air out, while the 
pure air is introduced into the room through some other 
opening. 

In natural ventilation, as in the ventilation of stables 
where artificial heat is not used, we get considerable benefit 
from the action of this force, the heat being derived from 
the bodies of the animals. It is the force that takes the ex- 
pired air from the animal. It causes upward currents in the 
centre of the building, and, if there are suitable openings 
above and below, the vitiated air escapes. In case no 
openings exist above, the air cools from contact with the 
ceilings and walls and again settles to the floor. The 
currents which arise from this cause also assist in keeping 
the air in a tightly closed stable or occupied room thoroughly 
mixed and of even quality. Without suitable inlets for the 
admission of pure air, or outlets for the escape of the foul 
air, this force can do but little more than keep the air in a 
well-mixed condition. The beneficial cfieots of this force are 
frequently lost on account of the outlets being so far above 
the floor. When such is the case, the warm air leaving the 
body of the animal becomes cooled to such an extent that it 
becomes heavier than the air below, consequently tends to 
fell, displacing that below. 

In high, old-style stables, used for both storage and sta- 
bling purposes, with high beams above the main floor and a 
single large cupola opening in the roof, it frequently happens, 
in cold weather, that little or no foul air escapes through the 
cupola opening, owing to the fact that the upper portion of 
the building is filled with air that has become so much cooled 
from contact with the exposed roof and walls that the tem- 
perature of the rising warm current is lowered to such an 

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116 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

extent when it comes in contact with it that it no longer 
continues to rise, but again falls to the floor. The cooled 
air in the upper part of the building acts as a cushion, against 
which the rising current strikes. 

The second force of natural ventilation is that of the difiu- 
sion of gases. This force acts upon gases overcoming the 
force of gravitation. The heavier gas rises, the lighter 
descends. In stable ventilation this force acts to prevent the 
heavier gases from displacing the lighter ones. Otherwise, 
the heavier gases would form in layers above the floor in 
order of their specific gravities. The heavy, poisonous car- 
bon dioxide (CO2), exhaled from the lungs, would, in a 
close, tight- walled stable, continue to collect upon the floor, 
until the animals might become completely surrounded by it. 
We might have the same condition in our stables as is fre- 
quently seen in deep wells or mines, — a collection of CO3 to 
such an extent that death results when a person descends 
into them, unless the gas has been previously forced out by 
means of fans, as in mine ventilation, or by means of a bundle 
of burning straw which is let down into the well to create an 
upward current and produce sufficient circulation to remove 
the carbon dioxide. 

The tendency of gases to diffuse is so great that they will 
readily pass through walls of brick or wood that have not 
been rendered impervious by the application of paint or 
paper. When a wall is constructed of a single thickness of 
straight-edged or matched boards, air will readily diffuse 
through the cracks and crevices ; but when sheathing paper 
and clapboards, particularly the former, are used over rough 
boarding, the process of diffusion is arrested. 

The great advantage of the modern method of construction 
over the old is that we have conditions which are more under 
our control. The quantity of air brought in and removed 
can be varied to suit conditions of the weather and tempera- 
ture outside. 

The most important force of the natural system of venti- 
lation to be considered is that of the wind. It is a strong 
ventilating agent, and the only one that need be taken into 
account in connection with mathematical calculations relative 
to the subject. Its irregularity of action constitutes its 

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No. 4.] 



STABLE VENTILATION. 



117 



greatest disadvantage. Our aim should be in the building 
of our barns to so construct them that this force may operate 
to the best advantage to remove the foul air and provide the 
occupants with fresh air. It is one of the fundamental 
principles which should always be taken into account in pro- 
viding effective ventilation, that the air introduced into the 
stable shall be pure. Such cannot be the case when the air 
comes through the floor and scuttles, from a close cellar filled 
with manure, or from off a pile of decomposing excrement 
just beneath a wall scuttle in the rear of the animals (Fig. 1). 




Fio. 1.— Section of stable, In which wall BcutUes are naed as inlet open- 
ings for the admiseion of air. 

To satisfactorily light and ventilate our farm buildings, 
they must be properly located one to the other. The most 
desirable form of arrangement consists of a main part, for 
storage purposes, running east and west, with an ell for the 
animals, the latter connected with the main, running north 
and south (Fig. 8). This arrangement of the two parts of 
the stable at right angles provides a warm, well-proteoted 
yard, with a southern exposure. It is also advantageom in 
that the sunlight reaches every part of the stable, white the 
variation of the inside temperature between midday and 

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118 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Diidnight is not nearly so great as in a stal)le running east 
and west. With a large number of windows on the east and 
west sides, and but few on the south end, in the early morn- 
ing and the afternoon the sunlight streams through the win- 
dows in the sides, whereas little enters during the middle of 
the day, when the temperature of the stable is naturally 
highest. 

Where stables run east and west, and the animals are 
arranged in two rows facing a central passageway, those 
animals upon the south side get the benefits of all the sun- 
light, while those on the north side get none. 

In combination barns, used for stoi-age and stable, where 
the cattle are kept under the scaffold, it is better, without 
question, to give them the southern exposure rather than the 
northern, for the objections to the wide range of temperature 
do not ofiset the stimulating effect derived from direct sun- 
light upon the animals, or the disinfecting action it has in the 
stable. 

To secure effective ventilation in any building, two sets 
of openings are necessary, namely, inlets for the admission 
of pure air, and outlets for the escape of impure air. This 
applies to both systems of ventilation, but the relative 
position of inlets to outlets is not the same in both. 

When the artificial system is employed, especially where 
heated air is the motive force, the inlets should be located in 
the walls near the ceilings, the outlets in the floor, on the 
same side of the room as the inlet. 

In connection with thia subject, I desire to call your 
attention to the experiments of Mr. Briggs of Connecticut, 
the results of which appeared in the report of the Connecti- 
cut State Board of Health a few years since. In natural 
ventilation, where cold air is brought in, the inlets should be 
in the walls near the floor line, the outlets in the ceilings, 
roofs or walls above. 

In the storage of excrement about stables, every pre- 
caution should be taken to guard against contamination of 
the air of the stable or the air introduced into it to take the 
place of the foul air removed. Water-tight manure pits or 
sheds for the storage of excrement, situated at the end of the 
stable, are both convenient and sanitary. 

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STABLE VENTILATION. 



119 



The openings into the building should be provided with 
close-fitting doors. The solid excrement may be removed 
by means of a litter carrier or barrow, the liquid, carried in 
drains or gutters. If the manure is stored in sheds located 
upon the sides of the stable, and connected with it by means 
of wall scuttles, these must be tightly fitted and kept closed 
except when in use. They should never be opened for the 




Fie. 2. — Cross-section, showing a ventilating shaft with too many angles. 

admission of air, particularly when manure is piled below 
them outside. 

Let us consider a few things in regard to the different 
forms of inlets and outlets which are frequently seen in use. 
The inlet and the outlet most commonly met with is the 
shaft or duct, usually constructed of wood in rural districts ; 
in cities, of galvanized sheet-iron or tin. They may be of 
either material, round or square, located in the walls of the 
building or independently of them. In their construction 

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120 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



there are certain general rules that should always be ob- 
served. A round duct is preferable to a square one, as it 
has a greater carrying capacity, there being no dead corners. 
A smooth one is better than one that is rough, the velocity 
of the current, all other conditions the same, being greater 
in the former than in the latter. 

To insure action, they should be as short and straight as it 
is possible to have them. Those of too great length are 
usually useless unless artificial heat be used in them to create 
a circulation of air. Those placed on the south side of a 
building, where they are exposed to the heat of the sun, are 
more efficient than those placed on the north side. The in- 
troduction of angles should be avoided as much as possible. 
Each right angle put in reduces the velocity of the current 
one-half (Fig. 2). When it becomes necessary, as it fre- 
quently is, to change the direction, a rounded elbow may be 
used to good advantage, it being claimed that it will not 
lessen the velocity of the current so much, there being no 
square angle for the air to strike against. 

Every shaft or duct should be so constructed that it may 
be easily cleaned in every part. Neglect of this precaution 
often renders them useless. They soon 
become stopped wdth collections of cob- 
webs and dust (Fig. 3). 

There are many ways of using tubes, 
either singly or in combinations, both as 
inlets and outlets. They may be placed 
under the floor, in the walls, or in the 
ceilings. Parallel vertical tubes opening 
on the ceiling above, leading to the outside 
through the roof or cupola, are a frequent 
form seen. One is supposed to act as an 
inlet, the other as an outlet. The action 
of this combination of tubes depends upon 
existing conditions. 

If the building is occupied by a large 
number of animals, so that the temperature of the air inside 
is higher than that outside, all openings below closed, the 
walls of the ceilings not too high, the tube not too long, etc., 
then both tubes would act as outlets. If the reverse of these 




Fio. 3. — Section of duct, 
showing obstruction. 



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No. 4.] 



STABLE VENTILATION. 



121 




conditions exist, the functions of the tubes would also be 
reversed. 

To establish and maintain inward currents through one 
and outward currents through the other, it has been recom- 
mended not to build the dividing partition nearer than eigh- 
teen inches to the face of the ceiling. Others advise for the 
same purpose that a board set at an angle be put into the 
bottom of one tube and one into the top of the other, their 
position being such as to offer resistance to the circulation 
of a current of air in the opposite direction from what is 
desired. 

To insure at all times the desired action of a shaft or tube, 
either as inlet or outlet, cowls are sometimes attached to the 
upper end. There are two vari- 
eties, the fixed and movable. 
The principles of action vary 
according to the pattern. Some 
are so constructed as to produce 
an upward circulation by the 
Archimedean screw principle, 
the motor force being a mechan- 
ism which is operated by the 
wind. In other varieties the 
force of the wind is so directed 
across the open end or side that 
air is either driven through the 
tube into the building or is as- 
pirated out of it. So far as I 
have observed, none are abso- 
lutely positive in their action. 
The stationary variety has the 
advantage over the movable 
kind in that it is entirely automatic, acting with the wind in 
any direction, and is less liable to get out of order than any 
movable pattern (Fig. 4). 

In stable ventilation draughts are best prevented, and the 
incoming currents best distributed, by having numerous 
small openings as inlets and outlets, rather than one or two 
large ones for that purpose. 

I have considered somewhat at length the construction, 



Fio. 4. — Rtationary outlet cowl. 



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122 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



location, use and action of ventilating tubes, on account of 
its being necessary to make use of them under certain con- 
ditions, although I never recommend their use, if a better 
plan can be followed. My preference is for the Sheringham 
valve system of inlets and outlets, or another system to 
which I shall call your attention later. The Sheringham 




Fia. 6.— The Sheringham valve from the outside. 

valve, a patented device of English origin, is in principle a 
window, either single or double, hinged at the bottom, 
swinging in at the top, having, when open, the triangular 
spaces between the edge of the sash and the edge of the 
window casing closed with wood or a piece of sheet metal. 
The action of the Sheringham valve is similar to that of a 
partially open window, hinged at the bottom, swinging in- 
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No. 4.] 



STABLE VENTILATION. 



123 



ward at the top (Fig. 5). The wind striking against the 
oblique window surface is deflected from its straight course, 
thrown into the upper part of the building, and, being heavier 
than the air already in the building, gradually finds its way 
to the floor, where it comes in contact with the animals. 
The closing of the triangular spaces on the sides prevents 
downward draughts directly upon occupants of the stable. 
Sheringham valves are found in the market with sash and 
frame made of cast or malleable iron. These are too expen- 
sive for use except in limited numbers. 





Fig. 6.— Cross-section of a Sheringham valve or window. 

A modification of it, which includes all its desirable feat- 
ures, is an ordinary window, hinged at the bottom, swinging 
in at the top with the side openings closed. All the mateiial 
required to convert a common sliding sash into a Sheringham 
valve is a seven-eighths-inch board, eight to ten inches wide, 
as long as the sash, planed at both sides ; two or three strips 
of one-half-inch material, one and one-fourth inches wide ; a 
pair of butts and one old-fashioned spring barrel bolt. The 
eight-inch board is split lengthwise between diagonally 
opposite comers. These pieces are nailed to the inside edges 
of the casing. The narrow strips of material are nailed to 

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124 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pab. Doc. 



the inside edges of the boards first described. These over- 
hang the inner edges, and serve to prevent the windows from 
swinging too far in. The barrel bolt put into place in the 
sash, several holes bored for it in the triangular side pieces, 
the hinges fastened on, the window stops of the original 
window removed, and the Sheringham valve is complete. 
If the stops are of the right width and thickness, they may 
be used on the edges of the triangular-shaped board. Hinges 




( 



a L'^^ ^^ 







Fig. 7. — Cross-Bection of monitor-roofed stable, with the Sberlngham valve Bystem of inlets 
and outleU. The arrows indicate the direction of inoomiog and outgoing our- 
rents of air. 

are not necessary, as a strip of board can be nailed across the 
inner corners of the protecting boards above and below; 
these, with the barrel bolt, will hold the window firmly in 
place (Fig. 6). The advantage of not using butts is that 
the windows are easily removed for cleaning or other pur- 
poses. 

The form of stable best adapted to ventilation with Sher- 
ingham valves is one not more than forty or forty-five feet in 
width, of any length desired. A monitor roof is desirable, 

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No. 4.] 



STABLE VENTILATION. 



125 



but not essential. The animals should be arranged in rows 
on either side, facing a central drive or passageway (Fig. 7). 
There should be four rows of valves, two below (one on 
either side in rear of the animals) , situated four or five feet 
from the floor, and two above near the plates, or, better, in 
the sides of the monitor roof, provided the building is con- 
structed on that plan. The lower row of valves, on the 
windward side of the building, should be open to admit fresh 
air; those above, on the opposite side, to allow for the 
escape of the foul air. By having numerous valves, each of 




Fig. 10.— CrosB-Bection of etablo, with manure Bhedn, showing Inlet for fresh 
ftir under the driveway floor, and direction taken by the incoming 
currents of air. 

which is opened but a little, the incoming current of air is 
evenly distributed throughout the building, and objectionable 
draughts prevented. 

Another plan of construction particularly applicable to 
stables with straight walls, with manure sheds on either 
side, provides for the introduction of fresh air through open- 
ings in the manger fronts, and the escape of foul air through 
windows or cupola openings above. This system of inlets 
is only used to good advantage in those bams where the 

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126 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 




stable part is separate from the storage portion. There 
should not be a cellar under the stable. The arrangement 
of the animals should be the same as in stables where the 
Sheringham valve system is employed (Fig. 8). 

Under the floor of the central driveway, running length- 
wise of the building, there should be a space or chamber 
having outside openings at the ends of the buildings. This 
space should be about two or two and one-half feet in depth, 
of the same width as the driveway floor above. The open- 
ings at the end may be of any convenient size, preferably not 
smaller than six feet in length by one foot in width (Fig. 9). 
The open space under the central section, which serves as 
a fresh-air chamber, must be completely separated from the 
two side spaces under the stall floors. 
Fresh air from the air chamber is taken 
into the stable through the manger 
fronts, which are built in the form of 
boxes, there being an opening at the 
bottom into the fresh-air chamber, and 
another at the top into the stable (Fig. 
10). With this arrangement, air is 
brought into the building and delivered 
directly in front of the occupants, at 
the point where it is most needed (Fig. 11). From contact 
with the animals it becomes heated, rises, and, with the im- 
purities that it has received from the animals, escapes through 
the outlets above. 

This system possesses the advantage of being quite auto- 
matic. The air is brought in through numerous small open- 
ings, preventing uncomfortable draughts. It is introduced 
at just that point where it is most needed, and, again, each 
animal gets its supply of fresh air regardless of its position 
in the stable. 

In the construction of new or in the remodelling of old 
stables to improve the sanitary conditions about them, more 
especially to provide for eficctive ventilation, one or a com- 
bination of two or more of the systems mentioned in the 
foregoing pages may be employed. As to which system is 
introduced, must necessarily depend largely upon existing 
conditions. 



Fio. 11. — Cross-section, show- 
ing oonstrnction of manger 
front for the admission of 
fresh air to stable. 



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No. 4.] STABLE VENTILATION. 127 

In remodelling the old-fashioned, rectangular stable, in 
which there are bays on one side, scaffolds on the other, 
with stable quarters below the scaffolds and a cellar under 
all, it is advisable and advantageous in most cases to erect 
a separate ell for the animals, this ell to be connected with 
the old building on the south side. The stable space under 
the scaffolds may be used for storage purposes. Where this 
plan is adopted, the new stable portion should be built with- 
out a cellar, and, if possible, on a level with the cellar floor 
of the original building. This allows of the use of the cellar 
space for storage purposes, and makes the transportation of 
fodder, etc., from the main storage part to the stable easy. 
By the erection of an ell, which is practically independent 
of the storage structure, it is possible to introduce any of the 
modem and desirable systems for securing good ventilation. 

We have made many mistakes in the past in the treatment 
of our cattle ; we have treated them too much as if they were 
machines, not having recognized the fact that they were liv- 
ing organisms, whose bodies were made up of various sets 
of organs whose functions were under the control of a 
nervous system, sensitive to the action of all external con- 
ditions and forces. We have not stopped to consider that 
the functions of all these organs are closely correlated, or 
that the welfare of every one is dependent upon the health- 
ful action of all the others. We have neglected to provide 
for the wants of the bony, muscular, respiratory and nervous 
systems in our mad career to increase the capacity of the 
reproductive and digestive organs. For all these short- 
comings of the past fifty years we are beginning to reap our 
reward. 

Question. Is it always necessary to open on the wind- 
ward side ? 

Dr. Paige. It is best to have the opening on the wind- 
ward side. 

Mr. Perry (of Worcester) . What is the best temperature ? 

Dr. Paige. As near fifty or fifty-five degrees as it is 
possible to have it. 

Mr. Parker. Do you consider a basement a good place 
for a stable ? 



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128 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Dr. Paige. The stable underneath the original structure 
in the proposed plan was filled with hay. I provided a 
driveway through the central section underneath the original 
structure. The animal portion of the proposed plan has no 
cellar underneath, the excrement being deposited in the 
manure sheds at the end, protected by an overhanging roof, 
but without sides. 

Question. How would you care for the liquid manure ? 

Dr. Paige. By having cemented gutters, water tight. 
These may be carried toward the end of the stable, so that 
the liquid excrement would be carried out. In case of a 
long animal section, the gutter should be carried from the 
two ends toward the centre, and open into a cesspool outside 
or into a tank. 

Mr. Q. L. Reed (of South Weymouth) . Years ago they 
did not clean their stables. 

Dr. Paige. They had at that time a tough lot of animals. 

Mr. Pierce (of Milton). I have often noticed that in an 
old-fashioned stable, closed cold nights, the walls would be 
covered with frost in the morning, and the air seemed much 
worse than when the night was a moderately cold one, and 
the stable was equally tightly closed. Was the air really 
worse ? It seemed to me that there would be more change 
of air through the cracks, and that it ought to be better on an 
excessively cold morning, but it appeared to be worse. 

Dr. Paige. I do not see how the temperature would 
affect the circulation of the air very much under such condi- 
tions as those. You must understand that a test of the 
purity of the atmosphere by the sense of smell is a very un- 
reliable one. With the walls frosty I should imagine the air 
might be a little more vitiated in the stable than on a morn- 
ing when the temperature was not quite so low. The ten- 
dency for the frost to form is greatest when the air is still, 
and there is little tendency for it to form when the air is 
moving briskly outside. 

Mr. Howe. People close all ventilators to stop the cur- 
rents of air that attract the lightning currents. Does it 
* prevent lightning from striking the building? 

Dr. Paige. I am not in a position to answer. I have 
noticed that barns are fully as liable to be hit as houses, and 
my explanation has always been this : a barn in July or 

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No. 4.] STABLE VENTILATION. 129 

August is filled with new hay^ and the air would naturally 
be damp ; it would be much more damp than in a dweUing- 
house. Of course we all know that moist air is a better 
conductor of electricity than dry air. 

Mr. Geo. M. Whitakeb (of Boston). On the question 
of bams being struck by lightning, I took occasion to consult 
Captain Brophy. He informed me that in his opinion there 
was no danger from ventilators and cupolas, whether opened 
or closed. It was a popular opinion that it made a dif- 
ference, but it had no basis on scientific fact. I merely 
repeat bis opinion, without pretending to know anything 
about it. 

Mr. Ware. I would like to refer back a little to an illus- 
tration that involves to my mind a very important principle 
of ventilation. I think it was in picture No. 20 of the Smith 
system of ventilation. The picture represented a column of 
warm air outside of the room, with an opening at the bottom 
and one at the top. The warm air was supposed to enter at 
the top and go across the room where you had illustrated the 
breathing line, and go down to the bottom, taking the whole 
of the air from the top to the bottom. I suppose the room 
was intended to be warmed by that warm air that came in for 
circulation. While it seemed to have a perfect effect on one 
end of the room as the picture represented, would it affect 
the other end of the room ? 

Dr. Paige. It is supposed to, and I think it would. 

Mr. Ware. This system shows that you get the best 
circulation by having the relative position of inlet and outlet 
as represented by that drawing? 

Dr. Paige. Yes. 

Mr. Ware. That seems very rational. My point was, 
whether there would be the desired effect in both ends of the 
room. 

Dr. Paige. I think there would be. In a very large 
building you would have more than one inlet and more than 
one outlet. 

Mr. Parker. There is one point I wish to speak of. 
About two years ago I constructed a cow bam, running it at 
right angles with the main bam and running it east and west. 
I have congratulated myself ever since that it ran east and 
west. The doctor says it should run north an§ jpjj^^,^ J'^le 



130 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

windows on the lower floor are the same size as those used 
in houses, and are made of nine by thirteen glass. The glass 
are placed in the roof, as thick as they can be placed in a 
monitor roof. The sunshine reaches the cattle all the time 
that it is shining, so, instead of lacking sunshine, they get it 
almost as much as those on the south side of the building. 
His theory and my practice do not quite harmonize, and I 
believe mine is the better. 

Dr. Paige. I have had a little practical experience, too. 
Your system may be the best for you to adopt under existing 
conditions. I think you will agree with me that, if the 
animals on the one side get the benefit of the sunshine, the 
temperature must be better from eleven o'clock to two o'clock 
than it would be if it ran the other way. The point I made 
was that the variation between the temperature of midday 
and midnight would be much greater than when the building 
runs north and south. 

Mr. Sessions. I want to remark that cattle are creatures 
of habit, as well as are men. Some of us have acquired a 
habit by which we can smoke poison or chew it, and appar- 
ently thrive on it. A cow can accustom herself to conditions 
not the best, and apparently thrive when she might thrive 
better under other conditions. My own bam was constructed 
before the subject was agitated at all. My cows used to 
thrive fairly well, but there was an out about it finally. 
Tuberculosis got hold of them, and I lost one of the best 
herds in Massachusetts. 

Secretary Stockwell. The reception to the Board of 
Agriculture, tendered by Mr. Wm. J. Hogg, president of the 
Worcester Agricultural Society, will be held in this hall, and 
the members of the Board and their invited guests are all 
invited to be present. Members are expected to be present 
with their wives or ladies. The reception will be from 
7.30 to 9.30. 

I will now suggest that Professor Maynard be given an 
opportunity to explain the exhibit of apples which he has 
kindly prepared for the benefit of those attending this meet- 
ing. Professor Maynard, as you may know, is the professor 
of horticulture at the Agricultural College, and horticulturist 
at the experiment station. 



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No. 4.] APPLES. 131 



APPLES. 



BY PROF. 8. T. MATNARD, AMHBRflT. 



The subject is an important one. We have had a very 
heavy crop of apples this year, and the question is, whether 
there are better varieties than those we are growing. Any 
one who has attended the large fairs of our State, and of 
other sections, understands that there is a very large num- 
ber of varieties. I suppose we have between one and two 
thousand named varieties of apples that are of some impor- 
tance. Many of them are valuable in certain localities and 
not in others. It is a fact that almost any variety of large 
size and good color may become popular in a locality. For 
instance, the apple we call the Ben Davis is the most popular 
apple among growers in some parts of the country. It comes 
into bearing very early, can be handled in any way you 
choose, and will keep until June. Buyers are often more 
anxious to get it than almost any other kind. It is very 
poor in quality. We do not care to grow it for our own use, 
and we make a mistake if we think it good enough to sell. 

The question we must ask ourselves is whether we can 
make the varieties we are now growing profitable or not. 
Are there better varieties than the Hubbardston, Baldwin, 
Bhode Island Greening, Roxbury Russet, etc., for profit 
in New England? We know we can grow these varieties 
to perfection. Take the Baldwin. Is there any apple that 
will sell better or give us more profit than Baldwins like 
these on the table ? Take the Rhode Island Greening. When 
we have apples of that color [referring to specimens] , is 
there any trouble in selling them, and for a high price ? Can 
we grow them in that condition ? For our local markets I 
think there is nothing better, perhaps, than these varieties, 
if grown to perfection, but we have to consider competition 



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132 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

from other sections, competition in our own markets and 
competition with the European markets. The King, Ben 
Davis, Newtown Pippin, etc., and many other varieties are 
grown for European markets. We have to meet that com- 
petition. The York Imperial is bringing three or four dollars 
a barrel when our Baldwins bring two dollars and a half. 
We must meet this competition. 

We are looking for something we can sell for a higher 
price than the varieties we are now growing. We can 
do no better in our own markets than to grow the varieties 
local with us, and which can be grown to perfection; for 
the European markets we must study the varieties that are 
being put into competition. Of these varieties, we have 
the Ben Davis, which is called the ** money coiner" through- 
out New York State and the west. No doubt there is more 
money in growing that to-day than in growing any other 
apple. It beai-s early, and very heavily indeed ; the apples 
are of good form and will keep, but they are of so poor 
quality that in a few years there will be no demand for any 
apples if this is largely grown. 

Another apple that is grown for shipping is the York 
Imperial. It is better than the Ben Davis and more beau- 
tiful ; is as good a shipper, and possibly may be as profit- 
able. The flavor of the York Imperial is fairly good ; it is 
better than the Ben Davis. The Newtown Pippin and King 
we cannot grow to compete with other markets. 

Another apple which may compete with the above varieties 
in the European markets is the Lawver or Delaware winter. 
It keeps well, and every apple is as perfect as though turned 
out in a lathe. It yields well ; a small tree eight inches in 
diameter produced four barrels the past season. 

We have tried a number of varieties that are comparatively 
new to our general markets. The Sutton Beauty is an apple 
equal to the Baldwin, or better in quality, and free from the 
brown specks spoken of this morning by Dr. Sturgis. The 
color is brighter and rather more showy than the Baldwin, 
and I think, as far as we know, it can be made to yield nearly 
as large a crop. Mr. Hadwen and Mr. Hartshorn have brought 
in specimens of the Sutton Beauty which the audience are 
invited to test at the close of this meeting. The Washing- 



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No. 4.] APPLES. 133 

ton Koyal is another apple which I think we can grow for 
the local markets^ but not as a shipper. Most people would 
say that it is the best apple in its season for eating and cook- 
ing we have. The majority of the apples on the tree were 
large. A young tree six inches in diameter bore about a 
baiTel the past season. The tree is a fairly good grower 
and an annual bearer. 

Another variety, a late keeper and beautiful in form, is the 
Scarlet Cranberry, a western apple. Another, very small 
but profitable if well grown, is the Lady apple. They are 
most beautiful in texture and color. They do not grow large, 
but perfect in form and coloring. They grow in strings on 
the branches. They are very delicate, and bring five to 
eight dollars a barrel when well grown. The product of one 
tree nine inches in diameter sold for twenty-two dollars. 

The Mammoth Black Twig is an apple grown in the west. 
It is a later keeper than the Baldwin, and a good deal like 
it in form. Another is the Hurlbert. We have five trees, 
from which we picked from five to seven barrels each. Almost 
every one was as perfect as these specimens, and most of 
them were larger. The Gravenstein is a very good eating 
and cooking apple. It is a very heavy, strong growing tree. 
The specimens on the table were sprayed. The only variety 
in this collection that was unsprayed is Shiawasse Beauty, 
a seedling from the Snow apple. It is covered with the 
specks and spots that the speaker this morning described 
as growing on the skin and finally penetrating the apple. 
This is the ordinary apple scab, which grows during the sum- 
mer, when the weather is wet. All other trees were sprayed, 
just before picking or within two weeks of picking, with a 
simple solution of copper sulphate, three ounces in fifty gal- 
lons of water. 

For a fall apple you are all fiimiliar with the Fall Pippin 
and Holland Pippin. They are most beautiful yellow apples, 
of high quality, fjEdrly productive and always of a large size. 
We can grow the Snow apple successfully in New England, 
if on heavy soil and if the trees are sprayed. The difficulty 
as ordinarily grown is that they are covered with little black 
spots. When these come early in the season they stop the 
growth of the apple at the point attacked and it becomes im- 

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134 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

perfect in form. If sprayed, or in a dry season , they are 
perfect, always bringing a high price in local markets. 
They cannot be shipped unless very carefully packed. 

The Mann, coming from New York, is like the Rhode 
Island Greening in form, always very perfect. It is a very 
hard, thick-skinned apple ; a very late keeper, being fairly 
good in May and June, but never of fine quality, though 
perhaps better than the Ben Davis. 

For an apple for the local markets, the Crow's Egg or 
Gilliflower will always sell if grown like these specimens. 
They cannot be used for cooking. They are sold the same 
way as the Williams in its season. 

For a sweet apple, the most beautiful and perhaps one of 
the sweetest is the Jacob Sweet. It is very feir, very large 
and very productive. 

The Beauty or Kent apple is a large, fair apple, of good 
quality for cooking, bears regularly and is of fair quality. 
The Spitzenberg is in demand if oflTered in perfect condition. 
It is not a great bearer, and can only be grown to perfection 
with difficulty. 

The Wealthy apple is perfect in form, generally having 
more color than the specimens shown. These were picked 
too early. It is an apple that, while tender, is not easily 
bruised and will stand shipping. It is an early bearer. 
The trees are inclined to overbear. It is an apple that from 
its beauty and fine quality will always sell, and will be 
taken just as fast as it can be put in the market. I think 
we can ship the Wealthy to England successfiiUy. It does not 
bruise easily, and may be put in the market in September. 
If we can put the Wealthy into the European market in its 
perfection, it will attract attention. We ship our Baldwins 
before they are well colored and the market is injured. 
While the English markets want a hard apple, they want 
high color. The Wealthy, like the Mcintosh Red, may be 
kept into the early winter. The question as to the Mcintosh 
Red is, whether it will prove productive and if we can pre- 
vent its becoming scabby. It originated in Canada, and 
there has the reputation of being attacked by the apple 
scab and as being not very productive. I do not know 
any variety that cannot be kept free from scab by spraying. 

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No. 4.] APPLES. 135 

The figures given you this morning show you some of the 
profits that may be made by spraying the apple crop. 

The Maiden's Blush is an apple that takes in the market. 
It is especially fine for cooking. It is decidedly acid, and 
can be sold in limited quantities. 

A new apple that is attracting some attention is the Wolf 
River. We had only eight or ten specimens on the tree that 
had been grafted with twelve or fifteen stocks, and it produced 
fruit for the first time this season. It always grows large 
and very handsome, and is attracting a great deal of atten- 
tion because of its beauty. It is a good cooking apple, a 
little coarse in texture, but because of its size would be sure 
to sell. 

Another apple, grown in Connecticut, is the Pewaukee. 
I think that will outyield the Ben Davis. We have trees 
ten years old that bear every year, the branches being loaded 
almost to the ground. It is fairly good in quality and always 
perfect in form, of pretty good color and always of large size. 
I think it will be a profitable apple. 

In view of the uncertainty about the Baldwin and the poor 
quality of the Ben Davis, we ought to devote our attention 
to such varieties as the Sutton Beauty and others that are of 
very fine quality. By raising such varieties we can prevent 
the competition of the west. I think four years ago, when 
we had a large crop of apples, there were more Ben Davis 
apples sold in Boston market after about the middle of Jan- 
uary than all other varieties together. You would find them 
everywhere. If we can put apples of fine quality into our 
markets we are sure to shut out such varieties and most of 
the western apples which are poor in quality. Some of the 
small varieties, like the Jonathan and Winesap, are of good 
quality, and do not afiect our local markets, where apples of 
good size are demanded. 

The best apple in quality, and when you have eaten one 
you will each want a tree for your own use, is the Dyer or 
Pomme Royal. It is almost as juicy as a pear. It is not 
known in the market, and would not be a very salable 
variety. 

Mr. Lyman. Do you grow the Bard apple? It tastes 
more like a pear than any apple we have. 

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136 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pab. Doc. 

Professor Maynard. It is the same as the Dyer or 
Pomme Royal. 

Another variety that is a great bearer is the Fall Queen, 
or Haas. It is always perfect in form and color. It has very 
white flesh, being a seedling of the Snow apple, but not of as 
good quality. I think it is coming into notice, and, from its 
great productiveness and beauty, is as valuable as a great 
many other fall varieties. Possibly it will become popular 
in the market for cooking. 

The Bell Flower is as delicious as almost any apple we 
have. When well grown it is sure to sell at a good price. 

We have a large number of fine varieties that are sure 
to be profitable if well grown, and grown sufficiently to edu- 
cate the people as to their value. What any particular 
grower should plant must be decided somewhat from his own 
surroundings. 

The Congress is a very fine apple, of some local reputation. 

In discussing varieties of other fruits, I do not know that 
there are any better than the four or five varieties which ai-e 
now popular and which are largely grown for local markets. 
The distant markets cannot compete with us so readily in 
pears as in apples. Of course California can ship Bartletts 
to us out of season, but when our local crop comes in there 
is no demand for the California pears. Nine-tenths of the 
Bartlett pears that we buy in cans are perhaps grown on 
Kieffer trees. I was in New York State this fall, and found 
them canning Bartletts and KieflTer together, but all were 
labelled Bartletts. The manager said others were doing it, 
and he had to. Of the pears, the Bartlett, the Seckel, the 
Sheldon, the Bosc and the Hovey are decidedly profitable in 
large markets. 

Of the plums we have three types: the Domestica, the 
Japanese and the American plums. The difficulties in grow- 
ing the Domestica are such that we are coming to feel that 
the Japanese plums are going to be much more satisfactory, 
because they come into bearing earlier, are of fair quality, 
and we are sure to get two or three crops from the young 
trees. We are not sure of getting as many crops from the 
varieties of Domestica. Even the ordinary grower is sure 
to get a few crops from the Japanese. 

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No. 4.] APPLES. 137 

Mr. Wabb. Why do you say a few crops? 

Professor Maynabd. Because it is not a long-lived tree. 
I recently visited Mr. Butler's orchard in C!onnecticut, where 
large blocks of Japanese plum trees were being destroyed 
by the black knot and the monilia or brown rot. Many 
of the varieties are not long lived. We are hoping a great 
deal from the new varieties recently introduced. The older 
varieties seem to be going by. 

Of the peaches there are but few varieties better than the 
old standard sorts, i.e.y Mountain Rose, Old Mixon and 
Crawfords, Early and Late. The Elberta is productive and 
a good canning peach, but not of so good quality as the 
Crawfords. The St. John is an early, yellow-fleshed peach, 
of fine quality. The Dennis is a light yellow peach, with 
green twigs, fine for canning. The Champion is a large, 
white-fleshed peach, of good quality and productive. The 
Triumph, the earliest yellow peach, rots badly, as do all 
of the very early peaches, and will not prove valuable in 
Massachusetts. 

Adjourned. 



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138 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



THIRD DAY. 

The meeting was called together at 9.30 a.m., Mr. Sessions 
in the chair. 

Secretary Stockwell presented the following vote of thanks, 
which was unanimously adopted : — 

The Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture tenders its 
thanks to the Worcester County Horticultural Society for the use 
of its hall for the sessions of this winter meeting, and also to its 
president and secretary, who have done everything possible to 
render our visit to this city delightful. They have anticipated our 
needs and provided for every want with a courtesy that will be 
gratefully remembered by the members of this Board. 

Mr. John G. Avery (of Spencer) offered the following 
vote of thanks, which was unanimously adopted : — 

That a vote of thanks be given the Worcester Agricultural 
Society for its invitation to meet here and for its cordial co-opera- 
tion in every effort to make this session pleasant to the Board and 
profitable to the farmers of Worcester County, and also to the 
retiring president of this society, Mr. Hogg, for the reception and 
entertainment which was so heartily enjoyed. 

The Chairman. I have the agreeable pleasure of appoint- 
ing, to preside at this session of the Board, Mr. Ellsworth, 
who has been for some time a member of the Board, and 
who is well acquainted with the people of this vicinity. 

Mr. Ellsworth. It gives me pleasure to preside this 
morning, and especially to introduce to you the lecturer. 
The subject is ** Sheep raising in Massachusetts." This in- 
dustry has been somewhat neglected. I remember that a 
good many years ago it was customary for nearly all the 
farmers in the western part of Worcester County to keep a 
few sheep. I think by that neglect the farms have deterio- 
rated in fertility and value. I hope to see the time when the 
hills of Worcester County and of Massachusetts will again 
be covered with nice flocks of sheep. The lecturer this 

1 by Google 



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No. 4.] SHEEP RAISING. 139 

morning is a gentleman with whom I have been associated in 
the Legislature. I have visited his farm. While he has 
large interests in other ways, he is a farmer. He keeps 
sheep and cattle, and is also president of an agricultuml 
society. It is my pleasure to introduce to you Mr. Frank 
P. Bennett of Saugus. 



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140 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



SHEEP RAISING IN MASSACHUSEnS. 



BY MB. FRANK P. BENNETT OF SAUGUS. 



The number of sheep in the six New England States has 
decreased from 3,820,307 in 1840 to 554,013 in 1900. In 
other words, these six States contained, sixty years ago, 
about seven times as many sheep as they possess to-day. 
The total number of neat cattle in the six New England 
States in 1840 was 1,545,272, and in 1900 was 1,411,852, 
showing that the falling off in cattle raising in New England 
in these sixty years has been comparatively slight, as com- 
pared with the decline in sheep husbandry. 

I have recently passed about two months in the sheep- 
raising sections west of the Mississippi River, from Nebraska, 
through Colorado and New Mexico, to Montana, Oregon, 
California and Utah, visiting the herders, sleeping upon the 
ranges and gathering information from large owners of sheep, 
as well as from government reports and statistics ; and the 
result of these inquiries has confirmed previous impressions, 
that the time is ripe for the restoration of the 3,800,000 
sheep or more which used to be owned in New England. 
The great free ranges of the west are now fully stocked, and 
are confronted with serious problems of their own respecting 
future development. 

The heroic figure of the cowboy, the man on horseback, is 
fSEtr less important in real life than in romance, and is con- 
stantly being displaced on the public lands by the humble 
and plodding sheep herder. The census of 1890 showed that 
there were but 5,851,640 cattle upon the ranges of the United 
States, against 51,363,572 upon &rms; and even this small 
percentage of range cattle must be taken to the farming 
States, to be finally fattened and fully prepared for beef; and 
it is the general belief that, if all the cattle were driven from 
the free ranges of the United States, it would not have an 

lOOgle 



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No. 4.] SHEEP RAISING. 141 

appreciable effect upon the supplies and prices of beef in this 
country. The census which has just been taken will un- 
doubtedly show a still further diminution in the number of 
range cattle in the United States. But, even should the last 
steer and cow be driven from the public lands of the United 
States, there would still be little room remaining for an in- 
crease of the present flocks of range sheep in the United 
States. During the recent high prices of wool in the latter 
part of 1898 and in 1899, nearly every available water-hole 
in the range sections was patented by sheepmen, and, as the 
water rights practically control the range, there is very little 
opportunity for any more sheep to be used upon the ranges. 
Hence, as the population of the United States increases and 
our imports of foreign products diminish, a portion of the 
growth of the country in sheep husbandry should occur in 
New England. 

Our subject is "Sheep raising in Massachusetts," but we 
have broadened it to the consideration of sheep husbandry 
in New England, because the conditions are similar in all 
of the six eastern States. The following figures for each 
of these States show that the decrease of flocks has been 
marked in all of them, though somewhat less proportionately 
in Maine than in the other States : — 

1900. IMO. 

Maine, 237,602 649,264 

New Hampshire, 76,176 617,890 

Vermont, 169,136 1,681,819 

Massachusetts, 39,790 378,226 

Rhode Island, 10^94 90,146 

Connecticut, 31,016 403,462 

Total, 664,013 3,820,807 

Many farmers have lately been met who were willing to 
take from 10 to 100 sheep each, upon a three-years lease, for 
half the wool and half the increase. Assuming that each 
sheep produced but $1 worth of wool, and that the flock 
yielded 90 lambs at a value of but $3 each, the total increase 
of lambs and wool would be $370. Supposing the cost of 
the 100 sheep to be $500, — and I am purposely figuring 
high upon sheep and low upon the products of the flock, — 
the owner of the sheep would receive $185, or 37 per cent 



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142 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

per annum upon an investment of $500; while the lessee 
would receive the same amount, together with whatever 
benefit might accrue to his pastures and fields from the graz- 
ing in summer and the dressing which accumulated in winter. 
I should be glad to be one of an association to furnish sheep 
to any fSetrmer who desired them, upon that basis, as a long 
step in the direction of ownership of a flock for himself. 
K he kept the increase in ewe lambs, he would have the 
basis of a very respectable flock at the end of the three years. 
It would be impossible for the flock to yield results less 
satisfactory than I have named above, if it were kept free 
from disease and dogs. But an average degree of intelli- 
gence and care in management would yield far better results 
than I have named. It would be as easy to keep sheep 
which will yield $2 worth of wool per head as $1 worth, 
and it is equally easy to obtain more than $3 each for the 
lambs. If the lambs came early, it might be possible to 
obtain $10 apiece and upward for them when two months 
old. Or, if thoroughbred sheep were kept, — in which 
event, of course, the original cost of the flock would be 
higher, — a ready market at high prices could be obtained in 
the middle western States and in the far west beyond the 
Mississippi River. 

The New England Wool Growers' Association has recently 
been organized as a corporation, and we have obtained for it 
as high as 600 members ; and what we need is a co-operative 
feature, with a system of shares and loans not unlike our 
Massachusetts co-operative banks. Without some such 
method of co-operation it will not be possible to introduce 
the educational features necessary to induce the great 
majority of New England farmers to engage in sheep hus- 
bandry to any important extent. An addition of 3,000,000 
sheep to the flocks now kept in New England would mean 
an increase of at least $15,000,000 per annum in our present 
product of wool and lambs ; and an improvement in our 
agricultural lands which would do much toward retaining 
upon the farms a rural population of the high character of 
former years. 

In any wholesale eflfort to increase the flocks of New 
England, of course the first question would be, where the 

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No. 4.] SHEEP RAISING. 143 

ewes should be obtained. In the great west, some years 
ago, when w^ool growing was increasing by leaps and bounds, 
the large enhancement in the number of sheep was possible 
through the purchase of the scrubby Mexican ewes at low 
prices, and the crossing upon them of Merino rams. If ewes 
for New England were to be purchased in the Brighton 
market, the danger would be of obtaining animals which had 
been rejected by farmers because they were impotent, or 
would not breed. Ewes of this description often come to 
Buffalo and other centres in lots of two or three from 
numerous points in Ohio, Indiana, Canada and other sheep 
sections, and are made up into carload lots. Many ewe 
lambs come to Brighton in carload lots, but are generally in 
such good condition that they would lose flesh if put out 
upon farms, and possibly their cost would even be too great 
to use for that purpose. The best way in which to increase 
the number of sheep in New England would be to induce 
the farmers to buy the ewe lambs of their neighbors, and 
to discourage the sale of ewe lambs for a series of years. 
Just now carloads of sheep could be bought throughout the 
west at very moderate prices, owing to the disappointment 
which has occurred during the past seven or eight months in 
the condition of the wool market ; but in selecting ewes for 
New England in those sections, great care would need to be 
taken that they should be young and thrifty. 

One of the necessities of successful sheep husbandry in 
New England would be the profitable disposal of the old ewes 
after they were no longer thrifty as breeders. West of the 
Mississippi Kiver the large flocks of sheep develop some 
specialists in various kinds of sheep husbandry; for 
instance, I have met men in the west who made a specialty 
of buying broken-mouthed ewes, — that is, ewes which, 
either from age or accident, had lost their teeth, so that they 
were no longer able to pick up a living upon the range; 
and these feeders made a specialty of buying them and tak- 
ing them up into Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, where 
they fattened them upon grain and put them into the market 
at a profit. 

In the far west the range men formerly often kept their 
ewes until they died of old age, the theory being that 

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144 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

enough of them would have lambs to offset the losses of the 
weak and aged animals during the winter ; and under such 
circumstances some ewes twelve or thirteen years of age 
would still produce lambs. At the sheep slaughter house in 
Somerville a wether died recently which was known to be more 
than twenty years of age, and had been used as a ** decoy " 
in leading the lambs to the shambles for nearly the whole of 
that period ; but it is generally considered that ewes cease to 
be thrifty in New England at five or six years of age, and 
can then be turned into mutton at a profit. 

One of the largest sheep butchers in New England in- 
formed me the other day that there never are any fall lambs 
in the eastern States which are fit for the Boston market ex- 
cepting a few in Aroostook County, Me., in the neighbor- 
hood of St. Johnsbury, Vt., and around Colebrook, N. H. 
His idea is that all the good lambs for the Boston market, 
except a few from the three little sections named, come from 
the British provinces. He argued that there are no pastures 
and no form of green feed in all New England that will 
make lambs fat without the use of grain ; but when the argu- 
ment of any of these skeptics regarding the possibility of 
successful sheep husbandry in New England is carefully 
analyzed in detail, it is found to be inconclusive. K it is 
argued that sheep cannot possibly be kept here, because of 
dogs, the answer is that the dogs may be kept out by proper 
fencing. If it is claimed that the fence is too costly, the 
reply is that the fence is no more costly here than elsewhere. 
If it is urged that the pastures are too poor, the answer is 
that the sheep will improve them ; and if it is insisted that 
the lands are old, the reply is that the prices of land in New 
England are far cheaper than in the farm sections of the 
west. 

The year 1840 was the first time when sheep were enu- 
merated in the United States census, and the total for the 
whole nation was 19,311,000. For twenty years after that 
period there was little increase in the country as a whole. 
In 1850 the number given was 21,773,000, and in 1860 only 
22,471,275. During the war and for a few years thereafter 
a very rapid advance was made, from about 22,000,000 
to possibly 42,000,000, followed by a decline in the years 

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No. 4.] SHEEP RAISING. 145 

subsequent to the civil war to 31,000,000 in 1871. The 
number had risen again to 40,000,000 in 1880 and to 
50,626,626 in 1884, which was the largest number of sheep 
ever enumerated in the United States. In 1898 the number 
had fallen to 36,818,643, since which time there has been an 
increase to the present total of 41,883,065. If the number 
of sheep in the United States again rises to 50,000,000 or 
over, a considerable portion of the gain should be in the 
New England States. 

The change in the wool clip of our country has not corre- 
sponded fully with the change in the numbers of sheep, since 
improvement by breeding and by better care has more than 
doubled the weight of fleece ; but the consumption of mutton 
and lamb for food purposes has undoubtedly increased in 
greater ratio than our gain in population ; and yet we are by 
no means abreast of Great Britain in our consumption of 
mutton per capita, since England not only consumes all of 
the large meat production of its own flocks of sheep and 
lambs, but is an enormous importer of mutton from Austral- 
asia, the Argentine Republic and the United States. Some 
splendid consignments of fat muttons and lambs are shipped 
from Boston by nearly every steamer engaged in that class 
of trade. 

If it were practicable to prohibit the slaughter of ewe lambs 
in Massachusetts for a series of say five or ten years, we 
could thereby re-establish our flocks. We have closed sea- 
sons for deer and other wild animals in the various States ; 
though of course a law to prohibit the marketing of ewe 
lambs to the butcher would be viewed by many as sumptuary 
legislation of a more extreme character than the prohibitory 
liquor law or Sunday closing acts. In our rural districts 
many of the inhabitants feel that they must sell their ewe 
lambs, as well as everything else which they can profitably 
turn into cash, before winter sets in ; hence they will keep 
the same ewes year after year, and sell all their ewe lambs, 
until the old ewes are finally disposed of as ** canners," that 
is, to the various canning factories, at merely a nominal 
price. If the ewe lambs could be retained, or sold to other 
fiarmers who would keep them from the butcher, the flocks 
of New England would increase rapidly ; but, in order to 

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146 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

retain them, the fietrmer roast feel assured that he is going to 
be able to keep them for a series of years, and not be so 
pressed for funds as to be compelled to sell them, without 
breeding, the second year, when they would possibly bring 
less money than they would have brought as lambs. 

The decline in sheep husbandry in New England undoubt- 
edly began with the decline in household manufactures, and 
was enhanced by the competition of the great grazing regions 
in the free ranges west of the Mississippi River and by the 
ravages of dogs among our small flocks in the badly fenced 
pastures of the eastern States. When the wholesale sheep 
raising of the west and the passing away of household manu- 
factures in the east first began to reduce the flocks of the 
New England farmer, he failed to build the industry upon 
new conditions. He also failed to resist the depreciation of 
his flock because of in-breeding, and to adopt a class of sheep 
that would endure such housing in considerable numbers 
as is necessary through the New England winters. That 
** worms kill more sheep than dogs" is the terse and true 
heading of a good many advertisements of various vermifiiges 
throughout the United States ; and a multitude of internal 
parasites are developed in the so-called mutton breeds of 
sheep by excessive housing. In the severe winters of our 
New England States, where considerable housing is necessary, 
the sheep should have some percentage of Merino blood, in 
order to survive the artificial conditions under which they 
are kept. 

The breed of sheep which I have selected as the proper 
cross from which to obtain this resistance to the evils of 
winter housing is the Rambouillet. The ** native sheep '^ 
of New England, being wholly of English origin, contract 
fatal diseases with such certainty, if kept in large bands, that 
the farmers of Massachusetts and Maine have been accustomed 
to assert in general terms that sheep will not thrive if kept 
in flocks of more than 30 or 40 head ; but, with a fair per- 
centage of Rambouillet or other Merino blood in them, there 
is no limit to the number of sheep that can be kept in a flock 
in Massachusetts or others of the New England States. 

Before referring briefly to the various English breeds of 
sheepi we will consider for a moment the origin of the Ram- 

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No.. 4.] SHEEP RAISING. 147 

bouillet. On Oct. 12, 1786, Louis XVI of France placed 
on the government experimental farm at Rambouillet, France, 
334 ewes and 42 rams, taken from 10 of the best Spanish 
sheepfolds, according to the recommendation of the king 
of Spain himself. The weights of the unshorn bucks were 
approximately from 110 to 120 pounds, and of the unshorn 
ewes about 72.5 to 88 pounds. The fleece of the bucks 
weighed about 8.8 pounds, and that of the ewes about 7.7 
pounds. The object was to send out reproducers from this 
flock as a free gift to the choicest flocks in France. No new 
blood has been added to the flock since 1800. In the cata- 
logue of the Oregon State fair this year I was told that the 
managers made a class of French Merinos and a separate 
class of Rambouillets ; but I have not been informed how 
any such distinction could properly be made. From 1840 
until the present time the object has been to produce Merinos, 
of which the animals were at the same time valuable for 
slaughtering and for the production of wool. In 1867 the 
bucks of the Rambouillet flock weighed, with their fleece, 
192.5 pounds, and the ewes 135.3 pounds, also with the 
fleece included. 

Another famous flock of Rambouillets in France is the 
Victor Gilbert, which was started in 1800 from Rambouillet, 
France, by a gift from Emperor Napoleon, who took special 
pride in the sheepfold at Rambouillet, and visited them 
often. Still another famous flock from which these sheep 
have been brought in large numbers to the United States is 
that of Baron F. Von Horaeyer of Pomerania, Russia, who 
started his flock from Rambouillet, France, in 1850. From 
the three famous European flocks of Rambouillet sheep just 
mentioned have come the great number of Rambouillet sheep 
now in the United States. 

I have now about 200 sheep and lambs of this description, 
and am finally disposing of any other breeds that I have 
had. Rambouillet rams which are offered for breeding pur- 
poses in the United States range as high occasionally as 
300 pounds or more each. At the head of a famous French 
Merino flock in California, which I visited this summer, was 
until recently ** Taxpayer, '^ weighing 324 pounds and shear- 
ing 54 pounds of wool per annum ; but this noble animal 

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148 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

died not long ago, and the present owner of the flock has 
rams which he expects will take the place of *' Taxpayer" in 
weight of carcass and fleece. 

But we do not argue in favor of mammoth size for the 
Rambouillet. What we claim is, that no cross-bred flock of 
sheep in New England can succeed unless Merino blood is 
one of its component parts, and that no flock of sheep can 
be profitably conducted upon a large scale without Merino 
blood. The Rambouillet ewes mature earlier than the 
Spanish or so-called American Merino, and can drop their 
first lambs without injury when two years old. 

As to the production of thoroughbred rams in Massachu- 
setts for the western trade, our advantages are fully equal to 
those of Michigan, where an enormous business of this kind 
is done. Our lands are cheaper, our winters no more severe, 
and we can obtain as cheap freight rates. On single animals, 
in crates, express charges are prohibitory ; but on carload 
lots the rates from New England points as far west as 
Oregon would be precisely the same as from Michigan, Ohio 
and Illinois points. The rams should bring $25 per head 
in carload lots, and have sometimes been sold in such lots 
the past year at $50 per head west of the Mississippi. A 
combination between even 100 New England farmers would 
produce carload lots for the western trade, and enable each 
farmer to operate individually in the sale of single animals 
locally, as well as in raising wool, lambs and sheep for 
ordinary market purposes. 

I hope I have not been misunderstood as disparaging in 
the least degree the great merits of the British breeds of 
sheep with which the farmers of New England are so familiar. 
The Southdown is one of the oldest breeds of sheep in the 
world, and is the product of many years of careful training 
by English farmers, — in fact, it may be said to be coeval 
with English agriculture. There are farmers in Massachu- 
setts who have devoted more or less time through their whole 
lives to sheep husbandry, who would have no other ram 
than a Southdown for the production of early lambs. Just 
previous to his death, I think Mr. E. F. Bowditch of 
Framingham had decided that he would have no other rams 
than Hampshires for the production of early lambs. Then 



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No. 4.] SHEEP RAISING. 149 

the Shropshire is one of the most popalar of the so-called 
** mutton" breeds of sheep. Then,' for size of carcass, the 
Leicesters, Cotswolds and Lincolns all have their friends. 
Thoroughbred rams of all of these English breeds of sheep 
are in demand among the large wool growers west of the 
Mississippi River, for the purpose of introducing special 
features into their flocks from time to time. When the 
ranchmen are prosperous, they prefer to change their rams 
every two or three years, and many of them believe that 
cross-breeding by the use of thoroughbred rams produces a 
larger type of sheep than either of the parents ; hence, when 
the Merino blood approaches the thoroughbred stage, they 
will use some of the English families of rams for a brief 
period, hastening to restore the Merino blood again when 
the coarse wools and other crosses of the English sheep 
become too apparent. 

An association could be formed of a suflScient number of 
farmers in New England to produce thoroughbred animals 
of any of the English or so-called ** mutton " breeds of sheep, 
and dispose of their stud rams and ewes in sufficient numbers 
in other sections of the United States to divide a handsome 
profit among themselves. But such sheep cannot be kept in 
flocks of more than 30 to 50, and they must be pampered 
and cared for with much greater zeal than even in England, 
where the milder climate permits the sheep to get their living 
out of doors practically throughout the year. It is some- 
times said that these ^' mutton " sheep will poison a pasture 
so that it cannot be used many years consecutively. This is 
only true when the sheep are diseased, and transmit animal 
parasites to the soil. No study in insectology would proba- 
bly be more interesting than that of animal parasites which 
are transmitted from other animals and through water and 
vegetation to sheep. Just why the Rambouillet sheep are 
so much less susceptible than Shropshires, Leicesters and 
other English breeds of sheep to the numerous forms of 
worms and other internal parasites, is a matter concerning 
which some gentleman present may be better informed than 
I am. I merely state a fact, which is as true as that some 
races of human beings will live under conditions which would 
be fittal to other races of the universal &mily of mankind. 

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150 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

With dogs I have had fiir less trouble than with worms, 
both in Maine and in Massachusetts, as I have found my 
barbed-wire fences substantially dog-proof. In Massachu- 
setts I have used cedar posts, a carload of which I brought 
up from Maine, at a cost of 4 cents each for the posts and 
3 cents each for transportation. The carload included 1,000 
posts. We have set the posts 8 feet apart, using a crowbar 
to make the holes, and then driving the posts with a sledge 
about 2 feet into the ground, leaving about 4 feet above the 
ground. In Maine we have used old cedar raib taken from 
the ** Virginia ** rail fences formerly used. 

The posts used in Massachusetts were small, averaging 
perhaps 3 to 5 inches in diameter. The wire weighs a pound 
to the rod, and has cost us as low as 2| cents per pound, 
though more recently it has cost 5 cents per pound. It is 
now considerably cheaper, though I have not had occasion 
to get recent quotations. As there are 320 rods in a mile, 
it follows that 1 ton of wire weighing a pound to the rod 
would stretch over 6 J miles for a single strand. A mile of 
seven-strand fence, therefore, would weigh just 2,240 pounds, 
and, at 5 cents per pound, would cost $122. To make a 
perfect fence a staple would be needed for each wire at each 
post. The labor of building the fence is trifling. There 
is hardly anything on the &rm so cheap as a barbed-wire 
fence. 

Our fences are practically dog-proof where we use but six 
strands of wire and one wooden rail to steady the posts, but 
seven strands are better. We put the first strand very close 
to the ground, so that the sheep and dogs cannot crawl 
under. Where the ground is irregular, the wire would rest 
upon the earth in places, and should not be more than 3 
inches from the ground at any point. We put the second 
wire 4 incheg above the first, the third wire 5 inches above 
the second, the fourth wire 6 inches above the third, the fifth 
wire 6 inches above the fourth, the sixth wire 8 inches above 
the fifth, then a wooden rail 8 inches above the sixth wire, 
and a seventh strand of wire 8 inches above the wooden rail. 
This, of course, may be varied somewhat, according to cir- 
cumstances, but it is substantially the kind of fence that we 
use, and it has proved effective. It is perfectly satisfactory, 



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No. 4.] SHEEP RAISING. 151 

also, for cowsy but of coarse must not be used where horses 
are pastured. 

Some people think the barbed-wire fence is improper for 
sheep, because little tufts of wool are seen hanging upon it 
in sheep pastures where it is used ; but all the wool that is 
ever lost in this way in a flock of 500 sheep would hardly 
amount to the value of a single animal. The sheep speedily 
get acquainted with the fence, and leave it alone. The dogs 
cannot crawl under or through the wires, and they will not 
jump over ; because my experience is, that a fence of that 
height is never troubled by a dog unless it is something that 
he can put his paws upon when jumping over. I have made 
some examination of woven wire and other forms of fences 
for sheep, and am convinced that for my own use they are 
not equal to barbed wire, and are several times as costly. 

I early took the ground that, if we saw a dog in our sheep 
field, he should be promptly shot, and then we would decide 
afterward whether we had a right to shoot him. My men 
said the dogs were licensed ; but I said I did not care, — 
they must be shot. Curiously enough, yesterday I saw a 
decision of the supreme court of Massachusetts on this sub- 
ject. A valuable dog had been shot on a man's premises in 
the act of worrying hens. The owner of the dog fought the 
case through the supreme court, and the supreme bench re- 
turned a verdict justifying the killing of dogs under such 
circumstances. I think that is a very useful thing for us to 
know. A predatory animal, being engaged in killing do- 
mestic animals, there being no other way to prevent it, can 
be killed. 

Since the above was written I have been compelled by un- 
fortunate circumstances to add the following postscript. I 
had been interested in sheep more or less all of my life, and 
quite largely during the past ten years, without any trouble 
of consequence from dogs, but during the past few weeks 
I have lost a ram and three valuable ewes from dogs. In one 
case an occurrence in Saugus, which occupied much attention 
in the daily papers, caused thousands of visitors to swarm 
over the fields in our neighborhood, and they would leave 
the gate open and walk into our sheep pasture. In one 
instance such an invader was accompanied by a dog that 

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152 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

killed a sheep, and we promptly killed the dog. Shortly 
after three large dogs got into the pasture and killed a ram 
and two ewes, and were seen endeavoring to effect their 
escape through the barbed-wire fence after the crime had 
been committed, but too late to go to the house to get a gun 
to kill the dogs. It was subsequently discovered that the 
dogs got into the fields by climbing upon pieces of old stone 
walls which had been carelessly left in too close proximity 
to the fence. The sheep were promptly put into another 
enclosure, surrounded by barbed-wire fence, without any 
walls adjoining. In this case, if the wire had been placed 
on top of the wall the canine invasion would not have oc- 
curred, but it was because the wall allowed a resting place 
for the dog, or a point of advantage from which he could 
jump over the fence, that he was enabled to enter the pasture. 
No losses have occurred since the sheep were removed to 
the new enclosure. 

I make this explanation because I am no longer able to 
say that I never had any trouble of importance with dogs, 
as I could have said when I had this paper nearly completed. 
But this diflSculty was due in a measure to our negligence, 
and in a period of ten years my losses have been very small. 

The number of sheep in Michigan, Ohio, Texas, Califor- 
nia and some others of the far western or western middle 
States has diminished greatly in recent years, but in such 
States as Michigan and Ohio the character and value of the 
animals has increased in many cases. The State of Michigan 
alone still had 1,389,073 sheep on the 1st of January of the 
present year, or nearly three times as many as in all New 
England. Michigan breeders receive very high prices for 
their thoroughbred sheep for the western trade, but in Michi- 
gan land is higher than in the agricultural districts of New 
England. Much of their land is no more fertile than ours, 
and their climate is fully as severe as ours. 

The number of sheep in the British Islands is 33,562,406, 
with a population of 38,104,975, or nearly one sheep per 
capita. The number of sheep in the United States is but 
41,883,065, with a population of 80,000,000, or about half 
a sheep per capita. Land is cheaper in New England than 
in Old England, but it is necessary to educate our people 

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No. 4.] SHEEP RAISING. 153 

into keeping that breed of sheep best adapted to our soil 
and climate. We cannot copy England or France or Spain 
or even the more distant parts of our own nation, but we 
must receive suggestions from each of those localities, and 
adapt them to the peculiar requirements of our own section. 

It is at least an interesting coincidence that a diminution 
of population in the rural districts of New England and a 
deterioration of character has followed the decrease in num- 
bers of sheep. The average population per square mile of 
all northern New England, — that is to say, of Maine, 
New Hampshire and Vermont, — including their cities, 
towns and villages, is less than the average population per 
square mile of 24 other States in the Union. Among the 
States having a greater density of population than Maine, 
New Hampshire and Vermont, are Virginia, West Virginia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa. Who would have thought 
that rural New England had so fallen behind other rural 
States, and that similar jSgures would be shown for rural 
Massachusetts were it not for the great population of our 
cities, which enlarges the average for the whole State. 

The American Sunday School Union, through Rev. Dr. 
Addison P. Foster, district secretary for New England, has 
lately printed some startling literature upon this subject, 
noting three influences that are working against the character 
of the niral districts of New England : first, the migration 
of New England people to the west, the full force of which 
movement has now passed ; second, the movement of the 
population from the country into the city ; third, the change 
that is going on in the population from native to foreign 
bom, with the result that the rural communities of New 
England are losing their old-time Puritan conditions and 
coming more and more under the sway of foreign elements 
and ideas. Doctor Foster says : ** The results of these three 
unfavorable influences are patent in the growing religious 
destitution, ignorance and immorality of outlying rural dis- 
tricts in New England." But the authority whom I have 
just quoted also sees light in the movement which is now 
growing toward the return of people of the old New England 
character toward the rural districts ; and I wish I had the 

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154 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

time to submit to this meeting about two hundred letters of 
inquiry respecting sheep which I received in a single week 
recently, some of them from men who have been working 
in the cities, and who would like to get back on to the 
faims. 

Toward this problem of the restoration of sheep husbandry 
in New England we must turn our attention, as to a perfectly 
practicable enterprise. In this paper I have not discussed 
some of the details and methods of successful sheep hus- 
bandry in New England as much as I should have liked to, 
but those features can be included incidentally with any 
comments or questions which may be introduced. My plea 
is for a united effort, upon the part of agricultural societies 
and all other organizations concerned, for the character as 
well as for the material prosperity of New England to enlist 
themselves in a movement for the restoration of sheep hus- 
bandry in our rural communities. 

The Chatkman. This subject is now open for general 
discussion. 

Mr. Pratt (of North Middleborough). I would like to 
ask to what extent a flock of sheep will assist in keeping 
down bushes, provided the bushes are all cut to commence 
with. To what extent would the sheep give assistance in 
keeping a pasture clear of bushes ? 

Mr. Bennett. I would say in a general way they will 
do a great deal. Sheep have a taste and a selection of their 
own, and they are very fond of tender shrubs. I believe 
about all New England fields, with the exception of a few 
swampy places, have a tendency to grow up to trees ; there 
is scarcely any land that will not grow up to trees, if let 
alone. The sheep like to eat the tender shoots of most 
vegetation. They will not eat clover, if it grows in the 
shade and is sour ; they will not eat fine grass in certain 
places, and I have never seen sheep eating brakes. I have 
inquired of others in regard to it. I think Mr. Bowditch 
said he once made them eat brakes by feeding them close and 
feeding them grain. It may be that when the brake is just 
appearing they would eat it. Sheep will clean up a pasture, 
and if you stock a pasture early in the season, so that they 



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No. 4.] SHEEP RAISING. 155 

can get at the vegetation when it is starting, and stock it 
sufficiently well, they will keep vegetation down. 

Mr. Pratt. What we call huckleberry bushes come up 
in our section to a great extent. 

Mr. Bennett. I think the sheep would be of great assist- 
ance if the bushes were mowed down first. When they are 
four or five inches high I do not think the sheep would eat 
them. If the sheep were put in the pasture early in the sea- 
son, and the bushes had been cut, it is my impression that 
they would keep them down if the pasture is sufficiently well 
stocked. 

Mr. Pratt. I had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Bennett's 
fSarm this last season, and I gained the impression that the 
sheep were nearly taking care of the pasture. 

Mr. Bennett. I think they will, but they will not take a 
large-sized bush. 

A. E. Blount (of Colorado). I want to ask why the 
Australian breed produces the finest wool in the world and 
is so poor in carcass. I have had experience with sheep in 
the south and in the south-west and west, and I find that the 
South American sheep do not produce wool, but hair, and 
the mutton is very inferior. Three hundred and ten thousand 
lambs were introduced in the vicinity of Greeley last week 
for feeding purposes. They are fed on alfalfa. It is very 
dangerous to feed to cattle and to sheep when it is wet. 
The sheep are fed the alfalfa from the stack. The sheep are 
kept in flocks of 1,500 to 2,000 or 3,000. We have no grub 
there. We have no disease among the sheep. The only 
difficulty there is the interference of the cattle men. The 
sheep will destroy any pasture in the west. The western 
pasture is subject to a very small amount of rain during the 
year. We lose sheep by storms. I wish to ask about the 
breeding for fine wool. 

Mr. Bennett. So far as the question relates to in-breed- 
ing in New England, there are probably those in the audience 
who know more about it than I do, because the results and 
conditions are exactly the same in all the other animals and 
in mankind. I would like to touch upon that a minute. 
Australia is not a good mutton country, and New Zealand is. 
I think that is almost wholly a question of the kind of sheep 

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156 BOAED OF AGRICULTUEE. [Pub. Doc. 

that the owners thought best suited to their climate and soil. 
In Australia they run for wool, without paying any particular 
attention to mutton. In New Zealand they pay attention to 
mutton, and wool is a side issue. The reason they do not 
raise mutton in Australia is that they do not want to, for the 
wool is more profitable. The only place, — I say this with 
some fear and diffidence, because of the different opinion 
held in Vermont, — in my judgment, where they still cling 
tenaciously to the small body of the Merino, is in Australia, 
because they fit into the requirements of their wool industry ; 
for they want wool and not body, and the difficulties of the 
situation seem to be met in that way. 

The Mexican sheep is a wild, primitive sheep, descended 
from sheep brought over by Columbus on his second voyage 
and left at Panama ; and the Spanish brought sheep from 
Spain. From these sheep have descended the numerous 
flocks of sheep in Mexico, which have reverted back, just as 
mankind would revert back, were it not for the influences 
continually pressing him forward. The Mexican sheep have 
reverted back to the original type. Instead of wool, they 
grow hair, and are small in body. One important thing 
about them is that they respond with most marvelous rapid- 
ity to the introduction of improved blood. In an astonish- 
ingly short period you can convert a flock of Mexican sheep 
into a flock of good wool-bearing sheep, by the use of im- 
proved rams. 

This Eambouillet breed that I have been talking about, its 
descendants are scattered through the United States and 
Europe and South America. This Sambouillet type is like 
the Jewish race, — the product of in-breeding. The Jewish 
race is one of our strongest, most enduring races, and it is a 
race in which in-breeding has been the rule. On the general 
subject of in-breeding I am not so well informed as many in 
the audience. As I understand it, in every-day work and 
every-day business it is to be avoided. The ranchman of 
the west changes his rams every two or three years, if he can 
afford to. He practises discrimination and care and study in 
the selection of the best animals. I think a great deal of in- 
jury has been done to sheep husbandry in New England by 
careless in-breeding, by the multiplication of defects^ by the 

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No. 4.] SHEEP RAISING. 157 

in-breeding of defective sheep. In every-day business it is 
to be avoided, because it is a method which is only to be 
employed with great care and discrimination. 

Mr. A. M. Lyman (of Montague). Does not a cross 
between the Merino and Southdown make the best class of 
sheep that can be grown? 

Mr. Bennett. I think it makes an elegant sheep. I am 
not prepared to say that it makes any better sheep than a 
cross with some other breeds. The Southdown is the 
fevorite sheep with many people. The cross with the 
Merino makes an elegant sheep. The Merino blood gives 
the sheep the capacity for enduring housing through our 
New England winters. 

Mr. Lyman. I have been engaged in buying sheep for 
the last fifty years, and I have never found any really better 
sheep for the market than a cross between the Southdown 
and the Merino. 

Mr. BuRSLEY. You would recommend any of the Downs 
crossed with the Merino, as a rule for Massachusetts ? 

Mr. Bennett. I think they make a fine sheep for Massa- 
chusetts. If perpetuated, you get onto the old question of 
grade animals. For the first cross it is all right, but after 
that it is the old question of the extent to which cross-breed- 
ing is satisfactory. People claim that it can be earned so 
far as to make the animals useless. v 

Mr. Lyman. Is it not more difficult to dispose of old 
sheep in the markets now than it was forty years ago ? 

Mr. Bennett. I imagine it is. I think the taste and the 
fashion in lamb and mutton have changed somewhat. I think 
there is a fad in wanting such fat mutton chops. They are 
the fashion at the present time. Old sheep used to be in 
good demand by the canning factories ; it made no difierence 
how thin they were. There is not as good a demand as 
there used to be for old sheep. 

Mr. Lyman. I used to buy nothing but old sheep, and 
feed them and butcher them for the market ; I sold no lambs ; 
but now the market demands all lambs, or mostly lambs, and 
few old sheep. 

Mr. Bennett. That is the New England market. The 
New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company at Somer- 

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158 BOAED OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

yille kills every year about the same number as there are 
sheep and lambs in all New England, — that is, about 
550,000 every year. I presume there are not over 50,000 
killed in all the rest of Massachusetts. These old sheep 
used to be fed very largely in the Connecticut valley 
in the tobacco sections. At the present time there is no 
great number of sheep around here ; they are brought from 
the west. 

In regard to ewe lambs, I take it that there is a large 
number of poor farmers in New England who would like to 
keep their ewe lambs, and who believe that if they could 
keep them for a series of years it would pay, but they cannot 
afford to do it, for in the fall they must turn into cash every- 
thing that will bring cash. 

Mr. Lyman. My impression is that the decrease in the 
number of sheep kept in Massachusetts is largely due to 
dogs. Dogs always select the best ewe and ewe lamb when 
after sheep. 

Hon. Wm. R. Sessions (of Springfield). I have no 
doubt Mr. Lyman is correct in the reason for the decrease 
in the number of sheep kept, but I think the speaker has 
given a method by which the depredations by dogs can bo 
almost suppressed. It requires a little capital and enter- 
prise to fence a pasture. Some years ago I had the honor 
of submitting to this Board the cost of fencing pastures in 
something the way he has proposed to-day.* I think it is 
perfectly feasible in our towns. Most of the pastures are 
surrounded with the trees necessary to supply the posts, 
and the expense is simply for the wire and staples. With 
such a fence you can keep the dogs out. I do believe it will 
pay the farmers on the hills to attempt that very thing. It 
is the cheapest sort of a fence that is effectual in keeping 
sheep. As far as danger to other animals from the wire is 
concerned, I do not think it need be considered. On the 
prairies in the west, where they use only barbed-wire for 
fences, it is the practice to take the young horses to the 
barbed- wire fence and prick their noses. They are taught 
to respect a barbed-wire fence. If that process is not 

• •* Agrlcaltnre of Massachasetts/' 1891, p. 124. 

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No. 4.] SHEEP RAISING. 159 

carried on, the horse will ran into the fence and injure him- 
self at the first opportunity ; with that precaution there is no 
trouble. The same thing is to a large extent practised with 
mature horses. They are taught that barbed-wire fence is a 
danger to them. The feeling that barbed- wire fence is cruel , 
and should not be used by humane people, is simply a fad, 
and held by those who know nothing about it practically^ as 
I look at it. 

It is true that sheep are a great help in keeping down 
brush in every case. There are some troublesome bushes 
that they will kill out ; for instance, the high and low black- 
berries. They will take every leaf they can reach on the 
white birch on some sorts of land, but that does not hold 
true on the mountains. There they find other herbage that 
suits them so well that they neglect the white birch. On 
sandy soil they will take every white birch they can find. 
By overstocking the pasture and making it up in grain, you 
can force or induce them to eat almost any kind of bushes. 
If the bushes are cut ofi* in the first place, you can depend 
on the sheep to keep them down if they are kept a little 
short for food. They will keep down huckleberry bushes and 
almost any bushes. 

I think if the fiirmers would go into the sheep business to 
a certain extent they would find that they had benefited 
themselves exceedingly. 

Mr. Lyman. In regard to the wire fence, the great trouble 
is lack of co-operation among the farmers. It is almost im- 
possible to induce them to put up a wire fence where they 
do not think they need it, and the man who owns the sheep 
must do the whole. 

Mr. Blount. Mr. Sessions spoke of the wire fence being 
injurious to young horses. That is true. We obviate that 
by putting a blocked wire on top. The blocks are about 
two inches square, and are put in every six inches, making it 
possible for the horse to see it before he reaches it. We do 
not have the sheep surrounded by wire. The pastures are 
the public domains, and the sheep on the public domains are 
controlled by very few shepherds and dogs. 

The very small amount of moisture in the air there does 
not carry the germs of the different diseases and we do not 

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160 BOARD OF AGRICULTUKE. [Pub. Doc. 

have them. The air is so dry that it will not transport tuber- 
culosis or consumption. We do not have the different dis- 
eases among the sheep. 

Mr. Bennett. The east and the west have their own 
peculiar diseases. We have no scab in New England ; the 
west has been tremendously ravaged by the scab. What 
Mr. Blount says about freedom from pulmonary diseases is 
undoubtedly true, but each section has its own difficulties. 
We have no scab ; we have very little foot rot ; we have a 
great deal more trouble with foot rot among cattle than 
sheep. So we balance the west pretty well by freedom from 
scab, so far as diseases are concerned. 

The Chairman. The next subject is •* Farm law." It is 
my pleasure to introduce to you Mr. M. F. Dickinson, Jr., 
of the firm of Dickinson & Dickinson, attomeys-at-law, 
Boston. 



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No. 4,] RURAL LAW. 161 



SOME ASPECTS OF THE LAW AS APPLIED TO RURAL 

AFFAIRS. 



BY H. P. DICKINSON, JR., BOSTON. 



About five and twenty years ago, daring the administra- 
tion of President William S. Clark of the Agricultural Col- 
lege , I used to spend a portion of one of the spring months 
in delivering a course of lectures to the senior class in that 
institution upon **Law as applied to rural affairs. ** The 
service was a very pleasant one. The young gentlemen 
entered into the study of the subject with commendable 
zeal, and I believe reaped some advantage from the course. 
It is possible that this fact may have been known to the 
secretary of the Board when he asked me to speak on this 
occasion. 

At the December meeting of this Board, in 1878, Judge 
Edmund H. Bennett of Taunton, the dean of Boston Uni- 
versity Law School, delivered an address before this body. 
He took for his subject **Farm law," — the same topic 
which is announced for me upon this programme. I cannot 
expect to rival the high authority and classic style which 
characterized Judge Bennett's address, and its reproduction, 
in an expanded form, which appeared in print at a later day, 
but I may be able to supplement what he so well said. I 
should like to designate my subject as << Some aspects of 
the law as applied to rural affairs.** 

There is no inappropriateness in asking an American 
lawyer to address a body of American agriculturists. Our 
country is pre-eminently the home of both the lawyer and 
the farmer. In no other nation of the world have these 
two classes been so closely related in shaping the national 
growth and welfare. It cannot be denied that the American 
fiirmer has always furnished to the American lawyer his full 

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162 BOAED OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

share of the litigation of the country. No class in the com- 
munity is more jealous or tenacious of its rights than agri- 
culturists; none enjoys more keenly the excitement and 
the uncertainties of a law suit. But litigation over small 
matters, which was prevalent in New England fiEirming 
communities one hundred years ago, is less common to-day 
than it was then. The old reports furnish some racy read- 
ing, which chronicles the disputes and quarrels frequently 
arising between neighboring tillers of the soil. 

Jeremiah Mason, that distinguished lawyer of New Hamj>- 
shire, who in his later life was one of the chief ornaments 
of the Boston bar, and who died in 1830 at an advanced 
age, won great reputation early in his practice by his suc- 
cessful conduct of the *^ pig cases" and his attacks upon 
the ** pig acts," so called, of the New Hampshire Legis- 
lature. The contest lasted several years, and became the 
chief subject of gossip in the State. A farmer client of 
Mr. Mason had a dispute with a neighbor over the title to 
two pigs, which were declared to bo of the value of one 
dollar. He was anxious to have a complaint for larceny 
sworn out against his fellow townsman. Mr. Mason be- 
lieved this was too extreme a measure, and declined to 
cause the arrest. He did advise an action of trover, as it is 
called, to determine the title to, and value of, the disputed 
property. A writ was duly placed in the hands of a con- 
stable for service. That officer, not finding the defendant 
at home, pushed the writ under the defendant's door, and 
made return that he had served it at the defendant's last 
and usual place of abode. The plaintiff, who lived near by, 
noticed the mode of service, and surreptitiously withdrew 
the summons and put it in his own pocket before the 
defendant's return, so that the latter had no notice of the 
suit at all until it had gone to judgment before a justice 
of the peace, and execution had issued. The defendant, 
naturally enough, made a great fuss about this little irregu- 
larity, and told Mr. Mason how that gentleman's client had 
been seen purloining the process of the court. Mr. Mason 
consulted with his client, and, finding the charge to be true, 
offered to have the judgment and execution cancelled, and 
to submit to a trial on the question of the ownership of the 

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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 163 

pigs. But this did not satisfy the defendant. He thought, 
whatever his own offence might have been in taking pos- 
session of the pigs, that his neighbor was more deeply cul- 
pable, in that he had stolen the summons of the court. So 
he rejected Mr. Mason's offer, and applied to the Legislature 
to remedy his grievance. Without any notice to the adverse 
party, the Legislature passed an act commanding the justice 
of the peace to cite the plaintiff into court, set aside the 
default, try the action and allow either party an appeal. 
Mr. Mason appeared before the justice and denied the right 
of the Legislature to pass such an act, claiming that it was 
unconstitutional, in that it was an encroachment upon the 
prerogative of the judiciary. The justice had been an ofl5- 
cer in the continental army, was rather a pompous citizen, 
and so readily accepted Mr. Mason's views, declared the 
act of the Legislature utterly void, declined to open the 
case and refused to allow any appeal. The next winter 
the plaintiff went back to the Legislature and procured the 
passage of a second act, directing the court of common pleas 
to allow an appeal ; but in that court the same result fol- 
lowed. Mr. Mason defeated the attempt to open the case 
on the ground that it was unconstitutional, and the court 
refused to have anjiihing to do with the matter. And thus 
it happened that the expressions *'pig actions" and **pig 
acts " became terms of common import throughout the State. 
The more the subject was talked about, the more ridiculous 
it seemed, until finally it drifted into contempt ; and since 
that day the Legislature of New Hampshire has never at- 
tempted to interfere with the prerogatives of the judges. 
Thus we see how efficient a smart lawyer and a litigious 
farmer may be in promoting law suits on the very small 
capital of two pigs, valued at one dollar. 

Real Propbrtt. 
At first thought it seems an easy thing to determine 
what real property is, but there are some difficulties about 
it. It is hard to give an exact and concise definition. Per- 
haps an old fashioned one will do as well as any other. 
<<Real estate consists of land, and of all the rights and 
profits rising from and annexed to land, which are of a 

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164 BOAED OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

permanent and immovable nature.** We usually speak of 
all this as lands^ tenements and hereditaments; and that is 
the language you will generally find in deeds of real estate 
in all the States. 

Land. 

The term land comprehends all meadows, pastures, woods, 
marshes and land covered by water. It has an indefinite 
extent upward and downward. Two important corollaries 
following from this definition are : first, that all minerals 
belong to the owner of land, in the absence of special legis- 
lation reserving them for the government; second, that no 
man has a right to erect a building so that the eaves or any 
other part will project upon his neighbor's land. The old 
Latin maxim of common law on this subject is ^^ Cujus est 
solum, ejus est usque ad coelum." Whatever is erected on 
land becomes part of it. Hence, if a man makes a deed of 
land without mentioning buildings, the latter pass by the 
deed ; still, it is usual to mention the buildings. A pew in a 
meeting house used to be considered real estate, but now, 
under the more common modem forms of church organiza- 
tions, it is generally treated as personal property. Seeds 
planted in the land, trees and bushes set out, though they 
have not yet taken root, are part of the real estate ; but trees 
and plants in boxes or pots would be personal property. 
If trees are planted near the division line of two estates, 
so that the roots are partly in one and partly in the other, 
such trees are the joint property of the two owners ; but 
if the roots are entirely one side of the dividing line, and 
only the branches overhang, the tree belongs to the estate 
where the roots are found. 

Manure made upon the {krin is considered such an essen- 
tial part of the property that it is treated as real estate in 
the conveyance of land, and would pass to the purchaser 
without special mention ; but manure made in a livery stable 
would be considered as personal property. The fish in a 
pond ai-e a part of the real estate. The fruit hanging on 
trees, and potatoes or root crops not yet dug out of the 
ground, are real estate; but when separated, as when the 
apples fall from the tree upon the ground, or potatoes have 
been dug and lie upon the land, they become personal 

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No. 4.] KURAL LAW. 165 

property. The keys of a house, and the window blinds, 
though easily removed from the premises, are constructively 
attached to the real estate, and are treated as a part of it. 
Water has never been considered real estate, from the very 
nature of that element, — its movable character. It is 
incapable of being fixed, and is constantly changing. 

If I wished to make a deed of an absolute title in a fish 
pond, I should describe the property as so much land 
covered with water, for the description of so many acres 
of water would amount to simply a license to fish in the 
pond. 

Emblements. 

The old French word embUer means **to sow wheat.** 
Prom that comes a term frequently employed in the law of 
real estate, ** emblements,** which means crops growing on 
the land ; that is, products which grow annually by ** great 
manurance and industry,** as the old phrase has it, such as 
rye, oats, com and other grains, but not the fruit of trees 
and grass. 

Questions frequently arise between tenants for life and 
tenants for years, which call for the application of the law of 
emblements. The original rules of the common law in refer- 
ence to these have been considerably modified by statutes in 
the various States. In a general way, the rule may be stated 
thus : the heirs of a tenant for life are entitled to the emble- 
ments, because the law allows him to assume that he will 
live long enough to harvest his crops ; but a tenant for a 
specified term is not entitled to emblements, because he 
knows the exact time when his tenancy will terminate. In 
other words, tenants for uncertain terms, that is, for life 
or at will, are entitled to the benefit of the crops they have 
planted, if their estate is terminated by their death or by 
the act of the lessor ; and this right to emblements extends 
to all crops of annual planting and cultivation except grass 
or fruits of trees ; and the rule goes still farther, so that, 
if there be an oral agreement for the sale of the land, and 
the buyer is allowed to take possession by the owner and to 
plant crops, but is afterwards ejected by the seller, the 
buyer may claim the crops, even though he cannot enforce 
tiiie parol contract for the sale of the land. 

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166 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Mortgages on Growing Crops. 

The giving of mortgages upon growing crops is very com- 
mon in the south and in some other parts of the country ; 
and these have been upheld in many of the States, where 
written instruments have been made, mortgaging crops not 
yet planted. This seems to be an extreme and liberal ex- 
tension of the validity of such conveyances. A contract 
was made in Kentucky in the early spring of 1862 for the 
sale of a cotton crop not yet planted. The validity of that 
contract was upheld by the supreme court of the United 
States, but it was put upon the ground that the law of 
Kentucky recognized the binding force of such an agree- 
ment. I suppose that crops may be mortgaged in Massa- 
chusetts, — that is, crops actually growing in the ground at 
the time the mortgage is given ; but a mortgage given to-day 
on the crop of the next year would probably not be sus- 
tained. Our own supreme court said, as long ago as 1845, in 
a case arising in Norfolk County, that, although a person can- 
not grant or mortgage property of which he is not possessed 
and to which he has no title, still, he may grant personal 
property of which he is potentially, though not actually, 
possessed. For instance, one might legally mortgage all 
the wool that shall grow on the sheep he owns at the time 
of the grant ; but he could not make a valid mortgage of the 
wool on sheep not his, and the mortgage would not become 
valid even if he should afterwards purchase the flock before 
the wool had been clipped. 

An agreement to sell gi'owing crops, including trees, has 
been held to be not an agreement for the sale of an interest 
in land, but for the sale of chattels ; and so, not being 
within the purview of the statute of frauds, can be en- 
forced, unless the value exceeds fifty dollars, or unless there 
has been a partial delivery of the trees or crops, in which 
case the delivery of the whole can be enforced. In a case 
arising in western Massachusetts, in 1841, the owner of land 
made a contract with a tanner that the latter might enter 
upon the land, cut certain oak trees, peel and carry away 
the bark, cutting up and leaving the timber and wood for 
the owner's benefit. After the trees had been cut and the 

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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 167 

bark peeled, but before any of it was removed, the owner of 
the land changed his mind, and forbade the tanner to enter 
and carry away the bark. His contention was that this con- 
tract related to an interest in the lands, and was void by the 
statute of frauds; but the court said '* No," because the 
bark when peeled had become the property of the defend- 
ant by the terms of the contract, and the plaintiff had no 
right to prevent his taking it away, because it was left on 
his land by his own consent. In another case, in Worcester 
County, one Ross, the owner of a farm on which he had a 
field of cabbages, went onto the land in the month of 
August with one Welch, and a bargain was made between 
them that Welch should purchase the cabbages there grow- 
ing when ready to be severed from the soil. In November, 
after the cabbages had headed, they met again, counted them, 
and agreed upon the number that the defendant should have, 
and that he should take them away whenever he wished. He 
did, however, take only a part of those agreed upon, refus- 
ing to take the balance, on the ground that the cabbages 
were then growing, that they were attached to the soil, and 
were therefore a part of the real estate. But the court held 
that the taking of a part was a constructive delivery of the 
whole, and compelled the defendant to pay for the entire 
field of cabbages. 

This subject is involved in a good many intricacies and 
exceptions, so that it is difficult, in this hurried way, to give 
a very accurate idea about it. It is enough for my present 
purpose to add a caution that, when any member of the 
State Board of Agriculture is buying a farm while the crops 
are growing upon it, he had better take good care to secure, 
by explicit terms in his deed, all that he supposes he is 
purchasing. 

Fixtures. 

To the general rule already stated, that whatever is an- 
nexed to the land becomes a part of it, there is one striking 
exception, which gives rise to what we call the law of fixtn 
ures. The term is a misnomer, for it denotes the reverse 
of its name. Fixtures are really those things annexed to 
the land in a kind of permanent way, which are still regarded 
as personal property, and are removable by the vendor of 

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168 BOARD OF AGRICULTITRE. [Pub. Doc. 

the land against the will of the vendee. An enormous 
amount of litigation has grown out of this department of the 
law ; not so often, to be sure, in connection with the sale of 
farms, or the transfer of farms by inheritance, as in cases of 
manufacturing and commercial establishments. In an old 
Pennsylvania case of some sixty years ago it was stated that 
the criterion of a fixture in a mansion house or dwelling is 
an actual and permanent fastening to the freehold ; but this 
is not a criterion of a fixture in a manu&ctory or mill. 
That rule, however, would hardly pass muster to-day, for, 
even in the case of dwelling houses, in a good many instances 
great liberality has been shown to the vendor in allowing 
him to carry off certain articles as fixtures. 

A large iron kettle set in brick, which farmers frequently 
have in one of their out-houses for the purpose of cooking 
food for swine or cattle, would pass as part of the real 
estate ; but the same kettle, detached from any setting and 
used in different locations at different times about the farm, 
would be personal property. A steam engine permanently 
set for lifting hay or ensilage or conducting of heavy opera- 
tions about the farm would be a part of the real estate ; but 
a detached movable engine, capable of being transported 
from one farm to another, and doing work in either place, 
would be personal property. 

The use to which an article has been put or is intended to 
be put may sometimes be determinative as to whether it is a 
part of the real estate, or personal property. For instance, 
when an article has been used for some employment distinct 
from that of the occupier of the real estate, it will be treated 
as a fixture, and becomes removable by the tenant or ven- 
dor, — that is, it will not be a part of the real estate ; and 
lessees are in our day treated with more and more liberality 
in regard to the removal of trade fixtures. If a cider mill 
were set up by the tenant on a farm hired by him, and it 
were perfectly clear that the chief purpose was trade, and 
not the mere doing of the work of that farm, he would 
doubtless be allowed to remove it before the termination of 
his tenancy, even though the apparatus had all the elements 
of permanency. 

A proper caution in connection with this subject is that, 

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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 169 

if a tenant or a vendor claims the right to remove articles 
as fixtures, he should always be careful to make the removal 
before his tenancy expires, or while he is in possession ; 
otherwise, he may lose the right of removal altogether. 
Another suggestion is, that, in view of the difficult and com- 
plicated nature of the law of fixtures, great care should be 
exercised in connection with the transfer of property, by 
specifying in the written insti-ument just what the parties 
have agreed to convey, and in some cases also by enumer- 
ating the articles not conveyed. 

Purchase and Sale of Farms. 

The original methods of transferring title to land in Eng- 
land, from which country we derive the great body of our 
real estate law, grew out of the practices of the feudal sys- 
tem. Under the feudal laws, all the lands in the country 
were vested in the sovereign, who parcelled them out to the 
great men of the nation, who were bound to render the king 
military service. These great lords in turn parcelled out 
their respective lands to vassals, who held them, and the 
land so held was called a /ewcZ, fi fief or 9i,fee. Originally 
these vassals took only temporary ownership, and the land 
reverted to the lord paramount upon the vassals' death; 
but gradually there grew up the right of transmission of the 
title from a vassal to his son or heir, and thus estates of 
inheritance arose, so that the modem use of the word fee 
implies absolute ownership. Under the feudal system, the 
lord took his vassal upon the land, and, by the symbolic 
method of handing him a twig or a tuft of soil, invested him 
with possession. He had no other title to it except that 
given him by the solemn act of the lord paramount, which 
created a contract between the two parties, — that of pro- 
tection on the one side and service on the other. 

In the progress of civilization, written instruments of con- 
veyance or deeds supplanted the original method of convey- 
ance, ** livery of seisin,'' as it was called ; but the practice 
o£ recoi'dtng deeds, which is universal in the United States, 
did not obtain in England until a comparatively recent time. 
In this country the recording of deeds, though universal in 
all the States and Territories, presents no uniformity as to 



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170 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doo. 

the place of record. In our own State, deeds are recorded 
in a county registry kept for the purpose. In Connecticut 
I believe they are recorded at the town clerk's office, and 
the provisions as to record are quite various. No prudent 
Massachusetts farmer would think of buying a farm and 
taking a deed without carrying it, on the same day that he 
received it, to the registry of deeds in his county, and there 
putting it on record. 

Statute of Frauds. 

There are in all the States, or in practically all of them, 
statutes derived from an ancient English law, entitled the 
<< statute for the prevention of frauds and perjuries." One 
of the provisions of this law universally adopted, I believe, 
by all the States, is that no action shall be brought upon a 
contract for the sale of lands, tenements or hereditaments, 
or of any interest in or concerning them, unless the promise, 
contract or agreement, or some memorandum or note thereof, 
is in writing signed by the party or his authorized agent. 
This we commonly call the ** statute of frauds; "and the 
knowledge of its existence is important to the farmer, in 
order that he may be secure in his ownership, and may not 
be liable to have the fruit of many hard years of labor swept 
away by want of a sound title. There has been a great lax- 
ity in the rural communities of this Commonwealth in regard 
to titles of farms, and I cannot urge too strongly upon the 
intelligent farmer the importance of extreme care in the 
purchase and sale of land and of all contracts in reference 
to its sale or transfer. 

An accurate survey of the premises intended to be con- 
veyed is also to be advised ; and, if boundary lines are found 
to be irregular and unsightly, steps should be taken, through 
negotiation with the adjoining owners, to establish symmet- 
rical lines, well marked by frequent stone boundaries set 
deeply in the soil, which should form the basis of the de- 
scription in the deed. As to the growing crops, manure, 
fixtures and all other debatable articles and property con- 
nected with the farm, these should be made the subject of 
specific written agreements, setting forth in clear terms 
what the intention of the parties is in reference to all such 



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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 171 

matters ; for the maxim is especially sound, in its applica* 
tion to the transfer of real estate, that an ounoe of preven- 
tion is worth a pound of cure. 

BOUNDABIES AND FENCES. 

The use of temporary marks and monuments as bounda- 
ries, such as ** a stake and stones," or '* blazed trees," very 
common descriptions in conveyances of wood land, is to be 
deprecated. It has now become more than ever important 
that the distance from one monument to another should be 
carefully taken and approximately stated in the deed ; for I 
regret to say that the advent of the electric railway is Tast 
removing any reliance upon courses fixed by the surveyor's 
compass, owing to the fluctuations caused in the movement 
of the magnetic needle by the electric currents. This fact 
makes it all the more important that other particulars in fix- 
ing boundary lines should be rigidly adhered to. 

The contents of the land, as stated in a deed, are not the 
most important element of the description. It was held, a 
good many years ago, in our State, that when the bounda- 
ries are accurately pointed out in a deed, even fraudulent 
representations as to the contents did not constitute the 
basis of an action to recover damages. 

I have already referred to this subject of boundaries in a 
general way, but I wish now to go into it a little more in 
detail, for I know of nothing over which farmers have had 
more trouble than their respective rights in adjoining es- 
tates. It is well-settled law that an abutter upon the high- 
way owns the fruit of the trees growing in the road, and I 
presume it would be held that he owns the berries growing 
wild there, as well. A farmer who owns a tree whose 
branches project over his neighbor's land owns the fruit 
which grows on those branches, and if the fruit falls on 
his neighbor's land, the owner of the tree has an implied 
license to go and pick it up, he doing no unnecessary 
damage. Still, in spite of this right, one over whose line 
branches project may cut off the branches, though he can 
not appropriate them. That was decided in .a recent Cali- 
fornia case; and that it may be dangerous to allow the 
branches of one's tree to project, appears in a recent Eng- 

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172 BOAED OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

lish case, where the defendant was held liable for the death 
of the plaintiff's horse, which was poisoned by the foliage 
of the yew tree planted on the defendant's ground, but pro- 
jecting over the plaintiff's pasture. But in another English 
case, where the horse had to trespass on the defendant's 
land in order to get at the yew tree, the decision was other- 
wise. 

It has been held that an action will not lie for carelessly 
leaving maple syrup in one's unenclosed wood, whereby 
the plaintiffs cow, being illegally suffered to run at large, 
and having strayed there, was killed by drinking it. This 
decision was given in 1823, in the supreme court of the State 
of New York, by Chief Justice Savage, and is found in the 
first volume of Co wen's reports. About ten years ago Mr. 
Irving Browne paraphrased the decision by making it the 
subject of a witty rhyme, which appeared in the first vol- 
ume of **The Green Bag," some portions of which I am 
going to take the liberty of repeating : — 

One Brainard owned a favorite cow, 
With placid eyes and gentle brow, 
Renowned for milk, — he called it " milch," 
Her coat was smooth and soft as silch. 
A star npon her forehead lay 
Appropriate to her milky way. 



Bush owned a lot of wooden cows, 
Which had no need to drink or browse ; 

For he possessed a sugar bosh 
Where he a thriving trade did push. 

This bnsh was destitate of fence ; 
Bnt, as there was no evidence 
Of any law to keep it closed, 
His syrup Bush left there exposed. 

At length, when Mooly in the grove, 
In search of provender did rove. 
She found this palatable drink. 
And, hanging o^er the fatal brink. 
So greedily did Mooly suck it. 
That, giving one convulsive cough. 
She speedily did *' kick the bucket," 
And lay completely " sugared o^.'» 



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No. 4.] KURAL LAW. 173 

Brainard saed Btish for negligence 
In keeping bosh without a fence, 
Or leaving syrup without care, 
Well knowing that his cow ran there. 

Savage, C. J. : — 

This case to us presents two views, 
Two horns between which we must choose. 
This sugar-Bush did very wrong 
To leave his syrup there so long. 
Knowing that cows in search of pasture 
Might thereby meet with sore disaster. 

The other judges : — 

Oh, Bush deserves much to be blamed. 
He really ought to be ashamed. 
He should have known that cattle lap 
Inviting liquids, — verbum sap. 

Savage, CJ". : — 

But then, again, though it is shown 
That Bush knew Brainard^s cow frequented 
His sugar bush, it is not known. 
From evidence, tiiat he consented. 

The other judges : — 

Yes, circumstances cases vary. 
This may excuse the harm to dairy. 



Ah, this is quite another story, 
Tis negligence contributory. 



Savage, C. J. : — 

The law doth measure not degrees. 
Where both the parties careless are ; 
Betwixt the cow and maple trees. 
Damnum absque injuria. 

All together: — 

So this decree we ratify, 
That Brainard pay the cost ; 
Perhaps it may him gratify 
That Bush his syrup lost. 
And, obiter, we can^ discover 
How Bush can ere for it recover. 



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174 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

And then the poetical reporter, Mr. Browne, concludes 
as follows : — 

A less poetic yersion, Til allow, 
Yoall find reported in the first of Cow, 

An act of our Legislature, passed in 1884, provides in 
rather curious terms that no barb-wire fence shall be built 
or maintained within six feet above the ground along any 
sidewalk located in any public street or highway, and pun- 
ishes the offender by a fine of not less than twenty dollars 
nor more than fifty dollars. The use of the words ** above 
the ground " in that statute is quite significant, as you will 
see. The statute does not forbid the re-enforcement of a 
proper board fence by a barbed-wire top starting at the 
height of a tall man's head. 

An act of the Massachusetts Legislature, passed in 1887, 
provides that the erection of a fence unnecessarily exceed- 
ing six feet in height built for the purpose of annoying a 
neighbor, is a private nuisance, and the person injured may 
maintain an action of tort to recover damages for the an- 
noyance. This statute was up for consideration before the 
full bench of our supreme court in 1888, and objection was 
made to it that it was unconstitutional ; but that objection was 
overruled in a carefully considered decision by the present 
chief justice. The verdict in the lower court was for the 
plaintiff in the sum of one cent ; but the supreme court set 
this verdict aside and sustained the defendant's exceptions, 
on the ground that, if there was a bona fide use of the 
structure, beneficial to the defendant, even although the 
motive to annoy existed, the plaintiff could not recover. 
In other words, the court held that a structure must be 
erected for the sole purpose of annoyance, in order to in- 
voke the penalties of the statute. Other provision con- 
cerning fences and fence viewers are grouped together in 
chapter 36 of our Public Statutes. In that chapter may be 
found many provisions that it behooves the intelligent 
farmer to understand and abide by; such as that fences 
four feet high and in good repair shall be deemed legal and 
sufficient fences ; also brooks, rivers, ponds, creeks, ditches 
and hedges ; that the respective occupants of land enclosed 



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No. 4,] RURAL LAW. 175 

with fences shall keep up and maintain partition fences in 
equal shares ; that, in case of neglect to build and repair 
by either party, the other may call in the fence viewer to 
make an adjudication, and methods of procedure and reme- 
dies are provided in such cases. 

The rules prevailing in different States in regard to fenc- 
ing land are quite various. In some of them the owner of 
the land is required to fence out the cattle of other people ; 
in others, he is required to fence in his own cattle. It was 
early held in Massachusetts, in a case appearing in the sixth 
volume of our reports, that a farmer is obliged to fence only 
against cattle lawfully in the adjoining field ; and in another 
case, arising twenty years later, that, if he turns his cattle 
into the highway to graze, and if they pass therefrom into 
an adjoining field through an insufficient fence, the owner 
of the land may recover, as the farmer's cattle are not law- 
fully in the highway. 

It also seems to be law in this Commonwealth, as set up 
in a more modern case, that the farmer is responsible for 
his animals if they escape while he is driving them along 
the highway, and do damage to another's property; and 
about the time of the decision last quoted, it was also held 
by our supreme court that a railroad company, though 
bound by a law to fence its track, is not liable to the owner 
of cattle killed by straying on unfenced tracks, if the cattle 
were unlawfully on the land adjoining the railroad, from 
which adjoining land they strayed. 

Highways. 
The rights of farmers as regards highways on which their 
farms abut is a matter of great practical importance. Most 
of our country roads were originally cow paths, then be- 
came lanes, and finally highways. In later years many of 
them have had their boundaries defined by stone monuments 
set at Hegular intervals, so that our highways are now gener- 
ally enclosed within definite lines and limits ; but the own- 
ership of the fee of the land of the highways in most cases 
remains in the abutters, subject to the right of the public 
to use the highway for purposes of travel ; and if such a 
road is discontinued, the land reverts to the original owner, 



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176 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

his heirs or assigns. This ownership of an abutter to the 
centre of the road involyes the right to use his half of it in 
any way not inconsistent with the easement of the public 
to pass over it ; and such abutter may maintain an action 
against any one who digs up or interferes with his portion 
of the highway, or places rocks or rubbish thereon without 
authority. This doctrine was very clearly declared in a 
case which arose in the town of Egremont, in Berkshire 
County, in 1863 or 1864. The defendant, in order to effect 
a beneficial widening of the road, placed stones and rub- 
bish on the north side of the travelled part of it, and thus 
improved it and rendered it more safe and convenient for 
travellers ; but the court held that inasmuch as he was not 
the highway surveyor, and although what he did was evi- 
dently for the public benefit, he committed an illegal act, 
and was liable in damages therefor. But this rule would not 
have been applied if he had worked upon the travelled part 
of the road, and improved the condition of that portion only. 

If a highway becomes impassable for any reason, a trav- 
eller may pass over adjoining land, even if he has to take 
down fences in so doing ; but there must be no unnecessary 
damage done, and things must be replaced as far as possible. 
As late as 1851 a case of this kind arose in Mount Wash- 
ington, in Berkshire County, where in the lower court the 
plaintiff was awarded damages against a defendant who had 
encroached upon adjoining fields during a temporary ob- 
truction of the highway; but when the case reached the 
supreme court, Chief Justice Bigelow reversed the decision 
and set the verdict aside, holding, against the contention of 
the plaintiff, that the law of England, affirming the doctrine 
of right to use adjoining land in cases of necessity, had been 
adopted and recognized in all the American States. The 
doctrine has its origin in necessity, and must be limited by 
that necessity ; mere convenience will not justify such an 
exceptional use of private property. 

Every farmer and every farmer's boy is familiar with the 
statute of our State, which provides that, when persons meet 
each other on a bridge or road with any kind of vehicles, 
each person shall seasonably drive his vehicle to the right 
of the middle of the travelled part of the bridge or way, so 

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No. 4.] EURAL LAW. 177 

that they may pass without interference ; and also with the 
provision that, when teams are moving in the same direc- 
tion and one wishes to pass the other, the passing vehicle 
shall take the left of the middle of the travelled part of the 
way, and that, if the bridge or travelled part of the way 
is of sufficient width for the two teams, the driver of the 
leading one shall not wilfully obstruct the passage of the 
other. But there is sometimes difficulty in applying this 
law in exceptional cases and under exceptional conditions. 
In March, 1843, one Jaquith was driving from Reading to 
Medford in his sleigh. Near the village of Stoneham he 
met the defendant Richardson, driving a four-horse stage 
coach with fourteen passengers. The left-hand side of the 
highway, as the stage coach was moving, was covered with 
an unbroken mass of snow, so that the beaten and travelled 
track in the snow was entirely on the right of the centre of 
the highway, as it would appear when there was no snow on 
the ground. The plaintiff turned his horse out into the 
snow and stopped for the stage to pass ; but when the teams 
met, a collision occurred, and the plaintiff was injured. 
The driver of the stage claimed that, inasmuch as he was 
on the right of the centre of the road as it was worked in 
sunmier, he could not be held liable under the statute ; but 
the court thought otherwise, and said that, by the true con- 
struction of chapter 51 of the Revised Statutes, when that 
part of a road which is wrought for travelling is hidden by 
snow, and a path is beaten and travelled on the side of the 
wrought part, persons meeting on such beaten and ti'avelled 
path are required to drive their vehicles to the right of the 
middle of such path. This it will be seen was really an ap- 
plication of the spirit of the statute, rather than of its exact 
letter. 

It may further be observed that the law guards with jealous 
care the right of the public to pass over the highway and 
to use it for all proper purposes. Hence, the owner of the 
fee in the highway is never allowed to set gates across it 
nor to put up other obstructions, and any passer by may 
lawfully throw them down. 



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178 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Roadside Trees. 

The subject of highways naturally suggests the toptc of 
roadside trees ; and in that connection I wish to call atten- 
tion to an act passed by the Legislature of 1899, codifying 
and amending the laws relating t^ the preservation of trees. 
In brief, it provides that every town shall, at its annual 
meeting, elect a tree warden, who may appoint deputy tree 
wardens, as he deems expedient. The town or the select- 
men may fix the compensation of these officers. The tree 
warden is to have the care and control of all public shade 
trees in the town except those in public parks or open 
places under the jurisdiction of the park commissioners, 
and shall expend all funds for the setting out and main- 
tenance of public shade trees. Towns may appropriate 
money for the planting of shade trees, not exceeding fifty 
cents for each ratable poll. The tree warden may plant 
shade trees in the public ways, or, if it is expedient, upon 
the adjoining land, at a distance not exceeding twenty feet 
from the public way, for the purpose of shading or adorn- 
ing the same ; but, if the trees are set on private land, the 
written consent of the owner of the land has to be ob- 
tained ; and all shade trees within the limits of any public 
way shall be deemed public shade trees. Whenever a citi- 
zen, other than the warden or his deputies, wishes to cut 
or remove a public shade tree, he has to apply to the tree 
warden, and provisions are made for a public hearing on 
the question ; or the warden may grant permission without 
a hearing, if the tree is on a public way, outside the resi- 
dential portion of the town, and the decision of the tree 
warden is final. 

This is a very interesting statute, and it is pleasant to 
note that recently the tree wardens of various Massachu- 
setts towns, to the number of nearly one hundred, with 
others interested in arboreal culture, had a meeting in Hor- 
ticultural Hall in Boston and a conference upon this subject 
of shade trees. Mr. J. Woodward Manning gave on that 
occasion an interesting lecture, showing how the natural 
beauties of a town or village may be enhanced by skilful 
grouping and trimming of the native trees and shrubs, and 

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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 179 

a discussion was held as to the rights and duties of tree 
wardens under this statute. It is hardly possible to exag- 
gerate the advantages which might accrue to this Common- 
wealth if the subjects thus encouraged by the Legislature 
were taken up and thoroughly investigated and worked by 
all our various city and town communities. A State with all 
ita highways set out with shade trees would be a novelty 
indeed, and one which it can hardly be doubted would prove 
a great attraction to many dwellers in other parts of the 
country seeking beautiful homes for summer retreats or for 
permanent residence. Let us hope that the planting and 
protection of roadside trees may be made the special sub- 
ject of action by all the towns at their next annual meet- 
mgs, if such action has not already been taken. Perhaps 
appropriate action by the State Board of Agriculture would 
go far towards securing so desirable a result. 

Hired Men. 
The law governing the employment of labor is of consid- 
erable importance to the farmer, and this kind of contract 
should be made with care and exactness. The employer 
should be certain that the person with whom he contracts 
is more than twenty-one years of age and so is competent 
to make his own agreements. Of course, if the employee * 
be a minor, the contract must be made in the bojr's or girPs 
behalf by the parent or guardian, in order to have any bind- 
ing eflfect. Payments of money by the employer to a minor 
employee are unauthorized except upon the order of the 
minor's parent or guardian. A careful observance of these 
legal principles will avoid disputes and possible litigation. 
Another decision of great importance is this : that contracts 
which are not to be performed within a year must be in 
writing, or they will be considered void under the provi- 
sions of the statute of frauds already referred to. In other 
words, a valid oral contract can be made for employment, 
say for the period of eleven months and any part of the 
twelfth month ; but if it be for a year, neither party is 
bound by it, and the employee, if he should leave the farm- 
er's service, could recover for the time he has actually 
worked ; whereas, if the contract were in writing and for a 

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180 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

year or more, and the hired man were to leave without good 
cause, he could not recover for the period actually spent. 
The death of either party of course terminates the contract. 
The executor or administrator of an employer is not bound 
to continue the employment, neither is the one who takes 
the farm under a devise in a will. So also the filing of a 
petition in bankruptcy by an employer dissolves the contract 
with his help, and is intended to amount to a notice of its 
dissolution ; but the employee may have his damages as- 
sessed and prove the amount in bankruptcy, the measure of 
damages being the difierence between the pay which he was 
to receive and the pay which he actually has received under 
the new employment which he has been able to find. 

Bankkuptcy. 

The constitution of the United States confers upon Con- 
gress the power to enact uniform bankrupt laws. Under the 
exercise of that power, four such laws have been passed 
since the foundation of the government, the first in the year 
1800, the second in 1841, the third in 1867 and the fourth 
in 1898. These acts of Congress of course operate to sus- 
pend the insolvent laws of the various States so long as the 
federal legislation is in force. The act of 1800 had no vol- 
untary feature, but certain classes of men, such as merchants, 
bankers, brokers, underwriters, etc., could be put into bank- 
ruptcy by their creditors. It is interesting to notice that 
farmers were not included in the list, so that they were not 
affected in any way by that act, which was repealed in 1803. 
The act of 1841, which was in force less than two years, 
had both the voluntary and involuntary features, and under 
it farmers could take the benefit of the act if they chose, 
but could not be put into bankruptcy by their creditors. 
The act of 1867, which was amended in important particu- 
lars by the act of 1874, was in force about eleven years. 
This also gave farmers the right to take advantage of the 
provisions of the act if they chose so to do, and also allowed 
their creditors to put them into bankruptcy if they were 
found to have concealed their property, or had done certain 
other acts in derogation of the\r creditors' rights. 

Under the law of 1898, still in force, any person, includ- 

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No. 4.] RiniAL LAW. 181 

ing farmers 9 except a corporation, is entitled to the benefits 
of the act as a voluntary bankrupt ; but wage earners and 
farmers are expressly excepted from the operation of the 
involuntary feature of the law ; so that under the present 
statute no farmer can be put into bankruptcy by his credi- 
tors, even though he has committed acts which in the case 
of persons engaged in commercial pursuits or manufactur- 
ing would be treated as acts of bankruptcy. 

This rather curious anomaly in favor of the agricultural 
classes of the country is doubtless due to the large influ- 
ence in the national congi^ess of representatives from the 
so-called Granger States, without whose aid no bankrupt 
law could have been passed. On the whole, however, no 
great haim can result from the favor thus shown farmers, 
for the fact is, that as a class the agriculturists of our country 
have been generally more successful in keeping themselves 
out of the ** sponging-house," as the poor debtor court is 
sometimes styled, and have cheated their creditors less, than 
any other class in the community. 

Easements. 

The law of easements is of peculiar importance to the 
owners of farms and country estates, and no other branch 
of real estate law has been more fertile in litigation. Some 
knowledge of easements is therefore almost a necessary part 
of the education of an intelligent farmer. 

An easement is a charge imposed on one estate for the 
benefit of another belonging to a difierent owner. Separate 
ownership is an essential feature to the creation and main- 
tenance of such a right. 

The land enjoying the privilege is called the dominant 
estate ; the one which bears the burden, the servient estate. 

That which is an easement for one of the estates is a 
servitude for the other. When the entire ownership of both 
becomes merged in the same person or persons, the ease- 
ment disappears. No man can create or retain an easement 
in favor of one parcel of his property as against another 
part of it. An easement once created remains upon the land 
so long as the separate ownership of the parcels lasts ; and 
it runs with the land, passing, by the conveyance or descent 

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182 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

of the dominant estate, to the new grantee or to the heir-at- 
law as one of the appurtenances of the estate. 

An easement must not be confounded with a mere per- 
sonal license. I may say to my neighbor , ** You may walk 
across my mowing lot to reach your pasture as often as you 
wish ; " but such permission or license is revocable at any 
moment, and lacks more than one of the essentials of a 
valid easement. And it is instantly revocable, even if the 
licensee has expended money in making a comfortable path 
or in building a convenient bridge over the brook which 
the path may chance to cross. 

Rights of Way. 

Of all easements those relating to private ways are of 
highest importance. 

A private way may be acquired in three ways only : (1) 
by express grant from the owner ; (2) by prescription, i.e., 
twenty years' adverse possession ; (3) by necessity. The 
last is so unusual a source of this right as to require only a 
passing notice. If you were to sell one lot out of your farm 
entirely surrounded by your remaining land, the law would 
give the purchaser a right by necessity to reach his land 
over yours, even though nothing were said about it in the 
conveyance, but this right would cease when the necessity 
ceased ; for instance, if a new highway were to be laid out, 
touching the lot enjoying the right of way, the easement 
would cease, even though greatly to the inconvenience of the 
owner of that lot, by increasing the distance he would have 
to travel or the grades he must surmount. 

Easements by express grant or deed are of course to be 
preferred. Properly recorded in the county registry, their 
validity rests on the firmest of foundations, and their value 
becomes greatly enhanced. But the grant is very carefully 
limited to its original purpose. A way granted for a par- 
ticular use can be used only for that purpose. Thus, the 
granting of a narrow passageway for the carrying and re- 
carrying of wood can not be held to convey the right to 
drive teams over it for cartage of hay or grain. . Teams will 
not be allowed to pass over a right of way granted for foot 
passengers ; and a right of way to reach farm land for the 

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No. 4.] RUBAL LAW. 183 

remoyal of crops, etc., will not be extended to allow the 
owner of the dominant estate to lay out his land into build- 
ing lots and erect houses thereon, and make of the right of 
way a street for the purpose of convenient access to the 
houses. 

But most of the difficulties encountered in this subject of 
rights of way arise from their creation by what is called 
prescription. This means not simply twenty years' continu- 
ous and uninterrupted enjoyment by the owner or successive 
owners of the dominant estate of a right of way over the ser- 
vient estate ; a good deal more than that is required. It must 
be taken and used under a claim of right, not by permission 
(for that would destroy the prescriptive character of the 
right) , and it must have been enjoyed with the knowledge 
of the owner of the servient estate. It must be acquired 
^* under an adverse claim of right," and against persons 
legally competent to object. A prescriptive right of way 
can never be obtained against a minor or an insane person ; 
and ownership of the servient estate by such a person sus- 
pends the operation of the prescription during the period of 
such minor's or lunatic's ownership. But where there can 
be clearly proven twenty years' adverse use of a right of 
way, the easement is thoroughly established, on the assump- 
tion, that is, the doctrine is based upon the fiction, that there 
is supposed, after such a lapse of time, to have been an 
ancient grant conferring the right claimed. 

The lawfid use of a private way implies the right and the 
duty to keep it in reasonable repair. These belong and 
rest upon the owner of the easement ; and, if the owner 
of the fee obstructs the way, the easement holder may pass 
over the adjoining land of the servient estate. The owner 
of the land may erect bars or gates at the entrance of the 
way, and, if the owner of the right of way leaves them down 
or open, and cattle escape or intrude, the latter would be 
liable for damage done by the estrays. 

An easement may be renounced, extinguished or modi- 
fied even by a parol license granted by the owner of the 
dominant tenement and executed by the owner of the ser- 
vient one. When the Providence Railroad was laid out, 
the county commissioners, acting under statute authority, 

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184 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

granted a cart and carriage way to Mary White from her 
homestead over the railroad to her remaining land adjoin- 
ing the railroad, and this amounted to a grant of the right 
of way. This was in 1841. In 1888 the business of the 
railroad had so grown that the continued use of the way 
became a source of great danger. Accordingly the road 
proposed, and the owners of the land then assented to, a 
new mode of access to the land by the railroad agreeing to 
purchase and open as a right of way a strip of land leading 
from a new street to the land, and the abandonment of the 
old way. The offer was accepted, the new way built, and 
the old way closed by the railroad company ; but there was 
no writing as evidence of the acceptance of the new way, 
or of the abandonment of the old. The owner of the way 
soon repented of his oral assent to the change, and brought 
suit against the road for obstructing his original right of 
way. The road then filed a bill in equity to cancel the old 
order of the countgr commissioners and to compel an aban- 
donment of the old way, and in this was successful ; the 
court holding that, in permitting the road to construct the 
new mode of access and in using it, though only for a few 
times, the owner of the original right of way had really 
abandoned it. 

The case turned largely upon the intention of the land 
owner in accepting the new route to his land in place of his 
original right of way across the tracks. 

Wateb and Water Eights, Irrigation, etc. 
The branch of my subject upon which I now enter opens 
up one of the most interesting and important of all the 
topics connected with rural law. The steady growth of our 
population in this State and the excessive demand for water 
by our numerous cities and large towns, and the consequent 
diversion of many water courses for this purpose, may well 
excite the apprehension of the agricultural population of 
our State. Our Legislature has for many years treated the 
applications of municipalities for the taking of water for 
public uses with great liberality, — I am inclined to think 
with too great liberality. A startling instance of this ten- 
dency is found in the work which is now going on in the 

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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 185 

yalley of the Nashua, by which whole villages are being 
blotted out and scorea of farms destroyed for the purpose 
of increasing the water supply of our metropolitan popula- 
tion. There is danger, it seems to me, that the demands 
of our cities may be carried too far, and I have a firm 
conviction that the farmers of the State might well unite 
in protest against excessive grants in this direction. An 
excessive and unnecessary water supply for towns and cities 
offers a premium on the waste of water. My own observa- 
tion warrants me in alleging that there is a very great waste 
in most of our cities. The remedy for this, I may say in 
passing, is the universal application of the meter system to 
all water supply companies, whether large or small, so that 
a water taker will only pay for what he himself uses, and 
not be obliged to contribute to the wastefulness of others. 
Thus the natural water supply of the State may be properly 
conserved for the benefit of those who are entitled to it by 
original ownership. It is time, I*think, for the farmers of 
the State to join hands in staying this tendency to waste of 
water. By united action they can do much to create public 
opinion which will afford them ample protection. The 
compulsory use of the meter system will do much toward 
staying these enormous wastes. 

In many of the States which have large areas of rainless 
land, water courses have played an important part in the 
industrial and economical development of the country, and 
irrigation laws have been enacted and great schemes for 
irrigation purposes have been launched. Numerous com- 
panies have been formed for the purpose of selling water 
and rendering land valuable that would otherwise be useless. 
It is possible that by artesian wells in addition to the natural 
water supply all the rainless portions of the United States 
may yet be brought under cultivation, for it is a well-known 
fact that desert land becomes extremely productive when 
irrigated. 

An irrigation congress has recently been in session in 
Chicago, at which it was stated by an engineer who has 
made a careful examination of the subject that there are in 
this country 75,000,000 acres of arid land, which can be 
reclaimed and made profitable agricultural territory at an 

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186 BOARD OE AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

average cost of $2 an acre. Here is a domain larger than 
New England and New York combined, which, if reclaimed, 
would support millions of people and add vastly to the wealth 
of the United States, and it is seriously proposed that the 
Government should loan its aid in forwarding this great 
work. 

It is not impossible that the subject of irrigation may 
attract the attention of the Massachusetts farmer in the near 
future. While we have in New England an excellent annual 
rainfall, still, there are times when the farmer is exposed 
to great loss firom periods of protracted drought. Natural 
water courses are numerous and well distributed, so that it 
would be easy to provide reservoirs and methods of storing 
water against the time when it is needed for use in such 
exceptional periods. Take, for in&tance, strawberries and 
others of the small fruits. An excessively dry May and 
June practically destroys the crop; but if our farmers 
would familiarize themselves with the possibilities of irriga- 
tion and the ease with which water could be introduced 
in a country as broken as ours, many of the losses from 
drought, to which they are now frequently subjected, might 
be averted. Grass lands in some portions of the State might 
be vastly improved in productive capacity by the applica- 
tion, of this system, and its introduction in many places and 
on many farms could be accomplished with very little ex- 
pense. But, if the farmers of the State are ever going to 
interest themselves in this subject, they must do it before 
all the water has been taken to supply the heedless waste of 
the metropolis and our other large municipalities. 

It is an interesting fact that there may be found in differ- 
ent localities in the State evidence that our grandfathers 
and great-grandfathers were not blind to the advantages of 
irrigation. Upon my father's farm in the town of Amherst 
there are the remains of an irrigating ditch which once con- 
ducted water from the upper portions of a brook running 
through the farm to some portions of the grass land, which, 
from the light and porous character of the soil, are especially 
liable to suffer in dry weather. Ancient trees are growing 
in this abandoned artificial water course, which testify to 
the antiquity of its construction. My grandfather used to 



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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 187 

say that he did not know how long before his time the ditch 
was constructed, bat it was undoubtedly during the lifetime 
of his grandfather, who was the first occupant of the farm, 
in 1742, so that it may safely be alleged that the ditch was 
constructed about one hundred and fifty years ago. We 
may learn some useful lessons from the fathers, and this 
illustration may serve to enforce the suggestion I make, 
that the subject of irrigation is well worth the attention of 
the Massachusetts farmer. 

But, whether irrigation shall ever prevail in Massachu- 
setts to any extent or not, the rights of the farmer in the 
brooks he controls and the water that lies upon the surface 
of his land or that supplies his wells or feeds his springs 
will ever be one of prime importance. It has been stated 
in a general way by our supreme judicial court that ** every 
person through whose land a natural water course runs has 
a right publtci Juris to the benefit of it as it passes through 
his land for all useful purposes to which it may be applied ; 
and no proprietor of land on the same water course, either 
above or below, has a right unreasonably to divert it from 
flowing into his premises or obstructing it in passing 
through them or to corrupt or destroy it. It is insepara- 
bly annexed to the soil, and passes with it, not as an ease- 
ment nor as an appurtenance to the land, but as a part of the 
land. Use does not create it, and disuse cannot destroy or 
suspend it, and unity of possession and title in such land 
with the lands above it or below it does not extinguish or 
suspend it." 

As to surfiEtce water on land, running in no defined chan- 
nel, the farmer has a right to deal with it as he pleases, 
even though his action may increase the flow of water on 
his neighbor's land or diminish the flow of water into a 
neighboring stream. In the absence of any grant or pre- 
scription creating a water course, no right to regulate or 
control the surface drainage of water can be asserted by the 
owner of one lot over that of his neighbor. The owner of 
land may change the level of his soil by elevating or lowering 
it, or by erecting barriers so as to turn it to a new course 
after it has come within his boundaries. The obstruction 
or alteration in the flow of surface water will not constitute 



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188 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

a cause of action in behalf of a person who suffers loss or 
detriment from it against one who does not act inconsistently 
with due exercise of dominion over his own soil. A man 
may improve his own land, even though by so doing he 
causes surface water to flow off in a new direction and in 
larger quantities than before. 

This doctrine has had still farther application in one or 
two cases in Massachusetts, where it has been held that a 
farmer owning lower land may fill it so that surface water 
will back up over his neighbor's land, instead of flowing off, 
as it had been wont to do. The only remedy for the in- 
jured party would seem to be, in turn to fill his own land a 
little higher than his neighbor's, and thus reverse the flow. 

As to waters percolating through the earth, it may be 
said that one may dig a well on his own premises, even 
though the consequence be to cut off the percolating water 
from his neighbor's well. Whether he may do this mali- 
ciously, for the mere purpose of injuring his neighbor, has 
been much discussed. It was held in Maine that he could 
not do this maliciously ; but in New York the courts have 
held that, even though the injury is done for the mere pur- 
pose of injury, there is no right of recovery. In Massa- 
chusetts there was a dictum occurring in one of Pickering's 
reports which seemed to indicate that the view taken by the 
Maine courts would be the view taken here ; but our pres- 
ent court of last resort in Massachusetts has several times 
recently stated that the motive with which a man exercises 
his property rights is immaterial ; so that it may be deemed 
probable that, if the question were now to arise squarely in 
Massachusetts, the court would adopt the rule in New York, 
that, even though the well were dug maliciously, and not for 
any usefal purpose, the right of the party to dig the well 
would be maintained. The owner of land in the lower 
part of a stream can of course maintain an action against 
an abutter on the stream above for polluting the stream in 
any way ; by such means, for instance, as making a cess- 
pool in the land near a stream, the contents of which may 
leach into the stream, or by depositing manure near the 
stream, and thus contaminating it. 

A man has no right to build his house or his bam so near 



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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 189 

his neighbor's line as to allow the water from the roof to 
drip upon his neighbor's land ; but an easement in his favor 
may be created by prescription by twenty years' adverse 
use. 

The owner of land bounded by a stream not navigable 
owns to the middle of the bed of the stream ; that is to say, 
if I should describe my land in a deed as bounded east- 
wardly by *< Roaring Brook," that would pass title to the 
middle of the bed of the brook ; but language may be em- 
ployed in the deed so as to exclude this idea. For instance, 
if the grantor describes his land as bounded by the bank of 
the brook, the bank would be the limit. 

No one may stop up an ancient water course, — that is, 
one that has existed for more than twenty years. About 
1887 a case arose in Middlesex County where the plaintiff's 
land was injured by water setting back upon it, in conse- 
quence of the obstruction by the defendant on his own land 
of an ancient water course which flowed through the plain- 
tiff^s land from the defendant's land. The water course was 
described as *' an ancient rivulet or stream," which had 
existed beyond the memory of man. The obstruction com- 
plained of was the laying of a pipe for conducting the water 
in the ditch or water course, and levelling the surface above 
it. It was contended that the pipe restrained the flow of 
water in the stream ; and in this case the plaintiff prevailed, 
although the defendant had done no act except upon his own 
land, and had really undertaken to improve the condition 
of things. 

Interference of any kind with the natural flow of waters 
in brook, rivulet or stream by the owner of land through 
which it passes must always take place with a proper regard 
for the rights of his neighbors both above and below him. 

Fishing. 

Both the common law and the statutes contain some inter- 
esting provisions concerning rights to fish in streams and 
ponds. 

The riparian owner has exclusive right to fish to the 
middle of any stream above the point where the tide ebbs 
and flows, also to fish in anv pond other than the great 



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190 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

ponds, so called. Great ponds by our statutes are declared 
to be natural ponds which are over twenty acres in extent. 
Now, in such ponds and in places where the tide ebbs and 
flows, the public has the right to fish, but no one has the 
right to go across another's land to get to a great pond for 
the purpose of fishing. But the right even of the riparian 
owner to fish in navigable streams may be limited by statute, 
as has been held in Massachusetts under the statute of 1869, 
which forbids the taking of certain fish at their spawning 
season. It was claimed, in a case tried in 1871, that this 
law had no binding effect upon riparian proprietors, on the 
ground that it was unconstitutional ; but this contention was 
overruled, the court taking the ground that the right of fish- 
cry by riparian owners might be to some extent qualified by 
legislation, the Legislature having the right to prevent the 
extermination of migratory fish as well as of useful birds 
and animals, by forbidding the taking of them at all times 
when such act would interfere with their breeding and mul- 
tiplication. 

The riparian owner, though he may fish in a stream, may 
not block it so that fish cannot pass. The owner of a dam 
where migratory fish are accustomed to pass must provide 
a way for their passage. This has become the well-estab- 
lished law of the State, under the statutes and numerous 
decisions which have followed construing those statutes. 

The rights of riparian owners have been limited by stat- 
ute as to the time and methods of fishing. These provisions 
are numerous, and to undertake to state the special provi- 
sions would far exceed the proper limits of a paper of this 
nature. One curious case may be mentioned, in which the 
defendant was convicted and punished for netting trout, 
though it was on his own land, and though he himself had 
raised the trout. 

Ice. 

A brief statement in regard to the law affecting the cutting 
of ice naturally connects itself with the 'subject of fishing. 
In the case of Rowell v. Doyle, the lessee of an ice house 
and land on the borders of a great pond cleared the ice so 
that it might freeze to greater thickness. The defendant 
cut holes in the ice, and fished there. It was held that he 

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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 191 

bad a right to do so. His public rigbt to fisb was as good 
as tbe plaintiflPs right to cut the ice. In another dispute, 
where the owner of an ice house scraped tbe snow from 
half the ice and marked it off, and the owner of another ice 
house cut it, the latter was held free from liability, on the 
ground tbat there was no private ownership until the ice was 
cut ; and it follows that, if tbe farmer, in his zeal to fill his 
ice house for the uses of his creamery next summer, visits 
one of the great ponds of the State, he had better cut and 
carry home at night all the ice that he has marked out during 
the day, or some enterprising neighbor may step in during 
the evening and help himself in a way more legal than 
courteous. 

Game. 
It has been held in England that the owner of land has 
property in animals killed thereon; but if the game was 
started on the land of another, the property is in the hunter, 
and I presume that doctrine would be adopted by our supreme 
court as the law of Massachusetts. In New Hampshire they 
have game laws which forbid the killing of certain wild ani- 
mals at certain periods. A curious case arose there some years 
ago, in which Chief Justice Doe wrote a very long and elab- 
orate opinion, discussing the whole ground of rights in wild 
animals and the right to restrain the killing of them. A 
certain farmer had a flock of geese, which was in the habit 
of resorting to a pond near his house. One day he heard a 
loud cackling from the pond, and, seizing his gun, hastened 
to the relief of his feathered flock. Coming in sight of the 
water, he saw his geese swimiming with all their might for 
the shore, followed by four minks, a dam and three young 
ones. It was during the closed season. The owner gave a 
shout of alarm, as the result of which the minks gave up the 
pursuit and betook themselves to a small island in the pond, 
where they sat huddled together, the mother in the centre. 
The fSEtrmer fired his shot gun at the group, and killed all four 
of them at one shot. He was arrested and tried for killing 
the minks during the closed season ; but the court held that 
he was blameless, on the ground that one may kill a wild 
animal in order to protect his property, if necessary, even if 
that wild animal is protected by the game law. I have 

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192 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

always thought that the defendant in this case deserved his 
acquittal for his excellent shot, if for no other good reason. 

Another curious freak of the law, I will not say of the 
court, was a case arising some fifty years ago in Massachu- 
setts, where a defendant was prosecuted for malicious mis- 
chief in shooting wild geese, after having been previously 
informed that it would throw an invalid into a fit; and 
the conviction was allowed to stand. This hunter seems not 
only to have given the woman fits, but to have given the 
geese fits too. 

Domestic Animals. 

The law affecting the ownership of domestic animals is 
always very interesting to the farmer. 

Bees are feroe naturce^ that is, wild animals, and in their 
wild state of course they are not the subject of private 
property ; but when hived and reclaimed they become the 
subject of ownership. If the owner of a swarm is able 
to identify it, the property continues in him, even if that 
swarm has flown onto the land of another and swarmed 
there. Care should be exercised that the keeping of bees 
does not interfere with the rights of a neighbor, for in Dela- 
ware a man was enjoined against keeping bees that annoyed 
the owner of the adjoining land. 

Doves are not the subject of larceny except when in a 
pigeon house or in the nest and unable to fly ; and if doves 
are killed by a stranger, at any rate on the ground of the 
proprietor, an action of trespass may be maintained against 
him, and damages recovered. 

Hens are strictly domestic animals, and are among the 
chief annoyances of the farmer's life, whether it be his own 
hens or those of his neighbor. In fact, it may safely be 
affirmed that the neighbor's hens are generally the greater 
annoyance. So far as I know, no satisfactory method has 
yet been discovered of freeing oneself from this annoyance. 
Of all the farmer's possessions, hens go astray most easily. 
They crawl wncZe?* the fence and they crawl through the fence, 
or they fly over it at will. A carefully cultivated garden plot is 
their supreme delight, and the ravages of the big rooster 
therein are the source of more neighborhood bickerings and 
troubles than all other things combined, except dogs. Some 

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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 193 

ingenioas fellow once contrived a way of ridding himself 
of their unwelcome presence by poisoning his neighbor's 
hens. There had been repeated trespasses and warnings of 
an intent to kill tliem unless they were kept away, and the 
ttireat was at length carried out ; but the sufferer was sued 
and finally had to pay roundly ; for the poisoning was held 
by our supreme court to be an actionable wrong. Moral : 
never poison hens, seldom shoot them ; always drive them 
back into their own domain, if you can. 

Swine are generally pretty safe animals to have. The 
owner, however, must be very cautious about establishing 
his pig pen too near his neighbor's house, and thereby creat- 
ing a nuisance ; but if he is complained of on that ground, 
he had better hire a lawyer to defend him, otherwise he may 
get himself in the fix of the farmer whom I heard of who was 
indicted for maintaining a nuisance, namely, a piggery, who, 
having no lawyer, argued his own case, and summed it up 
as follows : ** The neighbors say. Your Honor and gentlemen 
of the jury, that hogs is unhealthy ; I say they aint ; look 
at me, aint I healthy ? " 

Under the head of swine I might perhaps well add a subdivi- 
sion of my subject, and call it ** voracious hogs." An in- 
stance of unusual hoggishness is to be found in a recent case 
in the Pennsylvania State reports. One Stewart brought 
his action before a justice of the peace to recover damages 
from one Benninger for trespasses committed upon his prem- 
ises by the defendant's hogs. He described his porcine tor- 
mentors in the following pathetic language: **They were 
of the slab-sided, long-snouted breed, against whose daily 
and nocturnal visits there is no barrier. They were of an 
exceedingly rapacious nature, and six of them, at one sit- 
ting, devoured fifty pounds of paint, thirty gallons of soft 
soap, four bushels of apples and five bushels of potatoes, 
the property of the plaintiff. They raided the plaintiff's 
spring-house, upset his milkcrocks and wallowed in his 
spring; and for several ye^rs foraged upon his farm, having 
resort to his corn, potatoes, rye and oat crops, to his garden 
and to his orchard and meadow. They obtained an entrance 
by rooting out his fence chunks and going under, or by throw- 
ing down the fences, or by working the combination on the 

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194 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

gate. These hogs were breachy, and the plaintiff notified 
the defendant, several times, to shut them up, and the last 
time told him if he did not shut them up, he would ; and 
the defendant replied, * Shut them up and be damned.''' To 
the credit of Pennsylvania justice bo it said that the plaintiff 
was allowed to recover damages for the ill-bred and unman- 
nerly conduct of the hogs. 

Dogs. — But all other domestic animals fade into insignifi- 
cance in comparison with the dog. While not so highly 
regarded by the law as useful domestic animals, property in 
dogs is recognized, and they are the subject of larceny. In 
fact, the ownership of a dog once established, it is sometimes 
very difficult to rid oneself of such ownership. There seems 
to be no way but to kill the creature. Hardly any case in 
the courts attracts the crowd so genuinely as the dog case. 
The horse case alone can rival it. My old partner used to 
say that in his young professional days he went down to 
Plymouth and spent a week in trying the moral character of a 
dog, and it took pretty nearly all the inhabitants of one country 
town to settle that important question. I myself had a case 
once where a street railway company was sued for running 
one of its cars over a dog owned by the plaintiff. He was a 
worthless cur, but his value was greatly enhanced when the 
street car made mince meat of him. We tried the case a 
day or two, but the jury were so confused by the conflicting 
evidence, and perhaps by the eloquence of counsel, that they 
disagreed. Almost always, when I meet the gentleman who 
appeared on the other side of the case, he expresses his regret 
that we didn't have another trial, to settle all the important 
questions that were left suspended by the mis-trial we had. 

A curious dog case came up in Norfolk County in 1894. 
The plaintiff was driving an express wagon drawn by a pair 
of horses, in the rear of which and attached to it by the reins 
was another horse harnessed to a single wagon. The defend- 
ant's dog ran out and bit the horse attached to the single 
wagon, in consequence of which the horse died, and suit was 
brought. The defendant contended that it was negligence on 
the part of the plaintiff to lead a horse behind, harnessed 
and attached to another wagon. The plaintiff requested the 
presiding judge to instruct the jury that a man had a right 



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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 195 

to lead a horse in the way and manner described, and the 
mere fact that he was so leading the horse was not such 
evidence of negligence as would exclude a recovery for the 
bite of the dog ; but the judge refused to give that ruling, 
and submitted the question of negligence to the jury, which 
returned a verdict for the defendant ; but our supreme court 
said that the ruling ought to have been given, because the lead- 
ing of a horse behind a wagon was simply a condition, and 
not in any just sense a contributory cause of the injury. In 
the course of the opinion Judge Lathrop wittily remarks 
that to hold that the question whether leading a horse behind 
a wagon, as was done in this case, should be submitted to 
the jury as evidence of negligence in inducing an attack by 
the dog, would amount to the submitting to the jury the 
question whether the color of the horse, or of the wagon, 
or of the driver of the wagon, might have induced an attack ; 
and the law doesn't pay this respect to the characteristics or 
prejudices of the dog. 

It has been held in another case that the fact that a dog is 
killing hens is no justification for killing the animal, unless 
the hens can be saved only in that way ; but apparently if 
the dog were worrying cattle or sheep, he might be killed. 
In another case, the defendant, in trying to stop a fight be- 
tween his dog and the plaintiff's dog, struck at them with a 
stick. In raising the stick he accidentally struck the plain- 
tiff, who was standing behind them, in the eye, and suit was 
brought for the injury ; but the court said there could be 
no recovery without proving negligence on the part of the 
defendant and due care on the part of the plaintiff. 

Almost every one knows that there is in this State a statute 
which provides that any owner or keeper of a dog shall forfeit 
to any person injured double the amount of the injury sus- 
tained by him, to be recovered in an action of tort. This 
statute makes it a perilous thing to own a dog, for it rarely 
happens that a defendant escapes being mulcted in damages 
in an action brought for the bite of a dog under this statute. 

The only exception I recall is one where the plaintiff in- 
terfered with his dog and another dog, that were fighting, 
and was bitten ; and the question was left to the jury whether 
he was in the exercise of due care in interfering in the fight. 

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196 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Upon that bsue the jury found for the defendant, and the 
supreme court said the ruling of the lower court was correct. 
The owner of a dog killed or injured by another dog which 
has the vicious habit of attacking other dogs may recover 
damages. 

A ferocious watch dog must be kept in such a way as not 
to bo liable to endanger persons rightfully on the premises 
of his owner. If your neighbor's dog habitually haunts 
your premises and barks and howls by day and night, 
you may kill the dog if you cannot otherwise stop the 
annoyance. It was so decided in a New York case a good 
many years ago, and it is a comforting reflection to think 
that probably our sensible Massachusetts court would hold 
the same doctrine. 

Question. What rights have people by the roadside in 
regard to rubbish and stone left beside the road? 

Mr. Dickinson. I do not know that there is any law to 
compel the town to clear it away. The town might be liable 
for damages if a person should be injured by their presence. 

Question. Has the town a right to leave stones on a 
lawn on private property ? 

Mr. Dickinson. Certainly not. 

Question. There seems to be a law to prevent the abutter 
from removing trees by the roadside. 

Mr. Dickinson. I suppose the gentleman refers to the 
condition before the recent statute was passed. Then it was 
a very serious question what the abutter's rights were, and I 
think the recent statute was partly to clear up the doubt that 
might exist in regard to the matter. The tree warden is 
the custodian of the trees. If an abutter wishes to remove a 
tree he must apply to the tree warden, and the warden must 
give a public hearing on the question, so that everybody 
interested in the tree may be heard. The tree warden's 
decision is final. 

Mr. Sessions. Would an abutter have the right to cut 
off limbs hanging over his land? 

Mr. Dickinson. I do not think so. The spirit of the 
law is to preserve the shade trees in their beauty. An appli- 
cation to the tree warden would be the proper method. 

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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 197 

Mr. Wabe. You say every town ** shall" elect a tree 
warden. In case some town does not, what is the remedy? 

Mr. Dickinson. Apply to the Attorney-General, and get 
him to ask the court to compel the town to do it. 

Secretary Stockwell. I would like to speak on this, 
because it is of great interest to us now. This new law, 
which was enacted in 1899, repeals previous laws, or in- 
tends to do so. 

Mr. . We have a little feeling in our town that it 

is hardly right that the tree warden should be supreme. He 
is above the selectmen and all other authority. We hope 
the next Legislatui'e will be asked to enact a law to protect 
the individuals as well as the landscape. 

Mr. . I would like to ask in regard to rights of 

farmers where they own land bordering on a pond. What 
would be the rights of those individuals, supposing that each 
one wanted to cut ice ? 

Mr. Dickinson. On ponds the law is different from what 
it is on streams. If he bounds on a stream, he owns to the 
centre. He can go anywhere on the pond. If he marks out 
his ice and leaves it until the next day, and some one takes 
it away, he has lost his right to that ice. In a case where a 
man cleared the ice ready to be cut, and a gentleman went 
on to fish and cut through the ice, it was held that the right 
to fish was as good as the right to cut the ice. 

Mr. Sessions. The following questions have been handed 
me, with the request that they be submitted to the speaker : — 

Can an owner of land oblige his neighbor to contribute 
his half to put up a sufficient fence to enclose and protect 
sheep? 

** A " digs a well on his land. If ** B " claims *< A '* has 
drawn the water from his, <* B's," well, has <* B" any action 
for damage ? 

Mr. Dickinson. In answer to the first question, I believe 
he can, if both are keeping sheep. It may be difficult to 
decide which part of the fence shall be constructed and kept 
by one party, and which by the other. I think an owner 
can compel his neighbor to put up a proper sheep fence, 
under the circumstances. It would be a question, in any 
case, what was a proper sheep fence. 

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198 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

The answer to the second question is, No, not in this State. 
If a man digs a well near your land, you are without remedy. 

Mr. Bennett. Suppose he shall force the water by 
pumping? 

Mr. Dickinson. If he draws from his neighbor's land, he 
would not be liable if the water be drawn for his own use. 
If the water comes from his own land, he is all right. One 
of the towns in Massachusetts bought some land near a river 
and sunk shafts and wells near the river. One of the mills 
has brought suit, claiming that they are pumping the water 
from the river, and that the town is liable for damages. 
That is a different case, — pumping water to sell. 

Mr. Sessions. We have a case in Springfield. I do not 
know whether it is settled or not. The city of Springfield 
put in a pump and drew water from a pond. The owner of 
property near the pond has put in an action for damages 
because the lowering of the pond takes water from his 
well. 

Mr. Dickinson. I should think it was too remote to be 
the basis of an action. 

Question. Why are all dogs taxed alike ? Other prop- 
erty is taxed according to its value. 

Mr. Dickinson. We pay a poll tax all alike ; and yet 
some are hardly worth two dollars. 

Question. Are the islands in a public pond public, or 
may they be private property ? 

Mr. Dickinson. I suppose they are the property of the 
State, and the State may deal with them as it sees fit. The 
public has a right to use the pond for boating, cutting ice, 
etc., but the islands would be entirely under the control of 
the State. 

Mr. Jewett (of Worcester) . Suppose I have a pasture 
bordering a large pond, and my land goes to high-water 
mark. That water makes a fence, and my line fence runs 
to the edge of high water. When the water goes down, who 
is to continue the fence to keep the cattle in the pasture ? 

Mr. Dickinson. If you own the land under the water, 
you must fence it. I do not see why you should not fence 
in your own land. You must fence to low-water mark, to 
protect yourself. 



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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 199 

Question. Does cuttiDg wood from a lot bring it under 
the head of improved land ? 

Mr. Dickinson. No, not unless the land is improved. 
The mere cutting of the wood would not make it any less 
wild land. You must fence j'our cattle in, and your neigh- 
bor must do the same ; but he cannot compel you to fence 
his cattle out. I do not know that there would be any 
difference in the case of wood land fully grown, and sprout 
land. 

Mr. Parker (of Holden) . I want to get back to the sub- 
ject of the tree warden. I think it is one of the most im- 
portant questions before the agricultural people. Suppose 
the land bordering a highway is a lot of wood land. Per- 
haps the land for a rod back would be covered with a heavy 
growth of wood. Could you, in any sense of the word, call 
a strip a rod wide shade trees ? 

Mr. Dickinson. I should apply to the tree warden for 
permission to take out the trees not necessary for shading. 

Mr. Parker. We have always held that a man owned 
everything to the centre of the road, including the shade 
trees. Is this due process of law, when the Legislature 
enacts a clause that that property on the highway, worth 
perhaps two or three hundred dollars, shall be put in the 
hands of a tree warden ? Is it due process of law for the 
Legislature to take this property from the farmer? Hasn't 
he a right to compensation ? It seems such an innovation 
on what I consider the rights of the abutter, that I want it 
made a little clearer to my mind. 

Mr. Dickinson. I think the supreme court would hold 
that law constitutional. It is much the same as in the case 
of street railways. They undertook to say, when the elec- 
tric cars were introduced into Cambridge, that it was not a 
proper use of the streets to allow the cars to run through 
them. But the contention was not sustained. It is within 
the power of the Legislature to say that the trees beside the 
road shall be treated as public property. 

Secretary Stockwell. During the summer the secretary 
has had a great number of inquiries come in to know who 
owns the trees by the roadside. You cannot take gravel 
away from one man's land and carry it away to benefit 

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200 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

another man's land. We have had a law by which the tree 
warden or the town could designate certain trees, and say 
they were shade ti^ees and were set apart for the purposes of 
travel. And now the law comes in and takes the whole, and 
says no man can touch anything on the roadside without the 
consent of the warden. 

Mr. Bennett. I was chairman of the committee that 
reported that bill in the last Legislature. I do not claim any 
especial responsibility for it, because Mr. Ellsworth was on 
that committee, and took more interest in the matter than I 
did. It is often the case that public sentiment goes far be- 
yond that of the abutter. For instance, we have in the town 
of Saugus an old elm planted by Professor Roby. He has 
been dead over a hundred years, but he was a friend of 
every one, and his memory is strong in that town to-day. 
The people have a stronger interest in that elm than the per- 
son who happens to live opposite it. When a person lives 
in a community like that, and sees the street railway com- 
panies and the telegraph and telephone companies cut down 
the trees and through the roots to run the wires, he sees the 
necessity for some powerful authority in the matter. The 
committee took a very judicial attitude. They recognized 
that, as with the tariff law, there are conflicting interests. 

It was presented to us at that time that we were taking 
away from the abutter a certain right to cut the trees he 
owns. You have to have a certain amount of forbearance. 
You have to frame the laws so as to be of the greatest good 
to the greatest number. 

You say you are giving the tree warden great power. In 
our large towns you have assessors, and you take away 
power from the selectmen and give it to them, because you 
want specialists who will take that particular department. 
You place upon some one man authority and power in re- 
gard to the shade trees, but you have a chance to get at him 
at the end of his term. These two different conditions of 
affairs came before the committee, the one representing these 
communities which are suffering terrible hardships from the 
reckless depredations by street railway companies and other 
public-service corporations, and who want protection ; and 
on the other hand you have the people living in the remoter 



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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 201 

districts, who want the right to cut the trees abutting their 
premises. I think the committee on agriculture did well to 
get as good a law as they did. It can, no doubt, be improved 
as time goes on. 

I think care should be taken to discriminate between an 
actual hardship and a purely theoretical case of a man who 
thinks he might be prevented by a tree warden from cutting 
the trees along his property. I do not think a tree warden 
who prevented this would be re-elected the next year. 

Mr. Pabker. In answer to Mr. Bennett, I want to say 
that at the convention of tree wardens there wasn't a word 
of doubt expressed that the tree warden didn't own every 
tree, and they said they were going to own the bushes inside 
the limits of the highway. I asked a selectman of an adjoin- 
ing town what he would do. He said if he wanted to cut a 
tree he would do it when no one was around, and after it was 
cut the property would be his. 

Mr. Bennett. In case a shade tree is cut down by a tree 
warden because it is in the way, or a public nuisance, who 
owns the wood? 

Mr. Dickinson. I should say the owner of the abutting 
land. 

Mr. Bennett. That applies to the trees Mr. Parker 
speaks of. The tree warden does not own them. You 
simply cannot find phraseology in which to state that some 
trees may be controlled by a warden and others not con- 
trolled. When the wood is cut, it belongs to the abutter. 

Secretary STOCKWEUi. I want to leave Mr. Bennett and 
Mr. Ellsworth right in this matter. The Legislature of 1899 
did a good work in bringing this before the people and bring- 
ing the matter to the front. That the law does not provide 
for all contingencies is simply a natural effect. The Board 
of Agriculture and the Forestry Association are working for 
the good of the State in this line, and the little mistakes 
will be rectified for the good of the whole State ; and we 
shall find that the work of Mr. Ellsworth and of Mr. Bennett 
will redound to the glory of the State and the beauty of its 
landscape. 

Mr. RiNDGE (of West Brookfield). How long must one 
pass over land or use a spring to gain an acquired right? 

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202 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Mr. Dickinson. That subject I omitted. Of course it is 
one of the most important subjects to the farmer. The rule 
is that twenty years are required to give a right of way or a 
right to draw water. That is a prescriptive right. But a 
man cannot acquire a prescriptive right simply by using it. 
He must use that right of way continually and without inter- 
ruption, adversely to the owner. He must go ahead in the 
face of the owner, and use the right of way. The use must 
be continuous, and against persons who are competent to ob- 
ject, — that is, they must be competent to make a contract. 
If you began to use a right of way and used it eight years, 
and the owner of the land died, leaving an infant son as the 
sole heir, no prescription would run during that period. It 
must be adverse to the owner, and must be done openly and 
not in secret. 

Mr. Sessions. I want to explain a little the case the 
speaker spoke of, about the barbed-wire fence on sidewalks. 
The petition upon which the committee of the Legislature 
acted and reported was to forbid the erection of barbed-wire 
fences along any sidewalk in the State. Knowing, then, as 
has already come to pass, that it would become a necessity 
to use the wire, I objected that such a law would be out of 
character. But the friends of the matter who were so much 
interested in the barbed-wire fence along sidewalks in vil- 
lages made a great deal of cry about it. So we finally com- 
promised by forbidding the putting up of barbed wire along 
a sidewalk unless six feet from the ground. This was to pre- 
vent climbing by boys and dogs, and yet the trouble which 
the people complained of was remedied. If this matter of 
cutting trees could be arranged in some such way to exclude 
the entire rural district from the provision of the law, it 
would seem to cover the ground. 

J. E. McClellan (of Grafton). I have listened to this 
discussion about the law of 1899. There are more members 
of the agricultural committee of 1899 in this hall than have 
been mentioned. I see at least four or five before me. I 
want to set us right. This bill did not come from the com- 
mittee on agriculture. We had nothing to do with drafting 
the bill. It came from the Forestry Association, and would 
not hold water in one of its clauses as it came from them. 

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No. 4.] RURAL LAW. 203 

We worked on the bill' for two months, and this was the best 
the Massachusetts Forestry Association, and the secretary of 
the Board of Agriculture, and the gentleman who was at the 
State House in the interest of the grange, and everybody 
who was interested at that time, could make of it. I do not 
think we need to borrow very much trouble about this law 
being too strict. In our town we have a tree warden, and I 
do not know but he is as good as many other towns have 
elected. Since this law was passed I have seen at least four 
or five shade trees cut down, and nothing .done about them. 
The law is to protect shade trees. You cannot exempt a 
rural district. 

You. have to have a law to cover the briers and bushes, or 
some man will cut the most beautiful shade trees. Put 
everything there is in the hands of a warden. The town does 
not want the wood, it wants the shade trees. In the case of 
a tract of wood land, the owner and the warden could select 
a few trees for shade, and the rest could be cut. 

I hope the combined wisdom of the tree wardens and the 
State Board of Agriculture will not spoil this law, and make 
it worse. I hope they will make it better and stronger. 

Mr. Adams (of Barre). I have listened to the various 
remarks in regard to this law. It appears to me, as it did 
in the committee, that it would have to be changed at some 
future time. I am pleased to see the highway trees cared 
for. I found that the Forestry Association had some ideas 
at variance with the ideas of the committee. Some wanted 
all briers and bushes left, so that it would look natural. The 
tree wardens will probably have the interest of the towns at 
heart. I hope that in time we will get the law into proper 
shape. At the present time I do not feel that it is quite 
what it should be. 

Mr. Howard. One question in regard to water. ** A" 
owned a farm, and allowed * * B ** to go on it and put a lead pipe 
to the spring. The spring furnished water for his cattle in 
the pasture. *< B " put the pipe in and run it while he lived, 
and at his decease the water ceased to run. In after years 
** B's" place changed hands. ** C " came into possession of 
it, and all the time <«C" lived there, — two, or three, or 
four years, — he had no water from the spring, although the 

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204 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [P.D.No.4. 

pipe was laid through onto <*C'8*'land. **C*'8old after- 
wards to ** D," and *< D " afterwards sold, never starting the 
water, to «< E." *« E " occupies it to-day. After << E " had 
occupied it a few days or a month, he discovered this pipe, 
and attached it and ran it to the house. The question is, 
whether ** E " will have a legal right to this spring. 

Mr. Dickinson. How long did <* B '^ use it ? 

Mr. Howard. ** B " used it about ten years. The under- 
standing was, that when water was short in the pasture he 
was to shut it off. 

Mr. Dickinson. He went in to take the water under an 
agreement with the other party. There must be an element 
of adversity between the two people. There never was an 
adverse use. I presume there was no written agreement. 
The moment *<B** sold out, that put an end to the agree- 
ment, if ever there was one. I would not give much for 
** E's " alleged right. 

Seci'etary Stockwell. I move that the meeting of the 
Board of Agriculture be now dissolved. 

The motion was carried, and the meeting dissolved at 
1.20 P.M. 



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ANNUAL MEETING 



Board of Agriculture, 



BOSTON. 



JaNUAKT 8 AND 9, 1901. 



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ANNUAL MEETING. 



In accordance with the provisions of chapter IV. of the 
by-laws, the Board met at the office of the secretary, in Bos- 
ton, on Tuesday, Jan. 8, 1901, at 11.30 o'clock a.m., it be- 
ing the Tuesday preceding the second Wednesday of January. 
The Board was called to order by First Vice-President Wm. 
R. Sessions. 

Present : Messrs. F. H. Appleton, J. S. Appleton, Avery, 
Barms, Barton, Benedict, Bradway, Brewster, Bursley, Car- 
penter, Clark, Comins, Damon, Danfoith, Davis, Ellsworth, 
Gleason, Howard, Jewett, Kilbourn, Lloyd, Pratt, Richard- 
son, Sargent, Sessions, Smith, Spooner, Stockwell, Thayer, 
Thurston, Turner and Whitmore. 

The records of the public winter and special meetings of 
the Board were read and approved. 

The executive committee, as committee on credentials, by 
Mr. W. A. Kilbourn, chairman, reported the list of qualified 
members of the Board for 1901. The newly elected members 
are as follows : — 

At large, appointed by the Governor : — 

Warren C. Jewett of Worcester. 
£lected by the societies : — 

Barnstable County, John Bursley of West Barnstable. 

Hampshire, A. M. Lyman of Montague. 

Martha's Vineyard, Johnson Whiting of West Tisbury. 

Middlesex North, Joshua Clark of Tewksbury. 

Oxford, W. M. Wellington of Oxford. 

Spencer, John G. Avery of Spencer. 

Union, Enos W. Boise of Blandford. 

Worcester North-west, T. H. Goodspeed of Athol. 

Worcester South, C, D. Richardson of West Brookfield. 



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208 BOAKD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

The report of the committee was accepted and adopted. 

The committee appointed at the public winter meeting to 
report resolutions on the death of Messrs. Grinnell and Hor- 
ton, reported as follows : — 

In remembrance of one not lost, but gone before, the members 
of the State Boaid of Agriculture desire to place on recoixi their 
appreciation of the worth of James S. Grinnell. 

A man of singularly cheerful and genial temperament, his pres- 
ence was always welcome. Generous of heart and true to his 
friends, he never failed them in the hour of need. Wise in counsel 
and outspoken in its expression, his advice was never sought in 
vain. A lawyer by profession, engrossed for years in the exact- 
ing duties of the Patent Office, he never forgot his early training 
or his love for agriculture, and was always to be found in the front 
ranks of those striving for its best interests. Fulfilling to the 
letter every duty laid upon him, he never shirked an obligation, 
and counted it among his highest privileges to attend the meetings 
of this Board. Frank, loyal and warm-hearted, we mourn the 
man, the friend, the brother. 

Another member has passed away since the last annual meet- 
ing, in whose memory the Board would record the following. 
Mr. D. A. Horton had been a member of the Board of Agricult- 
ure since 1889, having represented the Hampshire Agricultural 
Society for three yeai*s, and since has served as member at large 
by appointment of the Governor. He was commissioned by the 
Governor one of the original members of the State Dairy Bureau, 
and held that position at the time of his death. His service on 
both Boards was always prompt, efficient and able. The Board 
of Agriculture has lost an able and valued co-worker, the Dairy 
Bureau its most experienced member, and the cause of agriculture 
a disinterested friend and an earnest advocate. 

After brief remarks by the chairman and secretary, it was 
Voted^ That the resolutions be adopted and spread upon 

the records, and that copies be sent to the families of the 

deceased. 

The secretary presented the presiding officer with a gavel 
made from a piece of wood taken from the former rooms of 
the Board in the Commonwealth Building, for use during the 
meetings of the Board. 



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No. 4.] ANNUAL MEETING. 209 

On motion of Mr. Avery, it was 

Voiedy That a special committee of three be appointed by 
the Chair to consider the matter of societies charging admis- 
sion fees for entry of cattle at fairs. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. Carpenter, Clark and Howard 
as the committee. Later in the day the committee reported 
inexpedient to legislate, which report was accepted. 

At 12.30 the Board adjourned to 1.30 p.m. 

The Board was called to order at 1.40 p.m. 

An abstract of the annual report of the secretary was 
presented, read and accepted. 

The report of the Dairy Bureau was read by the general 
agent, Mr. Whitaker, and was accepted. 

The report of the committee on gypsy moth, insects and 
birds was presented at the special meeting of the Board at 
Worcester, Dec. 5, 1900, and was accepted and adopted at 
that time. 

The committee on domestic animals and sanitation, by Mr. 
Damon, chairman, presented a written report, which was 
accepted. 

The committee on Agricultural College and education, by 
Mr. Bursley, chairman, presented a written report, which 
was accepted and adopted as the report of the Board to the 
Legislature. 

The committee on forestry, roads, and roadside improve- 
ments, by General Appleton, chairman, presented a written 
report, which was accepted. 

The committee on institutes, rules and legislation, by Mr. 
Sargent, chairman, presented a written report on farmers' 
institutes, which was accepted. 

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210 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

The report of the committee on experimcDts and station 
work, prepared by the chairman, Mr. Hersey, who was de- 
tained from the meeting by illness, was read by Secretaiy 
Stockwell and was accepted. 

On motion of Mr. Gleason, it was 

Votedf That a vote of thanks be sent to Mr. Hersey for his 
excellent report on experiments and station work, with our 
regrets for his illness and absence here to-day, and our hope 
for his speedy recovery. 

An abstract of the reports of inspectors of the several fairs, 
prepared by direction of the committee on agricultural so- 
cieties, was read by the secretary. 

Voted f To accept the reports of inspectors. 

The report of the librarian was read and accepted. 

At 4.30 the Board adjourned to 9.30 a.m., Wednesday. 



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No. 4.J ANNUAL MEETING. 211 



SECOND DAY. 

The Board was called to order by First Vice-President 
Sessions, at 9.50 a.m. 

Present: Messrs. F. H. Appleton, J. S. Appleton, Avery, 
Barrus, Barton, Benedict, Boise, Bradway, Brewster, Bursley , 
Carpenter, Clark, Comins, Damon, Danforth, Ellsworth, 
Gleason, Goodspeed, Howard, Jewett*, Kilbourn, Lyman, 
Pratt, Richardson, Sargent, Sessions, Spooner, Stockwell, 
Thayer, Turner, Wellington and Whiting, and retiring mem- 
bers Lloyd, Smith and Whitmore. 

The records of the first day were read and approved. 

The committee on agricultural societies, by Mr. Kilbourn, 
chairman, presented a written report, which was accepted. 

Voted J That the report be printed in pamphlet form, and 
copies sent to the officers of the several societies. 

The committee on institutes, rules and legislation, by Mr. 
Sargent, chairman, presented a set of amended by-laws, rules 
and regulations, which was accepted and adopted. 

Election of officers being in order, the chairman declared 
His Excellency W. Mureay Crane president of the Board 
(by a by-law of the Board the Governor of the Common- 
wealth is ex officio president). 

Further elections by ballot resulted as follows : — 

First vice-president, Hon. Wm. R. Sessions of Springfield. 

Second vice-president, Augustus Pratt of North Middlebor- 
ongh. 

Secretary, Hon. J. W. Stockwell of Sutton. 

Greneral agent of the Dairy Bareau, Geo. M. Whtfaker of 
Boston. 

Upon accepting the office to which he had been elected, 
Mr. Stockwell presented to the presiding officer and former 



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212 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

secretary, Mr. Sessions, a gavel, and to each member of the 
Board a ruler, as mementoes of the former rooms of the Board 
in the Commonwealth Building, which had been recently torn 
down, the articles mentioned having been made of some of 
the woodwork from the old office. 

Votedy That the thanks of the Board be extended to Sec- 
retary Stockwell for his thoughtful kindness to the members 
of the Board. 

On motion of Mr. Barrus, it was 

Voted J That the secretary be requested to send a gavel to 
ex-secretary John E. Russell, as a souvenir of his connection 
and association with the Board in the old Commonwealth 
Building. 

The Chair announced the standing committees as follows 
(the secretary is, by rule of the Board, a member ex officio 
of each of the standing committees) : — 

Executive committee : Messrs. TV. A. Kilbourn of South Lan- 
caster, Isaac Damon of Wayland, John Bursley of West Barn- 
stable, Edmund Hersey of Hingham, Francis H. Apple ton of 
Peabody, Augustus Pratt of North Middleborough, F. "W. Sargent 
of Amesbury, J. L. Ellsworth of Worcester. 

Committee on agricultural societies : Messrs. W. A. Kilbourn 
of South Lancaster, Q. L. Reed of South Weymouth, Chas. A. 
Gleason of New Braintree, Henry A. Howard of Colrain, Geo. P. 
Carpenter of Williamstown. 

Committee on domestic animals and sanitation : Messrs. Isaac 
Damon of Wayland, Oscar S. Thayer of Attleborough, Joshua 
Clark of Tewksbury, Johnson Whiting of West Tisbury, John S. 
Anderson of Shelburne. 

Committee on gypsy moth, insects and birds : Messrs. Augustus 
Pratt of North Middleborough, F. W. Sargent of Amesbury, J. 
M. Danforth of Lynnfield Centre, John G. Avery of Spencer, 
Wm. R. Sessions of Springfield. 

Committee on Dairy Bureau and agricultural products : Messrs. 
J. L. Ellsworth of Worcester, C. D. Richaixlson of West Brook- 
field, F. W. Sargent of Amesbury, C. B. Benedict of Egremont, 
W. M. Wellington of Oxford, A. M. Lyman of Montague. 

Committee on Agricultural College and education : Messrs. John 
Bursley of West Barnstable, C. K. Brewster of Worthington, 
Wesley B. Barton of Dalton, Alvan Barrus of Goshen, W. C. 
Jewett of Worcester. 



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No. 4.] ANNUAL MEETING. 213 

Committee on experiments and station work : Messrs. Edmund 
Hersey of Hingham, T. H. Goodspeed of Athol, N. I. Bowditch 
of Framingham, S. B. Taft of Uxbridge, Wm. H. Spooner of 
Boston. 

Committee on forestry, roads and roadside improvements: 
Messrs. Francis H. Appleton of Peabody, J. S. Appleton of Nan- 
tucket, H. A. Turner of Norwell, O. E. Bradway of Monson, 
E. W. Boise of Blandford. 

Committee on institutes and public meetings : Messrs. F. W. 
Sargent of Amesbury, Edmund Hersey of Hingham, Edward M. 
Thurston of Swansea, W. B. Barton of Dalton, Henry C. Comins 
of Northampton. 

Which appointments were approved by the Board. 

Election of specialists being in order, ballots were taken, 
and the election resulted as follows : — 

Chemist, Dr. C. A. Goessmann of Amherst (Massachusetts 
Agricultural College). 

Entomologist, Prof. C. H. Fernald of Amherst (Massachusetts 
Agricultural College). 

Botanist and pomologist. Prof. S. T. Maynard of Amherst 
(Massachusetts Agricultural College). 

Veterinarian, Prof James B. Paige of Amherst (Massachusetts 
Agricultural College). 

Engineer, Wm. Wheeler of Concord. 

Ornithologist, E. H. Forbush of Wareham. 

On motion of General Appleton, it was 

Votedy That the secretary be directed to call a meeting of 
the committee on forestry, roads and roadside improvements, 
to consider and recommend a law for the better protection of 
wood lands and for better roadside improvement, for presen- 
tation to the proper committee of the Legislature now in 
session, if in their judgment such seems wise. 

On motion of General Appleton, it was 

Voledy That the Board authorize the publication in the 
next annual report of this Board of the ideas suggested 
yesterday for better preserving forest land and protection by 
the State, as offered by Vice-President Sessions. 



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214 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

On motion of Mr. Sargent, it was 

Votedf That the present committee on the agricaltural 
exhibit to the Pan-American Exposition be continued, with 
full powers to act for the Board in all matters relating 
thereto. 

Votedy That a committee of five be appointed by the Chair 
to devise and prepare for suitable recognition of the fiftieth 
anniversary of the founding of the Board, and report to the 
next annual meeting, or to a special meeting if deemed best ; 
and that the Hon. Geo. S. Bout well be a guest of honor at 
that meeting, he having been the presiding officer at the first 
meeting. 

The Chair appointed Messrs F. H. Appleton, Sessions, 
Kilbourn, Ellsworth and Spooner as the committee. 

Votedj That the secretary of the Board be directed to 
visit the experiment stations and agricultural departments in 
the New England States, to come into closer relations with 
our brothers in agricultural work, to study methods of work 
and note results, and report to the next annual meeting. 

Mr. O. S. Thayee presented and read an essay on ** Better 
roads for Massachusetts," which was accepted. 

Mr. H. C. CoMiNS presented and read an essay on ** Agri- 
cultural organizations," which was accepted. 

Mr. Kilbourn, for the committee on agricultural societies, 
reported recommending that the date for the commencement 
of the fair of the Bristol County Agricultural Society be 
changed to the third Monday in September, that of the 
Worcester North-west Agricultural and Mechanical Society 
to the first Monday in September, and that of the Hoosac Val- 
ley Agricultural Society to the first Monday in September. 

Votedf To change the dates of the commencement of the 
fairs of the Hoosac Valley and Worcester North-west socie- 
ties, as recommended, and that the matter of change of date 
of the Bristol County Society be referred to the executive 
committee for ac^udication. 

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No. 4.] ANNUAL MEETING. 215 

Mr. Kilbourn, for the same committee, reported recom- 
mending the assignment of inspectors, as follows : — 

Amesbtuy and Salisboiy, at Amesbmy, Septem- 
ber 24, 25 and 26, H. C. Comins. 

Barnstable County, at Barnstable, August 27, 28 

and 29, F.W.Sargent. 

Berkshire, at Pittsfield, September 10, 11 and 12, John Burslet. 
Blackstone Valley, at Uxbridge, September 10 

and 11, CD. Richardson. 

Bristol County, at Taunton, September 17, 18 and 

19, W.B.Barton. 

Deerfield Valley, at Charlemont, September 12 

and 13, E. M. Thurston. 

Eastern Hampden, at Palmer, September 17 and 

18, O. S. Thayer. 

Essex, at Peabody, September 17, 18 and 19, . J. L. Ellsworth. 
Franklin County, at Greenfield, September 18 and 

19, C. B. Benedict. 

Hampshire, at Amherst, September 24 and 25, . W. H. Spooner. 
Hampshire, Franklin and Hampden, at Northamp- 
ton, October 2 and 3, Joshua Clark. 

Highland, at Middlefield, September 4 and 5, . W. A. Kilbourn. 
Hillside at Cummington, September 24 and 25, . Geo. P. Carpenter. 
Hingham at Hingham, September 24 and 25, . T. H. Goodspeed. 
Hoosac Valley, at North Adams, September 2, 3 

and 4, J. G. Avert. 

Housatonic, at Great Barrington, September 25 

and 26, Q. L. Reed. 

Manufacturers^ Agricultural, at North Attlebor- 

ough, September 10, 11 and 12, . . . . Johnson Whiting. 
Marshfield, at Marshfield, September 18, 19 and 

20, E. W. Boise. 

Martha^s "Vineyard, at West Tisbury, September 

17 and 18, Alvan Barrus. 

Massachusetts Horticultural, at Boston, October 1 

and 2, N. I. Bowditch. 

Middlesex North, at Lowell, September 12, 13 

and 14, C. K. Brewster. 

Middlesex South, at Framingham, September 17 

and 18, J. S. Appleton. 

Nantucket, at Nantucket, August 28 and 29, . Isaac Damon. 
Oxford, at Oxford, September 5 and 6, . . . J. M. Danforth. 
Plymouth County, at Bridgowater, September 11, 

12 and 13, C. A. Glbason. 

Spencer, at Spencer, September 19 and 20, . . A. M. Ltman. 
Union, at Blandford, September 11, 12 and 13, . W. C. Jewett. 
Weymouth, at South Weymouth, September 26, 

27 and 28, S.B.Taft. : 



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216 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Worcester, at Worcester, Septembers, 4 and 5, . H. A. Howard. 
Worcester East, at Clinton, September 11, 12 and 

13, H. A. Turner. 

Worcester North-west, at Athol, September 2 and 

3, O. E. Bradway. 

Worcester South, at Storbridge, September 12 and 

13, W. M. Wellington. 

Worcester County West, at Barre, September 26 

and 27, Augustus Pratt. 

The report of the committee was accepted and adopted. 

At 12.40 the Board adjourned to 1.45 p.m. 

The Board was called to order at 1.45 p.m. 

Votedf That the doings of the executive committee, act- 
ing for the Board, the past year, be approved and adopted 
as the actions of the Board. 

Votedj That all unfinished business or new business aris- 
ing before the next regular meeting of the Board be left 
with the executive committee, with power to act. 

Votedj That delinquencies of societies in making required 
returns be referred to the executive committee, with full 
powers. 

The committee on institutes and public meetings, by Mr. 
Sargent, chairman, reported recommending that the next 
summer meeting be held at Swansea, some time in August, 
on invitation of Mr. Thurston ; and that the next public 
winter meeting be held at Northampton, on invitation of the 
Hampshire, Franklin and Hampden Agricultural Society. 

Voted, To accept the report, and to hold the meetings as 
recommended. 

Voted, That the Chair appoint a local committee of five, 
to act with the secretary and the committee on institutes and 
public meetings, as a committee of arrangements for the 
public winter meeting at Northampton, Dec. 3-5, 1901. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. Comins, Lyman, Sessions, 
Barrus and Anderson. 



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No. 4.] ANNUAL MEETING. 217 

Mr. Sargent, for the same committee, reported recom- 
mending the appointment of Hon. Wm. R. Sessions to pre- 
pare a paper on "Massachusetts forestry," and Mr. John 
Bursley one on *«The influence of the Board on the agri- 
culture of the State," to be read at the next annual meeting 
of the Board. 

Votedy To accept the report, and appoint the essayists as 
recommended by the committee. 

The records of the second day's meeting were read and 
approved. 

At 2.30 P.M. the meeting was dissolved. 

JAMES W. STOCKWELL, 

Secretary, 



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218 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



REPORT OF COMMinEE ON AGRICULTURAL 
SOCIETIES. 



[Bead and accepted at the Annual Meeting, Jan. 9, 1901.] 



The committee on agricultural societies report that they 
have carefully examined, and in some instances have 
amended, the reports of inspectors, the abstracts of which 
have been read to the Board. These reports indicate that 
the fairs of the last year have been more successful than 
usual in the financial results, and that there have been few 
objectionable features. Still, they show that the business of 
holding fairs is attended with considerable risk, and your 
committee can only urge upon the societies their duty to use 
great care in expending large sums of money in preparation, 
when there is always uncertainty of return. 

They believe that, the more the neighborhood interest can 
be encouraged to contribute to the exhibition from their 
cattle and horses, swine, sheep and poultry and from their 
own products and handiwork, the greater will be the real 
success of the feir. And this local interest is the vital 
point, to be considered beyond any and all others, and that 
society is likely to be permanent and that fair is well man- 
aged, when the community about feel and say, *<This is 
our fair,'' and take credit to themselves in the successful and 
creditable exhibition that is made, whether its strong point, 
as at Hillside, is in cattle, or in manufactures, as at the Mid- 
dlesex North. We desire to encourage these differences, and 
not to make each fair a copy of every other ; and, in so 
doing, each society will do the most good, and will be a 
centre of improvement and of honorable competition along 
lines best suited to its own neighborhood. 

WILLIAM A. KILBOURN. 
CHAS. A. GLEASON. 
HENRY A. HOWARD. 
GEO. P. CARPENTER. 



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No. 4.] DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 219 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND 
SANITATION. 



[Read and accepted at the Annual Meeting, Jan. 8, 1901.] 



So far as it is possible to learn , the sanitary conditions of 
the farm buildings throughout the State have been much im- 
proved in the last few years, and, as a result, the condition 
of the domestic animals has also to a large extent been greatly 
benefited, thereby calling for less rigid inspection on the part 
of the Cattle Commissioners. 

Your committee have no special suggestions to make in 
this matter. 

ISAAC DAMON. 

OSCAR S. THAYER. 

JOSHUA CLARK. 

FREDERICK L. WHITMORE. 

A. W. LLOYD. 



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220 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON EXPERIMENTS AND 
THE HATCH EXPERIMENT STATION. 



[Bead and accepted at the Annual Meeting, Jan. 8, 1901.] 



Very few who have not given the subject intelligent 
thought realize the difficulties to be overcome while making 
an agricultural experiment that will secure results which 
are not only correct, but which will l)e a step of progress in 
agriculture, so easily understood that the farmer can apply 
it to his own farm in a manner to secure the full benefit of it. 

In field experiments there are such variations in climate, 
elevation of land and natural and artificial conditions of the 
soil, that an experiment which might secure information that 
would be a step of progress when applied to one farm, would 
cause a step backwards when applied to another farm. 

This fact confuses many who fail to understand why the 
experiment station does not send out a multitude of facts, 
clothed in language so simple that every one can understand 
their full meaning, though they have never learned the mean- 
ing of a single term used in describing plant food or plant 
growth. 

The experiment station rarely gets the ftill credit it is en- 
titled to. For example, information is sent out that Paris 
green will kill insects when applied diluted with water, 
giving the amount of poison to be mixed with a given 
quantity of water. Some one, who thinks he knows quite 
as much as the professors of the station, finding he can save 
a few dollars by using the poison in a dry foim, purchases a 
shooter and applies the Paris green in a dry form, and, to 
make sure to kill all of the insects, he applies enough to kill 
the leaves of the plants and hundreds of dollars' worth of 
fruit. Or the station sends out a statement that arsenate of 
lead will kill insects, and gives the exact formula for mixingi 

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No. 4.] EXPERIMENT STATION. 221 

but those who jump at conclusions and mix wrong, apply it 
to the crop, and destroy both leaf and fruit. Who is to 
blame for this ? Certainly not the officers of the station ; 
they are not supposed to furnish the brain power to the 
farmers, and to those who are not farmers and never will be. 

But a better day has come, — the farmers of Massachu- 
setts during the past few years have made rapid progress 
towards a better understanding of the terms relating to feed- 
ing both plants and animals, and are beginning to realize the 
importance of this knowledge, if they would reap the full 
benefit of the experiment station. 

The Massachusetts Agricultural College and the agricult- 
ural department of Harvard University are educating con- 
siderable numbers of intelligent young men in those lines 
which relate to the best methods of farm work. These young 
men, when educated, go to their homes and for a time mingle 
with the farmers of their native towns, and some of them 
have taken their fathers' farms and run them to a larger 
profit than their fathers were able to, thus proving to the 
whole community that their education is worth more than a 
lifetime of practice. 

The time is not far distant when the farmers will realize 
that to make a success in farming it is just as important that 
the young man should receive an education especially adapted 
to his occupation, as should the clergyman and the phj'sician. 
When this day comes, our experiment station will receive full 
credit for the work it does ; but to-day there is not a single 
department that gets but a small portion of the credit which 
honestly belongs to it. 

If we should blot out all that the department of chemistry 
has done, we should be amazed at the results. The farmers 
would be cut off from all help as to the value of any fertilizer 
or the condition of any water that might be thought to be un- 
healthy, unless they expended what to them would be large 
sums for a special analysis. 

Blot out all the work that has been done by the depart- 
ment of entomology and destroy all of the information sent 
out, and the result would be the destruction in a few years 
of millions of dollars' worth of the farmers' crops ; and the 
same would be true of some of the other departments. 



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222 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

The agricultural department is doing important work, 
which in time will bring out new and valuable facts. To 
establish facts relating to the cheapest and best methods of 
feeding both plants and animals requires time and careful 
work, as well as high intelligence. No doubt information of 
great value to the farmer will be secured by continuing the 
experiments now in progress in this department, but the 
farmers must be patient, and not overlook the fact that many 
of the experiments tried must necessarily prove failures, ex- 
cept to teach how not to do, and that the few which promise 
to secure important steps of progress in agriculture should 
not be recommended to the public until their value has been 
fully proved by several years of trial, under conditions as 
varied as they would be likely to meet under the directions 
of the fieumer. 

Your committee found every department of the station in 
excellent order, and the work is evidently being done in a 
fSEuthful manner, directed by high intelligence. 

If the members of the Board of Agriculture would visit the 
station more frequently, and make themselves familiar with 
the important work that is being done in every department, 
they would be better prepared to convince the farmer that 
the station, in a money point of view, is a great benefit to 
the State ; and that, if he will put himself in communication 
with it, it will be a great benefit to him as an individual. 
The money which it has cost to run the station since it was 
established is very small, when compared with the money it 
has saved by sending out information relating to the best 
methods of destroying insects and fungi, and how best to 
feed plants and animals. 

It is to be regretted that an institution so profitable to the 
State should not have for its use money suflScient to secure 
the undivided attention of the professors who are at the head 
of each department. It may be said that it is very easy to 
select a few experiments to be tried, and place them in charge 
of an assistant ; but a thoughtful man realizes a serious diffi- 
culty at the outset. An ordinary man, while digging post 
holes or potatoes, may think of a hundred experiments to be 
tried; while a thoughtful man, who has had experience in 
the business, would be likely to think of five hundred experi- 

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No. 4.] EXPERIMENT STATION. 223 

mentSy which ought eventnally to be tried ; and, as he may 
not be prepared to enter upon the trial of more than ten each 
year, if he is to do the best possible work, he will not select 
the first ten experiments that present themselves to his mind 
when confused by a multitude of duties, many of them but 
slightly connected with this line of work ; but, realizing the 
importance of the work, if his mind is not distracted by other 
duties, he will give it his full, individual attention, until by 
thorough investigation he feels reasonably sure that he has 
selected the ten experiments that are the most important to 
be tried first, though it may take months of research and 
thought. If he does not do this, but takes the first ten that 
present themselves to his diversified mind, it may be fifty 
years before he comes to the other ten experiments that 
ought to be tried first. 

EDMUND HERSEY, 

Chairman. 



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224 BOAKD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY, ROADS AND 
ROADSIDE IMPROVEMENTS. 



[Bead and accepted at the Annual Meeting, Jan. 8, 1901.] 



The greatest obstacle and discouragement to the applica- 
tion of true forestry to our wood, sprout, untillable and non- 
pasture lands is probably forest fire. This scourge is known 
to most parts of the State in varying degree, but the fair 
face of Massachusetts has been most severely scarred on her 
unique Cape district. It is Massachusetts as a whole that 
our Board has to deal with ; and good principles, that can 
be applicable to the most needy part, will be of value to the 
more densely peopled. 

Recently reading in a promotive publication, *' The For- 
ester," of experiences with forest fires in the State of Penn- 
sylvania, our State laws to aid in combating the causes of 
such fires were stated to be good, and preventive, so far as 
law can aid. Pennsylvania, with her great commercial in- 
terests in ** using and preserving" her forests, should be a 
good judge, and her leading forester. Professor Rothrock, is 
well able to speak wisely as to how far laws can be useful. 

Our Cape district is a unique feature in our nation, and 
there is profit to our State in giving to it the best thought 
possible. I cannot speak with detailed expert knowledge of 
the characteristics of that large tract of townships bordered 
by the salt waters, and with an attractive climate that is 
peculiar to itself. But I do know that, unless its reputation 
for frequent and destructive forest conflagrations greatly 
ceases, the benefits that rightfully belong there must be far 
less than the Cape district deserves. 

What can this Board do to guard the State's interest there ? 
An association of representatives from the several towns and 
villages comprising the territory in question should be able 
to decide, after associating themselves with the best possible 

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No. 4.] FORESTRY AND ROADS. 225 

expert knowledge, what, if anything more, can be done than 
is being done at the present time. We seem to have no ap- 
propriation of money with which to act in this matter, so • 
that we need not take ap time in considering possible action 
on such lines. Possibly we could institute the formation of 
a convention somewhere in that district, upon the lines I 
have suggested, to be addressed, under this Board's auspices, 
by experts and local representative men, the result of which 
convention would be action, or non-action, as would seem 
to those assembled wisest for the preservation and pro- 
motion of possibilities which belong to one of the most 
interesting and unique tracts of land in Massachusetts and 
this nation. If good came out of such action, it would 
be to the credit of this Board, and be a guide to action else- 
where. 

To protect large tracts, or small tracts, a division by road 
ways is most helpful ; and, the more those ways can become 
popular for driving and teaming, so much better the pro- 
tection. 

It has been proposed, before the Legislature of a previous 
year, that the proper State authorities be authorized to pur- 
chase, in the name of the State, at a price perhaps not ex- 
ceeding three dollars an acre, forest, stump or waste lands, 
on the Cape, for example, and for the State to issue bonds 
to pay for the same; such lands to be divided into sec- 
tions, by roads of simple construction, that shall allow of 
the passage of foresters' wagons, other vehicles or persons 
on horseback. The idea has been advanced that, by judi- 
cious action, the State would thus in due course of time pos- 
sess a valuable property, and do a great preventive work 
against the present scourge of forest fires. 

We have a tree warden law that is under trial, and time 
will prove its value and show its weak points, if the latter 
exist. 

I am cognizant of the fact that officers of wire depart- 
ments, with large corporate interests, have lately sought 
advice, and publications, that would instruct their superin- 
tendents in best methods of pruning roadside trees. This is 
certainly a good evidence that results, for which this com- 
mittee exists, are being realized, and with harmony. 

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226 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Our system of road building has advanced tnuch, as time 
has made such possible, and as our people have learned what 
is better and appreciate it, when their superintendents of 
streets put in practice the best methods that the amount of 
the appropriations allow. 

I shall not attempt to speak further and in more varied 
ways at the present time. I have endeavored to make one 
special point prominent, and that is '^ forest fires," and their 
great injuries to Massachusetts interests. 

I make the following suggestion, after consultation with 
others of the Board, in order that a present legislative re- 
quirement of long standing may be so broadened as to include 
more present interests, — that section 8 of chapter 114 of 
the Public Statutes be amended by inserting after the word 
** ship," in the last line, the words **and other," so that it 
shall read «* ship and other timber." I make this suggestion, 
hoping to have the proposed amendment brought before the 
Legislature of 1901. 

FRANCIS H. APPLETON, 

Chairman. 



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No. 4.] AGRICULTUKAL COLLEGE. 227 



Report to thb Legislatubb of the State 

BOABD OF AgBIOULTUBB^ ACTING AS OVEB- 
SEEBS OF THE MaSSAOHIJSBTTS AGBIOUIiT- 

UBAL College. 



[P. S. Chap. 20, Sect 5, adopted by the Board, Jan. 8, 1901.] 



2b ihe State Board of Agriculture, Overseers of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College, 

Your committee, having completed the duties assigned 
them by occasional visits to the college, and a general in- 
spection of the work, from time to time, at different seasons 
of the year, beg leave to report as follows : — 

The **Grinnell prizes," which are awarded by this com- 
mittee, based upon written essays and oral examinations of 
the graduating class in agriculture, were awarded in June, 
1900, as follows : the first prize was awarded to Mark H. 
Munson of Huntington ; the second to Morris B. Landers of 
Palmer. The oral examinations were well sustained; the 
essays were thoughtfully prepared, but with too little atten- 
tion to minor details. 

To lay aside, now and then, the philosophy of nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid and potash, of clover nodules and fungi, to 
study the potency of semicolons and interrogation points 
and the art of syntax and orthography, might be helpful 
even to college graduates. 

The Farm. 
The usual farm work, with its practical and experimental 
operations, has been carried on successfully, although natu- 
ral conditions have operated in some cases to lessen results. 
The testing of seeds, fertilizers and chemicals, here made in 
a scientific way, of the results of different foods and rations 
to attain certain results, are being given to the farming pub- 
lic at institutes and in various ways, to awaken new interest 



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228 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

and meet the changing conditions of the farm and of the 
&rmers. 

The committee, recognizing this as the true "Mecca" of 
progressive farming in Massachusetts and the ** ideal store- 
house" of exhibit as well as scientific instruction, would like 
to see an improvement in the neat stock of the Institution. 
The Massachusetts Agricultural College falls short of its 
high purpose, if it does not, for use and exhibit, have typi- 
cal herds for milk, butter and beef. 

Class Work. 

Wide-awake men are utilizing mor^ and more the by- 
products of nature, as well as of manufactures. Special 
work in the line of extensive intensive farming calls for 
science in agriculture. Science and practice must go hand 
in hand in the future, to a large extent, to attain success in 
farming. This is what the college is fitting men for. New 
methods are constantly coming to the front ; new problems 
are constantly arising ; new obstacles appear. All have to 
be met, mastered and overcome. It all falls back upon the 
man. A well-trained mind can always guide a cunning 
hand, and meet the changes. 

In addition to regular work, short winter courses in agri- 
culture are given, without examination or tuition. The ob- 
jects are: (1) to present in a practical way the results of 
scientific investigation in agriculture; (2) to help students 
to be better dairy farmers, creamery managers, fruit growers, 
market gardeners and farm superintendents ; (3) to make 
the students better acquainted with the Agricultural College 
and experiment station ; (4) to help establish habits of read- 
ing, study and thought. 

Entomological Department. 

This department, while it deals with small things, is not 
so conspicuous to the casual observer as some other depart- 
ments, yet it is of great value and of utmost importance. 

The question of dealing eflfectively with injurious insects 
and fungi has become one of profit or loss with every fruit 
grower, horticulturist and market gardener. It is estimated 
that the annual loss caused by insects in the United States 



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No. 4.] AGMCULTUEAL COLLEGE. 229 

is three hundred million dollars. To meet this obstacle in 
the way requires thorough work and study in the line of en- 
tomology. We believe this department is managed with 
consummate skill and ability. 

The New Vbtbrinaby Depabtment. 
The veterinary department, with its well-appointed class 
roomsy experimental outfits and laboratory equipments, is 
an important adjunct to the institution, and will doubtless 
prove of great benefit to stock raisers and farming interests 
in disseminating new light and knowledge in dealing with 
animal diseases, and fitting men to treat them successfully. 

The Military Department. 
The death of Captain Dickinson of the college, and the 
removal to other fields of duty of his successor, paralyzed 
for a time the work of this department ; but under the effi- 
cient management of Capt. John Anderson, who has been 
assigned to duty here, a new spirit and interest have been re- 
vived, and the thorough military drill is not only a pleasant 
feature to those who visit the college, but of invaluable 
worth to students, in the line of order, discipline and physi- 
cal benefits. The college now has a fine military company. 

The Experiment Station. 

The work here has been carried forward, under its very 
efficient director, in the usual courses, bearing particularly 
upon conditions of health as influenced by water supplies, 
testing of fertilizers, seeds, soils, etc., and a variety of ex- 
periments which are given to the public by way of bulletins. 

This is a department of investigation, and more difficult 
to the superficial observer, to understand, in scope, condi- 
tion and value, than others. That it ranks among the first 
in the country in scientific ability and attainments is the con- 
census of opinion of all who come in contact with its work. 

Horticultural Department. 
In this department new varieties of fruits are being tested 
for their characteristics and worth, so that farming conunu- 
nities may know which are most desirable to grow for market 



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230 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

use. Crops are sprayed, to protect them from insects and 
fungous pests, with system and exactness, and close records 
made of the results. New insecticides are carefully tested, 
and results compared with those of standard formulas. New 
packages for the keeping and shipping of fruit are being 
tested, and many other investigations in new lines are being 
prosecuted, which will be of great benefit to horticultural 
interests in the future. The patient labor, the watching and 
waiting required in this department to secure the desired 
results, in the efibrts which may mean a thousand failures to 
one success, can be readily understood, when we remember 
how many wild and worthless apples were grown before our 
best varieties attained their present excellence. The same 
is true of all fruit, flower, vegetable, plant and tree growth. 
Taken together, there are very many failures to one success. 
We can count on our fingers the really desirable varieties 
of strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, cherries, plums, 
peaches, pears and apples there are in the markets of to-day. 
The same fact is apparent in every department of life, getting 
the best at infinite expense and labor ; yet who would leave 
the new and accept the old, even at its minimum cost? 

Future Woek and Support. 

The matter of restoring depleted forests, of renewing 
exhausted soils, of a more prompt and efficient mail service, 
of better and quicker facilities from farm to market and from 
market to farm, of better roads and improved highways, how 
to meet western competition in products and prices, of en- 
hancing the social and pecuniary condition of farming com- 
munities, are problems which must be met and demonstrated 
in the near future for New England farming communities and 
interests. Men must be trained to lead the work in various 
callings, as the times and changed conditions demand. 

We believe the people of Massachusetts as a whole, and 
by their constitutional organizations, should give not only a 
liberal but an enthusiastic support to this institution, which 
is closely in touch with her sanitary, commercial, social and 
educational interests. 

The college, with its manifest advantages, in our judgment 
needs a more thorough and aggressive system of advertising 



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No. 4.] AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 231 

in the common avenues of newspapers and periodicals that 
reach the firesides and homes of rural communities, with the 
same push and spirit that appear in the active business en- 
terprises of the day, insomuch as to largely increase the 
patronage of the institution and give greater results for the 
outlay. 

At a meeting of the Alumni Association, held in June, 
1900, at Amherst, a committee was appointed to consider the 
matter of advertising the college more efiectually. This com- 
mittee, with the aid of heads of different departments of the 
college and the editors of ** Aggie Life,** have issued a very 
clear and concise statement of the course now offered. A 
thorough perusal and distribution of this publication may 
well interest the members of this Board. 

JOHN BURSLEY. 
C. K. BREWSTER. 
WESLEY B. BARTON. 
GEO. P. SMITH. 
ALVAN BARRUS. 



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232 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON INSTITUTES, RULES AND 
LEGISLATION. 



[Read and accepted at the Annual Meeting, Jan. 8, 1901.] 



The committee, sitting as a committee on farmers' insti- 
tutes, held a meeting in November, 1900, at which the list of 
institute speakers was discussed, and its publication in the 
form in which it appeared on Dec. 17, 1900, authorized. 

The system of the holding of farmers* institutes in this 
State was discussed, and the committee believes that it is 
generally well adapted to the needs of the farmers of the 
State. 

The attendance, averaging over 90 per institute during the 
season, is a valuable index to the interest taken in these 
meetings by the farmers and the good accomplished by them. 
That there are many localities, however, where these insti- 
tute meetings do not receive the attention they deserve, 
cannot be gainsaid ; and the committee has thought it desir- 
able to include in this report a summary of the attendance at 
the institutes held by the various societies, so that those 
which are doing good work along this line may receive due 
credit, and those where the attendance and interest are not 
what they should be may be spurred on to give more atten- 
tion to them. The attendance at the meetings held in 1900 
was as follows : — 



Amesbury, 127, 90, 62, 80. 
Barnstable County, 30, 100, 70. 
Berkshire, 19, 60, 15. 
Blackstone Valley, 16 for one and 

no report for the other two. 
Bristol County, 65, 70, 50. 
Deerfield Valley, 200, 50, 25. 
Eastern Hampden, 100, 35, 125. 
Essex, 95, 120, 120. 
Franklin County, 75, 60, 36. 



Hampshire, 60,50, 100. 
Hampshire, Franklin and Hamp- 
den, 75, 60. 100, 80. 
Hingham, 12, 18, 75, 28, 87. 
Highland, 26, 50, 120,72. 
Hillside, 100, 200, 75,75. 
Hoosac Valley, 15, 19, 15. 
Housatonic, 25, 25, 50. 
Manufacturers', 200, 100, 20. 
Marshfield, 70, 20, 75. 



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No. 4.] 



FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 



233 



Martha'8 Vineyard, 25, 160, 25. 
Massachusetts Horticultural, 90, 

200, 500, 160, 300, 800, 175, 200, 

200, 100. 
Middlesex North, 160, 160. 260, 

260. 
Middlesex South, 75, 60, 60. 
Nantucket, 25, 20, 10,10. 
Oxford, 30, 360, 26. 
Plymouth County, 60, 60, 60, 80. 
Spencer, 46, 86, 40. 



Union. 140, 160, 175. 
Weymouth, 17, 12, 40. 
Worcester, 200, 160, 300. 
Worcester East^ 62, 35, 21. 
Worcester North-west, 200, 86, 

135. 
Worcester South, 40, 85, 68. 
Worcester County West, 60, 50, 60. 
Worcester North, 200, 176, 160, 

125. 



While your committee realizes that there may be many 
circumstances which may cut down the attendance at these 
meetings at times, and that often criticism may be unjust, 
still, it cannot but feel that a society where the attendance 
habitually falls below 50 does not take the proper interest in 
the work, and is not making the use of its opportunities 
which the State has a right to expect. 

F. W. SARGENT. 
E. M. THURSTON, 
WESLEY B. BARTON. 
H. C. COMINS. 



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234 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



BEPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 



[Adopted at the Annnal Meeting, Jan. 8, 1901.] 



To the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture, 

Sir : — The fourth report of the librarian is herewith pre- 
sented. 

In accordance with the instructions of the Board, the 
unbound copies of the library catalogue have been bound. 
Copies have quite generally been placed in near-by public 
libraries ; libraries of educational institutions have also been 
supplied. The edition was 500 copies, and 150 remain 
undistributed. 

The libirarian's suggestion of last year, that ** books bor- 
rowed from the library of the Board must be receipted for 
and returned within one month,*' having been adopted, the 
plan of loaning books to responsible parties has been in force 
the past year, and 46 books have been so loaned. 

It is interesting to notice that works on forestry and 
arboriculture have been those most in demand, 9 in all. 
Six works on entomology and 6 on cattle were loaned, 4 on 
landscape gardening, 4 on flowers, 3 on farm implements 
and machinery, 2 on birds, 2 on tuberculosis and 1 each on 
market gardening, spraying, botany, horticulture, zoology, 
goats, beet sugar, farm engineering, statistics, and a scien- 
tific report. 

Back volumes of the ** Agriculture of Massachusetts " have 
been supplied on call, as in past years, to institutions and 
to individuals. The institutions receiving the largest num- 
ber of volumes were the Ohio Department of Agriculture, 
Columbia University, Syracuse University and the Univer- 
sity of California. 

The library now has 20,600 index cards to experiment 
station literature, 534 to the publications of the United 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF LIBRARIAN, 235 

States Department of Agriculture and 1,153 to the general 
office library. 

One hundred and twelve bound volumes have been added 
to the library since the catalogue was issued, the number of 
bound volumes Jan. 1, 1901, being 3,293. 

The expenses incurred on account of the library the past 
year were as follows : binding catalogues, $50 ; books and 
pamphlets purchased, $43.36; current publications sub- 
scribed for, $34 ; binding, $11.75 ; supplies, $10.75; total, 
$149.86. These expenses were paid from the appropriation 
for ** incidental expenses in the office of the secretary.'* 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. H. FOWLER, 

Librarian, 



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236 BOARD OF AGEICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



REPORT OF DELEGATES TO THE FARMERS' NATIONAL 

CONGRESS. 

Colorado Springs, Col., Aug. 21-31, 1900. 



Hon. J. W. Stockwell, Secretary Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, 

Sir: — The delegates from Massachusetts in attendance 
were John G. Avery, H. P. Howland and A. F. Jones of 
Spencer, Ethan Brooks of West Springfield, George M. 
Whitaker and Ella A. DoUiver of Boston, and R. G. F. 
Candage and Sallie C. Candage of Brookline. 

The Congress met in the auditorium of the high school 
building, Colorado Springs, Aug. 21, 1900, at 10 o'clock 
A.M., and was called to order by the president, R. G. F. 
Candage of Massachusetts. In all there were some five hun- 
dred and fifty delegates and associates present. 

Rev. Wm. H. Fish of All Souls Church, formerly of Ded- 
ham, Mass., opened the Congress with prayer. 

Mr. Gilbert McClurg, secretary of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, Colorado Springs, welcomed the Congress on behalf 
of that organization. Mayor J. S. Robinson of Colorado 
Springs followed with an address of welcome of a cordial 
character, in which he said : — 

The cordiality of your welcome is increased by the fact 
that most of us claim a real or honorary membership in the 
great fraternity you represent. Most of us were fortunate 
enough to have had a rural nativity, and by many ties are still 
rooted to the soil ; and your presence here to-day recalls the 
past, and we sense the fragi*ance of clover and apple blossoms, 
hear again the low of cows, the bleat of lambs, the minstrelsy 
of woods and fields and the rustle of bladed com stirred by 
the breezes of golden autumn. 

It is a fact, and one of vital significance to our country, 
that the farms are the manufactories of the best product of 
American brain and brawn, of American character and man- 
hood. Three-fourths of the youths in our higher schools of 

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No, 4.] FARMERS' NATIONAL CONGRESS. 237 

learning come from the fiarms and rural communities. It is 
true also of a majority of the men who lead in public afiairs, 
that they were born and reared in the country. 

The farms, too, are schools of patriotism. The boy 
whose ductile foot has clung to the soil of his father's farm 
will grow into a lover and defender of his country. The 
man who looks upon his home and fields, feels a joy of owner- 
ship and sense of freedom, becomes, when the hour demands 
and duty calls, a Cincinnatus or an Israel Putnam, and leaps 
from the furrow to the ranks of his country's defenders, — 
drops the plow handle and seizes the sword in defence of his 
fireside and his country. 

The character of the citizens and the greatness of the in- 
dustry you represent makes this Congress of farmers of great 
and national importance, and what you do here will redound 
to the betterment of every national interest. We hope, as 
you look upon these grand and enduring mountains, as you 
cross and recross the great States and Territories that make 
up our matchless domain, as you meet here as fellow workers 
from all sections of the United States, you will gain new faith 
in the permanence of our institutions, realize more fully the 
vastness and richness of our national resources, see with 
clearer vision than ever before the unity of purpose that 
binds together and inspires to patriotic and noble achieve- 
ments the people of every section of our beloved country. 

The president then presented Gov. C. S. Thomas of Colo- 
rado, who said, in part : — 

It is a truly interesting thought, when we realize that the 
session of the Farmers' National Congress that is now opening 
is being held here in the shadow of the mountains, on the ex- 
treme western edge of the vast tract of land which for so many 
years, and even for generations, was known as the Great 
American Desert. You have come here by traversing a wide 
region that was once barren. To reach the shade of these 
beautiful trees and of the historic mountains near at hand, 
you have crossed a region where improved methods of farm- 
ing have had their effect. You have come to discuss methods 
and plans whereby you may further improve on the methods 
by which you have wiped out the Great American Desert, 
not only from the map, but from the face of the earth. 

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238 BOARD OF AGEICDLTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

In a few short years the domain of agriculture has been 
extended even to the western seaboard, and the waste places 
of the land have become the garden spots and the granary of 
the world. 

It was the love of gold and the search for it that brought 
men out into this western country. The Pike's Peak excite- 
ment of 1859 and the rush of people to Montana and Idaho 
started the population of this section of country. But it 
was the farmers who remained who developed the resources 
and made them what they are to-day. They took a waste 
tract of land, and it has become an empire. 

While Colorado is rich in mineral resources, and produces 
more gold than any other State in the Union, still, all her 
mineral wealth is insignificant compared with what farmers 
have done for the wealth of the country, even in a single year, 
and insignificant as compared with the resources of agricult- 
ure in Colorado, which are as yet practically untouched. 

Responses were made by Secretary Stahl, Col. B. F. 
Clayton and President Worst of the North Dakota Agricult- 
ural College. 

At the afternoon session President Candage of Massachu- 
setts delivered his annual address, brief abstracts of which 
are here given : — 

You are assembled here from your respective abodes in the 
several States and Territories of our broad land, to open, and, 
by your deliberations, discussions and resolutions upon agri- 
culture and other topics connected with the farming interests 
of our great resourceful country, to conduct, the twentieth 
annual session of this Congress. You are happily met in a 
place of great natural beauty and grandeur in the centennial 
State, — a State of vast agricultural and mineral resources, 
situated *« in the midst of the everlasting hills," the grandest 
and highest mountain range of our continent, from which you 
may draw inspiration to make this session of our Congress one 
of lofty ideals. 

In a survey of the world's great agricultural field, the pros- 
pect for the present and the future is centred on this continent, 
as giving the promise of the best return to the tiller of the 
soil to be found anywhere on our globe. Here great droughts, 
bringing famine and pestilence in their train, are unknown, 



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No. 4.] FARMERS' NATIONAL CONGRESS. 239 

and deyastating wars are not likely ever again to occur to 
hinder the work of the husbandman ; but with a stable gov- 
ernment, a rich yielding soil, an increasing population, bet- 
ter paid labor than elsewhere, a steady market is secured for 
the products of the farm, and demands from abroad, at re- 
munerative prices, take any surplus that may remain over. 

In importance, magnitude and value, the products of the 
soil represented by the delegates to this Congress over- 
shadow all other interests making for the comfort, happiness 
and well-being of our country and its people. 

Transportation is of vital importance to the fSsmner, and 
the development of interior portions of our country in agri- 
cultural and other products. With the introduction of rail- 
roads, the country's progress in population, wealth and 
resources has been a marvel. Without their aid, farm and 
crop beyond home consumption would be worthless; with 
their aid, both are valuable. In this connection, river and 
harbor improvements by the general government are of inter- 
est to the farmer for they tend to lower the cost of transpor- 
tation by competition with the railroads. 

The time has come for the farmers, manufacturers and 
commercial men to unite, and demand from our national 
government an American mail service to South America, 
and to other foreign countries, in steamships under our own 
flag. It is well known that trade follows the flag of the 
nation which floats and upholds it. South American coun- 
tries are our neighbors and natural allies in trade and com- 
merce, and yet, for lack of direct mail and shipping facilities, 
Europeans supply them with the bulk of their imported 
commodities. 

An American merchant marine, which is needed by every 
industry of our country for the extension of our foreign 
markets and as an aid to our navy, should be urged by this 
Congress upon the consideration of the United States Con- 
gress. No country like ours, with an extensive sea coast, 
with extensive exports and imports, can expect to continue 
prosperous without an efficient merchant marine. There is 
too great a drain upon our financial resources without it. 

And there should be a canal constructed and controlled by 
the United States to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 

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240 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

for the benefit of our commerce in time of peace and for the 
benefit of our navy in time of war. 

It is essential, under our form of government, where 
rulers are chosen from the people to make and administer 
the laws, that the people should be educated, and therefore 
we cannot too highly appreciate educational advantages. 
But, as education is many-sided, broad and technical, no one 
person can expect to master all its branches in detail, but 
should make an efibrt to master that particular branch which 
has to do with his life work, whether it be commerce, bank- 
ing, farming, manufacturing, mining or learned profession. 
As the business of farming is so extensive, occupies such a 
large percentage of our population, and all classes are de- 
pendent upon it, a better knowledge of it should be had by 
those engaged therein. 

Taxation is a subject of interest not only to the farmer, 
but to every property holder of our country, but to the 
farmer especially, as his property lies where it can be seen 
and where there is no escape, although he may believe and 
know that he is paying more than his just proportion. Our 
fathers, in enacting laws for the regulation of a just system 
of taxation, recognized the principle and laid down the rule 
*« that all men should be assessed and contribute to the com- 
mon charges, in accordance with their ability." And Adam 
Smith, a hundred years later, in his *< Wealth of Nations,** 
asserted the principle that ** the subjects of every State ought 
to contribute toward the support of its government, as nearly 
as possible in proportion to the revenue which they respec- 
tively enjoy under the protection of the State." If these 
rules, simple and just, were carried out, there would be no 
cause for complaint by any one, and there would be no place 
for **the tax dodger "in our land. Those rules simply 
mean that property should pay its proportion of taxation 
without regard to the form of investment. 

In the early settlement of our country all men were 
farmers, and depended upon the soil for their subsistence. 
They were industrious and frugal. They subdued the for- 
est, cleared the land, and planted their seed with a sublime 
faith in an over-ruling Providence that the work of their 
hands would prosper. In the same faith they established 

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No. 4.] FARMERS' NATIONAL CONGRESS. 241 

civil government and enacted laws for its stability, most of 
which we at this time recognize to have been wise and bene- 
ficial. The farmers were the law makers ; they were mem- 
bers of the legislative assemblies, of the governor's councils 
and of the judicial courts ; and they performed their duties 
with an ability and conscientiousness that reflect great credit 
upon their official conduct. 

The farmer's patriotism, bravery and willingness to take 
up arms in defence of his country are unquestioned, and yet 
his chosen occupation is one necessarily of peace. His in- 
terests and prosperity are best served when peace reigns, 
and grim-visaged war hinders not a fair exchange of the 
products of the soil and commerce. Such being the case, 
why should he not join his eflbrts to those who seek to de- 
spoil war of its devastating influences and bloody horrors, by 
leaving to arbitration all questions arising between Christian 
nations not involving national honor, and thereby hasten the 
time when ** swords shall be beaten into plow-shares, and 
spears into pruning-hooks," and ** nation shall not lift up 
sword against nation, and neither shall learn war any more." 

An able address was delivered by F. A. Converse of Buf- 
falo, N. Y., on ** Why efibrts of the farmer should be 
directed to an intelligent cheapening of production." 

The evening session was well attended. The essayist was 
Hon. Alexander R. Smith of New York, and his subject, 
« ' Our shipping interests." Prof. Elwood Mead of Cheyenne, 
head of the irrigation department of the United States, gave 
an address on "Irrigation investigations." 

On the second day, Hon. J. B. Killebrew of Tennessee 
read a paper on *' Natural resources of the south." Mr. 
Greorge M. Whitaker of Massachusetts read a paper on 
** Dairying." Mr. R. W. Tansill of Pecos Valley, N. M., 
addressed the Congress on the resources of New Mexico. 
Mr. A. J. Lockridge of Indiana read a paper on '* The mis- 
sion of the farmer," and Mr. J. A. Springer of Colorado 
gave a talk on the ** Value and importance of the live stock 
interests of the west." Mr. J. P. Brown of Indiana read a 
paper on the ** Relation of forestry to agriculture," followed 
by Mr. Ethan Brooks of Massachusetts, with an address on 
" Agriculture as a branch of public education." 

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242 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

The session of the third day opened with the introdaction 
of resolutions and routine business^ after which Senor Jos6 
Romero, of the Mexican embassy at Washington, was intro- 
duced, and read a paper on ** General agriculture in Mexico.** 
Mr. John E. Alter of Indiana made a humorous speech, a 
characterization of the speakers, from the president down 
to himself, in his improvised Dutch-English, which could 
only be. fully appreciated by hearing it. Capt. Wm. W. 
Bates of Denver addressed the Congress on *^ American ship- 
ping,** advocating its rehabilitation by enactment of differen- 
tial duties. Mr. H. W. Campbell of Nebraska read a paper 
on ** The redemption of the arid west.** Miss Emma C. 
Sickles of Chicago, of the committee on domestic economy, 
made a report, which was accepted. The committees on the 
president's address, credentials, finance and on resolutions 
made reports, which were accepted. 

The repoiii of the special committee on revision of the 
constitution was read and adopted, and the Congress ad- 
journed to Aug. 30, 1900, at 9 a.m., at which time it met, 
completed its business and adjourned sine die. 

The resolutions presented and adopted at the Congress 
that might very properly be referred to in this report were : — 

That the Farmers* National Congress, in its annual ses- 
sion, assembled at Colorado Springs, Col., August, 1900, 
urges upon the United States Congress the necessity of lib- 
eral appropriations for all meritorious, important and needed 
improvements of rivers and harbors, already begun, that the 
same may be carried forward to completion with becoming 
expedition, in the interest of a more extended commerce and 
as a safeguard against loss of life and property. 

That the Farmers' National Congress calls to the attention 
of the United States government, and presses upon it, the 
necessity of establishing a speedy and direct mail service, 
in steamships under the American flag, between our coun- 
try, Brazil, Argentina and other foreign countries, that we 
may thereby fairly share in their trade and commerce, and 
extend our exports to markets which would prove of advan- 
tage to both buyer and seller. 

That the Farmers* National Congress deems it to be of 
great importance that a connection by water be made between 



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No, 4.] FARMERS' NATIONAL CONGRESS. 243 

the eastern and western shores of our country, by a canal 
uniting the two oceans at Nicaragua, or such other point 
deemed most advisable, to be constructed, controlled and 
maintained by the United States, and urges the Congress of 
the United States to take such action as shall promote this 
object. 

That the Farmers' National Congress endorses the Grout 
bill, now pending before Congress, especially section 1, as 
of exceptional importance, and that it should become a law, 
though nothing else were coupled with it, as it would make 
imitation butter subject to the laws of any State into which it 
might be carried. 

That, with the above a national law, we favor section 2 of 
the Grout bill, which would increase the tax on the imitation 
of yellow butter, adding, however, no additional burden on 
oleomargarine, which may be in such distinct form and color 
as will apprise the consumer of its real nature. 

That, in our opinion, it is the duty of Congress, at the 
earliest day possible, to enact legislation to secure the res- 
toration of American-built mail carriers and freighters, by 
the extension of such aid as shall enable them to successfully 
compete with the merchant ships of foreign nations, receiving 
like aid, in the carrying of our exports and imports. 

That we cordially commend Secretary of Agriculture Wil- 
son for the care and pains he is exercising in the collection 
of seeds for distribution, and we recommend that hereafter 
seeds be distributed through the experiment stations, instead 
of through members of Congress. 

That the Farmers' National Congress heartily endorses the 
action of the national government in extending the benefits 
of free mail delivery to the farmers of the country. 

That we denounce all proposed leasing of the public do- 
main for grazing purposes as un-American, and contrary to 
the interest and development of our country, and earnestly 
protest against the enactment of any national law for leasing 
the public domain. 

That this Farmers' National Congress recommends such 
legislation by the States and nation as shall limit the rates 
on sleeping-cars to a just and fair compensation for the 
service rendered. 

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244 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

That the value of the irrigated farm and the security of 
the home thereon erected are dependent upon public control 
of the water supply and the prevention of water becoming a 
speculative commodity. 

That the water of all streams should forever remain public 
property, and that the right to its use should inhere, not 
in the individual or the ditch, but in the land reclaimed. 

That we urge the adoption of a system of harmonious irri- 
gation laws in all arid and semi-arid States and Territories, 
under which the right to use the water for irrigation shall 
rest in the user and become appurtenant to the land irrigated, 
and beneficial use be the measure of the right. 

That we commend the investigation of the problems of 
irrigated agriculture and the efforts to promote its success 
now being made by the Office of Experiment Stations, United 
States Department of Agriculture, and favor liberal appro- 
priations for their continuance. 

That the Fanners' National Congress, assembled at Colo- 
rado Springs, reaflSrms the action taken by it at Boston in 
1899, viz., that as agriculturists we use our best endeavors 
to make the Pan-American Exposition, to be held at Buffalo, 
N. Y., 1901, fully illustrative of the resources of every Com- 
monwealth in the United States, and that we co-operate with 
the various officials of the exposition to make it the success 
the great undertaking deserves. 

That Congress should clothe the Interstate Commerce 
Commission with power to enforce the decisions of said 
commission. 

R. G. F. CANDAGE, 

For the Delegates* 

Boston, Dec. 20, 1900. 



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No. 4.] BETTER ROADS. 245 



BEHER KOADS FOR MASSACHUSEHS. 



BT OSOAK S. THATER OP ATTLEBORODQH. 



The subject of better roads for Massachusetts is one of 
vital importance to the welfare of the State and to the pros- 
perity of her citizens, especially in the rural districts, where 
they are still pursuing the methods of fifty years ago in the 
care and construction of their roads. In the past twenty-five 
years rapid progress has been made in our manufacturing, 
in our railroad accommodations, in our schools and colleges. 
To-day electricity has spread its network of rails all over the 
State ; and, could our forefathers of even twenty-five years 
ago return and see the electric car, the automobile and the 
bicycle on our common roads, they would think indeed that 
they had waked up in some foreign country. 

All these things demand better roads. We must adopt 
modern methods of building them and in caring for them. 
Take the management of our highways out of politics, and 
place it in the hands of men educated to the business. No 
other department in the State has been so badly abused as 
the department of highways, in some of the outlying dis- 
tricts, where the management is, in too many cases, in the 
hands of men who are working politics for a living, and are 
spending thousands of dollars annually on our highways, 
without knowing the first principles of modern road building. 
When we take up the teaching of agriculture in our common 
schools, I hope that we may have one department devoted 
to instruction in modern road building. Good roads bring 
prosperity, and prosperity brings good roads ; they go hand 
in hand, each assisting the other. A recent writer has said 
that Spain would not have lost Cuba if she had joined the 
good roads movement. Far-fetched as the assertion may 
seem, it contains the element of tmth. In spite of a long 
Spanish sovereignty, the common highways of Cuba — most 

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246 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc, 

fertile island of the Atlantic — are still of the most wretched 
description. Barbaric Spain has not yet learned what Rome 
knew one thousand year& ago, what America well knows 
to-day, — that roads are the arteries of commerce, along 
which flow the life streams of a nation, bearing success, 
civilization and contentment to the inhabitants. 

One of the first principles of better roads is good drainage. 
Take the water out, and keep it out, is a rule which must be 
followed in the making of every road. We have to-day in 
some of the rural towns roads that are the lowest in the 
centre, and which are nearly impassable after every heavy 
rain. These roads must be rounded up in the centre, so as 
to shed the water quickly to the side drains. These drains 
must have a good fall to a clear outlet, and be in every re- 
spect capable of carrying off the water. Ruts and holes 
must not be permitted to form, but must be filled up as soon 
as they appear. No one thing at so small expense can be 
done to our roads for their improvement as drainage. 

In some of the towns of the State the roads are in worse 
condition to-day than they were twenty-five years ago. In 
that time smart, hustling manufacturing villages have sprung 
up. Consequently, all the money that could be raised in a 
town was used in developing the village streets and side- 
walks, leaving the outlying districts with hardly a cent for 
their roads, although during this time, the taxes may have 
nearly doubled in amount. 

The time is past and gone for the continuation of the dirt 
roads, — one of the most expensive methods ever used in the 
construction of good roads. In many of our outlying dis- 
tricts there is an abundance of stone that should be used for 
making permanent roads. By the use of this stone there 
would be at the same time an improvement of the farms, by 
getting rid of what had only been a detriment to them. 
Upon almost every farm, in some localities in the State, may 
be found thousands of loads of stone, heaped up in corners 
of the fields, which have been accumulating for years, which 
should be used in making the best roads under the sun. 
Also, on many of the roadsides stone has been accumulating 
for years, as they have been raked from the road and left 
there, — a blot and disgrace to roadside improvement. 



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No, 4.] BETTER ROADS. 247 

The town of Easton leads all other towns in eastern Mas- 
saohusetts in her good roads. She has for several years 
adopted the stone road, and many miles of roads in her out- 
lying districts were built of common field stones, with the 
aid of one yoke of oxen and an iron roller. The farmers of 
Canandaigua, N. Y., have been actively building stone roads 
for several years, and have now nearly all of the principal 
roads of the township improved in a most substantial man- 
ner. The roads are made entirely from the field stones of the 
farms along the roads, and are paid for by direct taxation. 
The village of Canandaigua has joined willingly in voting for 
the increased tax, and the farmers have carefully expended 
the money, so that these roads have cost less than one thou- 
sand dollars per mile. I believe these methods should be 
adopted in eastern Massachusetts in all her rural districts. 
Make the width of the road according to the amount to be 
expended per mile. It has been found that a road eight feet 
wide, made of stone, has done very good service in sparsely 
settled communities and at a very moderate expense. 

Then, again, I believe we should adopt the methods of 
some of the older countries, in having path masters to have 
the roads in charge continijally . In the older countries they 
have a path master with from three to five miles of road in 
his charge, with a small amount of money to be expended on 
any repairs that may be needed. It seems to me that in no 
place will the old adage apply more thoroughly, that a stitch 
in time saves nine, than in road repairs ; for it is a well- 
known fact that a small hole allowed to remain in a road is 
continually growing larger, until the expense of repairing is 
ten times greater than it would have been at the start. Then, 
too, I believe a good man in charge of roads should be con- 
tinued in office for a term of years. It is impossible to carry 
along a system of improvements successfully by continually 
changing the management. 

One very impoi'tant feature in the improvement of our 
highways is the care of the roadsides, which in the past have 
had very little care, and have been used principally as dump- 
ing grounds for all refuse material. In some localities the 
brush and trees have been allowed to grow until a perfect 
hedge hides from view the surrounding fields. Not only 



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248 BOAKD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

should the brush and weeds be removed from the roadside, 
but gi'ass should be sown, trees planted and a sidewalk pre- 
pared for the use of pedestrians. Country roads can be 
made far more useful and attractive than they usually are, 
with very little expense. Although such improvements are 
not necessary, yet they make the surroundings attractive and 
inviting, and add to the value of property and the pleasure 
of the travellers. 

Secretary James Wilson in a recent article says : ** It will 
be good news to the whole nation to learn that road improve- 
ment is to be made a special study, and wide inquiry is to 
be set on foot among the several States as to the best ways 
and means of placing the highways of the country upon a 
superior basis.** The Department of Agriculture has a little 
road office, by which a few thousand dollars a year are spent 
along the lines of both educational and practical work. One 
of these projects led to the sending out by the Department 
of Agriculture, within the last year, of experts, to meet and 
co-operate with different bodies in various States for the pur- 
pose of carrying on practical experiments with steel tracks 
that would enable the farmers to get their produce to market 
without running the risk of the heavily laden wagons sticking 
fast in the ruts of soft roads, soaked by continuous rains. 
These experiments have caused such a demand to be made 
for further and more extensive experiments to decide the best 
plan for road improvement that it has been decided to organ- 
ize an office on broadened lines, and prepare it for doing more 
thorough work. 

To this end it is proposed to divide the United States into 
districts ; secure an educated agent in each of these districts, 
to study conditions, confer with scientists and practical road 
makers, address students and educational institutions, and 
make reports of work done and proposed to be done, that 
will form the basis of road literature. To begin with, it is 
proposed to locate the agents in the eastern States and the 
southern States, one in the prairie States and one in the 
mountain States of the far west. The value of this plan 
b that, as the conditions in the several localities are peculiar 
unto themselves, by a system of intercommunication between 
the various agents we shall gather the best information as to 



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No. 4.] BETTER ROADS, 249 

the needs of the whole country and the best methods of in- 
augurating a scheme of national road improvement. The 
intention of the movement is to insure practical results in a 
matter that has long passed the talking stage. The Depart- 
ment of Agriculture will place at the disposal of the agents, 
in co-operation with them, the facilities of the experiment 
stations to be found in the various States, and every encour- 
agement will be given for the formation of classes by road 
experts. In a word, the department is prepared to give the 
whole matter the broadest and most careful attention, with 
a view to the extension to the people of the various States 
of every possible assistance to better the conditions of the 
highways and lessen the troubles of those who use the public 
roads extensively. 

More than half of the States have passed new and progres- 
sive road laws, and many hundred miles of good roads have 
already been built. New Jersey was the first State to take 
any radical step towards the improvement of her public high- 
ways. Her State aid law was passed in 1891. It provided 
that, on petition of the owners of two-thirds of the land 
bordering any public road not less than a mile in length, 
asking that the road be improved, and agreeing to pay ten 
per cent of the cost, the county officials shall improve the 
road, one-third of the expense to be borne by the State if 
the road is brought to the standard fixed by the State com- 
missioners of public roads, and the balance, 66| per cent, by 
the county. 

This system seems to be popular with all classes, and is being 
carefully considered by the Legislatures of other States. Its 
principles have been adopted by Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
New York, Connecticut and California. These laws, of which 
State aid is the principal feature, are regarded by the active 
advocates of road reform as affording a satisfactory solution 
of the problem. 

Massachusetts, like New Jersey, has adopted a system of 
road improvement which it is believed will result in a few 
years in securing to her State highways that will be sec- 
ond in excellence to none in the United States, and equal to 
some of the best in the old world. Massachusetts has an 
abundance of the best material in the world for road building, 

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250 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

and her streets and highways should be an object lesson for 
every State in the Union. 

Good roads are of vast benefit to agriculture. They in- 
crease the profits of the farm, by decreasing the cost of trans- 
portation It is cheaper to draw produce to market in one 
load than in two ; and, in these times of sharp competition, 
good or bad roads may mean either profit or loss to the 
fisirmers. 

Better roads for the farmers is a subject in which every 
grange in the State should take an active interest. Keep the 
matter before the people, have discussions on the subject in 
grange meetings, hold public institutes with good speakers 
on modem road building, keep the matter agitated, until the 
farmers get their just dues. Put the whole care of the high- 
ways in the hands of the farmers, if possible, and then we 
shall very soon have roads that are a credit to the State, and 
at a very moderate cost. 



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No. 4.] AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS. 251 



AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS. 



BY HENRT C. COMINS OP NORTHAMPTON. 



The origin of agriculture is lost in the mists of antiquity, 
yet tilling the soil was doubtless man's eariiest occupation. 
The cereals, and perhaps some kinds of fruit, presumably 
first engaged his attention. The domestication of animals 
necessarily soon followed. Prof. W. Boyd Hawkins says 
that there is evidence that the domestication of animals was 
first accomplished in the central plateau of Asia. He also 
thinks that agriculture arose in the south of Europe, and 
gradually spread in all directions. 

The natural tendency of mankind in the earliest times is 
supposed to have been averse to work, and perhaps it has 
not materially changed in modem times. But fate is 
stronger than will, and at various periods mankind has 
been forced to work. To speculate as to the time and rea- 
sons or necessity for the cultivation of the soil, while it 
might be interesting, would not result in definite conclusions 
that will materially benefit us or mankind generally, or de- 
termine for us whether it was by individual or organized 
effort. It is probable, however, that the natural laws of 
life, the survival of the fittest, which actuates both animate 
and inanimate nature, was the controlling influence which 
led to individual efforts to improve conditions. In all 
probability these efforts were largely imitative, and only as 
time advanced and necessity compelled were new methods 
adopted. The development of agriculture must have been 
slow at first, and only as necessity compelled was any prog- 
ress made. The early settlers of our own land took no 
thought in regard to improvements, depending upon natural 
surroundings to a great extent to meet their necessities, 
rather than upon any well-directed effort for improvement 
for their fiiture welfare, comfort or enjoyment. 

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252 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Not until near the end of the eighteenth century, and the 
close of the revolutionary war and its devastating effects 
upon the people and the industries of the country, was 
there any awakening in regard to the improvement in agri- 
culture. About this time public men in various parts of 
the nation interested themselves in the desirability, as well 
as the necessity, of improving the industries of the country, 
and especially its agriculture, realizing that it was the lead- 
ing industry, and the one above all others upon which de- 
pended the welfare and prosperity of the people, as well as 
the development of the nation ; and that, while individual 
effort could, if exercised with energy, do much, united 
action could do much more in fostering and encouraging 
the declining industries. 

The end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of 
the nineteenth witnessed the organization of the first agri- 
cultural societies. At first with many of them the object 
was to encourage some particular agricultural industry, in 
which the promoters were especially interested, rather than 
all the agricultural resources of locality or country. The 
Berkshire Agricultural Society, one of the oldest in our 
State, having held its ninety-first exhibition as an incorpo- 
rated society, was the outcome of the exhibition of some 
Merino sheep by one Elkanah Watson in 1809. Previous 
to this, there had been several organized societies. The 
first of which we find record was the South Carolina so- 
ciety, in 1784 ; the Philadelphia, in 1785 ; the New York, 
in 1791 ; and the Massachusetts, in 1792. All of these 
societies were organized by men not especially agricultur- 
ists, but energetic men of business, who recognized the im- 
portance of agriculture and the necessity of encouraging it 
as the leading industry, and the one on which all others 
depended for success and material prosperity. 

These societies were regarded with suspicion or diffidence 
by those immediately engaged in practical farming, as being 
city organizations, promulgating theories not necessarily 
practical or useful in general farm management. Conse- 
quently, the benefits they were to be to the people were 
slowly comprehended. The average farmer was unwilling 
to adopt untried theories, however plausible they might 

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No. 4.] AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS. 253 

appear. He chose to follow the methods which had been 
tried not only by himself but by those who had gone before 
him, — methods that had produced enough for his subsist- 
ence, not realizing or even thinking of the demands which 
the development of the country in the near future would 
make upon the agricultural industries. The promoters were 
regarded as visionary, and, had they lived to-day, would be 
called cranks. It is a notable fact that almost every new 
enterprise or improvement, in whatever direction, has been 
promulgated or introduced by those who are considered 
cranks, — whose ideas it would not do to adopt or follow 
until thorough investigation and demonstration had proved 
their usefiilness. 

Farmers as a class are even at the present day slow to adopt 
new ideas, — not because they are less intelligent, but more 
conservative. A large part of the farms are situated away 
from the marts of business, and the necessity of giving his 
attention closely to the business on the farm takes and 
keeps him away to an extent from the whirlpool of business, 
and the defiant go-a-headitiveness which characterizes the 
congregation of people in town and city. His business and 
his surroundings have a tendency to make him conserva- 
tive; and, while farmers as a class may be regarded as 
slow, the dependence placed upon them by those engaged in 
other industries is second to • none in the community. State 
or nation. To their conservatism as individuals may be 
attributed the stability of their organizations. Societies 
organized a century ago, still in existence and doing good 
work, are evidences of this fact. 

The charters of most agricultural societies state that they 
were organized to promote agriculture and the mechanic 
arts in the communities where they are located, terms broad 
enough to cover the several kinds or lines of agriculture 
and allied industries, wherever formed. The object of 
their establishment was a conmiendable one. Their worth 
and influence upon communities and people, wherever lo- 
cated, can never be counted or even estimated. While 
those most intimately and closely connected with them have 
received the most and greatest benefit, as the pebble thrown 
into the pool, creating a large ripple at first, continues its 

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254 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

influence until every drop of water contained therein is dis- 
turbed, so societies organized for the good of the people 
will affect all classes in the community to a greater or less 
extent. Agricultural societies established primarily for the 
improvement of stock and the productions of the soil have 
been a perhaps silent influence in the encouragement of 
other industries allied to agriculture. The improvement in 
farm machinery, intelligent fertilization, the convenient ar- 
rangement of farm buildings, the introduction of new varie- 
ties of crops, and many other things which we enjoy to-day, 
which add to our comfort and pleasure, have been stimu- 
lated either directly or indirectly by agricultural organiza- 
tions. Changes have taken place in many of the features 
of their management and purposes, it is true, but this is 
only in keeping with the advancement going on all around 
us in every industry. 

At the close of a century and the beginning of a new one 
it is profitable, as well as natural, for us to note some of 
the many changes that have taken place in the hundi'ed 
years now past. To note all the changes that have taken 
place in our homes and upon the farms would be calling a 
long roll. A century ago not even in the homes of the 
richest was there a furnace or even an open grate or a bath- 
room or gas jet. The warming pan, the four-post bed with 
its curtains to be drawn when extremely cold, were among 
the luxuries then enjoyed. In those days the merchant kept 
his own books, and wrote his own letters with a quill pen 
and let them dry or dusted them with sand. Not a letter 
box existed or a stamp or an envelope. In the most popu- 
lous places there was but one mail a day, and in the larger 
towns but one a week, while in the smaller and more remote 
places one a month was all that was expected. In 1799 
there were but seventeen daily newspapers in all the United 
States, — not a magazine or an illustrated paper of any sort, 
or scientific paper or trade journal. All printing was done 
by hand. To print as much matter as is now printed by one 
of the most modem presses in one hour would have taken 
three months by the presses then in use. Not one of the 
many modem inventions now in daily use, and so common 
as not to receive a passing notice or thought, of when or 
where they were first constructed, then existed. ^ t 

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No. 4.] AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS. 255 

Could an individual of the eighteenth century come back, 
he would be overcome and completely bewildered with the 
many changes that have taken place along every line. 
Could he take up the daily paper of to-day, he would find it 
utterly impossible to imderstand the expressions he would 
meet in every paragraph. The advertisements of saleslady, 
the typewriter, the stenographer, the lineman, the gripman, 
the motorman, the conductor, the electrician, the elevator 
boy and a host of others, whose trades and occupations are 
so familiar, would be men and women concerning whose 
daily life and occupation he would be unable to form the 
faintest conception. Could the farmer of a hundred years 
ago come back, with what astonishment would he look upon 
the modem farm implements and machinery. He would be 
unable to conceive for what purpose they were made, or 
how they could be used. The sulky plow, the various kinds 
of harrows and cultivators, planting machines, reaping, 
mowing and other harvesting machines, horse rakes, potato 
diggers, lawn mowers and many others whose purposes he 
could not understand, would fill him with wonder and 
amazement. 

It is next to impossible to note a tithe of the improve- 
ment along every line and in every direction. Indeed, 
human pursuits are so intimately connected and interwoven 
with each other that an improvement in one tends to the 
advancement of them all. The changes that have taken 
place in material things are hardly a measure of the changes 
that have taken place in the constitutions of the people and 
society, and especially in education. We of to-day are 
filled with wonder, if we but stop to consider the marvellous 
changes that have taken place within our own recollection 
along every line, and the wonderful improvement for our 
comfort and welfare. 

In this wonderful advance, which is but the outcome of 
advancing civilization, agricultural organizations have been 
an agency, among many others, exerting an influence which 
may have been silent, yet none the less potent, organized 
for a specific purpose, the prosecution of which helped 
along the general advance and called for and made possible 
other and kindred organizations. The farmers' clubs and 
granges are organizations of this character, whose purpose 

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256 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

is to improve the educational and social condition of fann- 
ers and rural comDQunities. So great and powerful has 
become their influence, not only in local communities but 
in State and nation, that legislative bodies regard their 
opinions and requests with deference, and the vast amount 
of good they have accomplished in educational and social 
improvement can never be estimated. Some of these or- 
ganizations have attempted to make of themselves business 
organizations, with only partial success, and in some cases 
with disastrous results. This is but an illustration of try- 
ing to accomplish something outside of the main purpose 
for which they were designed, at the same time demonstrat- 
ing the desirability of business organizations among farm- 
ers. Co-operative associations for business purposes among 
farmers are relatively new, and in only a few branches has 
co-operation been tried. Co-operative cheese and butter 
factories are perhaps the most extensive and successful of 
such organizations, and illustrate clearly what can be done 
in the way of business for the farmer and his products, 
greatly to his advantage, by combined eflbrts. 

To-day those engaged in almost every kind of business 
are combining and organizing for their mutual benefit ; and, 
while we hear a great many deprecating remarks in regard 
to trusts, we have yet to learn wherein they have been of 
material injury to any one, and in many instances they have 
cheapened commodities to the consumer. They have been 
of great advantage in the conduct of business to those who 
have formed them. Farmers as a class are slow to combine 
for their mutual benefit in business ; but why should they 
not, as well as the manufacturers or the producers of any 
commodity ? It seems to the writer that along this line of 
organization should the attention of the agriculturists be 
directed, thus taking themselves out of the hands, so far as 
possible, of those who get the largest per cent of what the 
consumer pays for the products of the farmer. Cheapening 
farm products to the consumer and getting more for himself 
are among the possibilities to be realized. 

Agricultural societies and their annual fairs have had an 
influence which has aflected the whole people in a greater or 
less degree, according to the interest taken in them. Nor 

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No. 4.] AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS. 257 

do I beliere that their usefulness is passed, or the time 
come when they should be discarded. They may be, indeed 
they should be, changed in many respects to meet the de- 
mand of new and advancing ideas, and still be a power for 
good in promoting the agricultural and mechanical indus- 
tries of the communities of State and nation. To forecast 
the future of existing agricultural organizations with any 
degree of certainty would be impossible. They will be, 
like everything else, subject to change, to meet wants and 
fulfil the demands of a progressive public spirit. Their in- 
fluence can be measured only by the interest taken in them. 
As they are representatives of the leading occupation, and 
the one on which all others depend for material and even 
for existence, they should receive the most cordial support 
of the whole people. It would be a commendable object to 
impress the people with the importance of agriculture to all 
other industries ; to call the attention of those engaged in 
other pursuits and industries to their dependence on agri- 
culture for their success. There is a tendency, in the rest- 
less rush in business, which characterizes the American 
people, to forget the prime factors which lie at the founda- 
tion, so eager are they to reach conclusions at a jump. But 
stability in all things can be attained only when the founda- 
tions are secure. Let it be the grand aim of the farmer to 
so impress the importance of his occupation on all others, 
and so demean himself, that he shall be able to take the first 
place in the community and society, to which his vocation 
entitles hun. 



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BULLETINS 

MASSACHnsEns Board of Agriculture, 



PUBLISHED IN 



Massachusetts Crop Keports, 1900. 



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THE RELATION OF AGRICULTURE TO THE PUBLIC 

HEALTH. 



BY DB. SAMUEL W. ABBOTT, SECRETARY MASSACHUSETTS STATE BOARD 

OF HEALTH. 



In the study of man as a social being nothing is more 
evident than the fact that his comfort, his happiness, his 
health, almost his very existence, depend largely on his re- 
lation to his fellowmen. Robinson Crusoe had his man 
Friday ; the hermit and the monk are more or less depend- 
ent on the outer world, notwithstanding any vow they may 
have made to lead a separate, isolated life. The philosopher 
Thoreau said, <^I never found the companion that was so 
companionable as solitude. • . • It would be better if there 
were but one inhabitant to a square mile, as where I live." 
But even Thoreau, after living for two years as a hermit, 
found it best to return to civilized life again. 

If this is true individually, it is true collectively. The 
great industrial classes^ — artisans, mechanics, laborers, 
teachers, professional men, sailors, fishermen, clerks and 
farmers — are all interdependent upon each other. 

So, in the human body, every member makes every other 
member more useful, and each one increases the efficiency 
of all. The two eyes make the one pair of hands more use- 
ful than a dozen pair without eyes. Sir Charles Bell, in his 
<< Essay on the human hand," shows that the thumb makes 
the four fingers more serviceable than a score of fingers 
without the thumb. <' On the length, strength, free lateral 
motion and perfect mobility of the thumb depends the 
power of the human hand." 

In the treatment of the subject, '« The relation of agri- 
culture to the public health," I shall deal with the question 
from different stand-points : first, in a subjective manner, 
that is to say, the effect of the occupation of agriculture 



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262 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

upon the farmer himself and upon his family ; second, the 
relation of the occupation of farming or agriculture to the 
health of the community ; and, finally, in a more general 
way, by a comparison of these two general branches with 
each other. 

What is the eflect of the occupation of agriculture upon 
those who have chosen this occupation? And how may 
their condition be improved ? 

Of all the occupations, trades and professions in which 
mankind are employed, that of forming is, with one excep- 
tion, the most healthful and the most conducive to long life. 
I do not need to add that it is also the oldest of all indus- 
tries, the most natural and the most important to the physi- 
cal welfare of man. Let us imagine, for a moment, that the 
work of raising crops, milk products, fruit, cattle and other 
food animals were to cease entirely for a period of one year, 
and contemplate the effect of such an event. The cessation 
of any other industry which can be named could not produce 
so disastrous an effect upon the human race. 

Let us examine this question of the healthfulness of agri- 
culture as a profession or occupation more closely, with 
reference to the reasons. 

In general, it may be said that out-door occupations are 
more healthful and conducive to length of life than in-door 
industries. In order to successfully till the soil, to raise 
crops and tend cattle and other animals, the farmer must 
necessarily lead an out-door life, as compared, for example, 
with mill operatives, shoemakers, book-keepers and other 
in-door occupations. Those occupations in which large 
numbers of people are employed together are unhealthful in 
proportion to the numbers crowded together in a given 
space. They are also unhealthful with reference to the 
character of the occupation in which they are employed. 
Occupations which produce irritating dust, like stone cut- 
ting, knife grinding, rag sorting, etc., teijd to shorten the 
lives of workmen and produce consumption ; while persons 
who live largely in the open air, like farmers and fishermen, 
escape such noxious influences. 

The accompanying table presents some of these facts in a 
more definite manner : — 

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No. 4.] AGEICULTURE 



Comparative Mortality 
Clergymen, . 
Farmers, 
Paper makers. 
Grocers, 
Fishermen, . 
Carpenters, . 
Lawyers, 
Shoemakers, . 
Conmiercial travellers, 
Bakers, . 

Masons and bricklayers. 
Blacksmiths, ■ 
Railway laborers. 
Woollen manufacture, 
Tailors, . 



of Men in 

. 100 

. 114 

. 129 

. 139 

. 143 

. 148 

. 162 

. 166 

. 171 

. 172 

. 174 

. 175 

. 185 

. 186 

. 189 



AND HEALTH. 


263 


ifferent Occupations in England.* 


Printers, 


. 193 


Cotton manufacture, 


. 196 


Physicians, . 


. 202 


Stone quarriers, . 


. 202 


Bookbinders, . 


. 210 


Butchers, 


. 211 


Glass workers, 


. 214 


Plumbers and painters. 


. 216 


Cutlers and scissors makers, 229 


Brewers, 


. 245 


Liquor dealers. 


. 274 


File makers, . 


. 300 


Earthenware makers, 


. 314 


Hotel service, 


. 397 



The foregoing table may be read as follows : assuming the 
mortality of clergymen as a standard, that of farmers is 
fourteen per cent greater, that of lawyers fifty-two per cent 
greater, etc. 

Another circumstance conducive to the health and long 
life of the farmer is the fact that, generally speaking, his 
food supply is more liberal and more varied than that of 
persons following other occupations, since he is the pro- 
ducer of the sustenance of the people, and therefore of his 
own. A good and sufficient food supply is essential to the 
well-being of every one. It is not only necessary that the 
supply of food should be abundant, but also that it should 
be well selected, sufficiently variable in character and of 
good quality; and these conditions are usually found to 
exist to a greater degree in the house of a farmer than 
elsewhere. 

Again, the inherent character of the occupation makes it 
a promoter of health and longevity. The succession of 
crops, depending as they do upon the regularly recurring 
seasons of the year, occurs with harmonious regularity. If 
there is anything poetic, anything uplifting, anything tran- 
quillizing in nature, who is the first and the most likely to 
receive these inspiring impressions if not the agriculturist ? 

^ From paper by Dr. Wm. Ogle, at International Congress of Hygiene at London, 
in 1S91 ; section on demography. 



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264 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub, Doc. 

The rush, the hurry, the anxiety, the worry of the business 
man, the financier, the politician, the soul and body de- 
stroying conditions which surround the devotee of fashion, 
do not affect him. Undoubtedly he has his trials and per- 
plexities, but, all combined, they cannot counterbalance or 
offset the general good influence of his occupation. 

The average life of the lawyer, the physician, the me- 
chanic, the soldier, the laborer, is in either case shorter 
than that of the farmer. So far as the medical profession 
is concerned, there is the constant and wearing influence of 
the sight of human beings suffering with pain and sickness, 
of witnessing death-bed scenes, of broken rest at night and 
of direct exposure to infectious diseases. I have often been 
asked the question, ** Why do not doctors take or contract 
contagious diseases ? '^ I answer that the assumption is en- 
tirely wrong at the outset. Physicians do take infectious 
diseases, and die with them in a greater ratio than the gen- 
eral population, and the same is true of nurses, hospital 
attendants and all others whose duty it is to wait upon the 
sick. 

Country life in general is more healthful than city life. 
The death rate of the country is almost always less than 
that of the city. It is the constant stream of humanity that 
is always flowing from the country toward the city that 
keeps the city alive. The vigorous health of those who 
dwell upon the farms is in strong contrast to the weaklings 
who are produced by thousands amidst the densely crowded 
quarters of our large cities. 

It was the Germans, the Goths and the Vandals, fresh 
from the fields and farms of northern and middle Europe, 
that finally prevailed over the Roman people, who had be- 
come enervated by the licentiousness, the excesses and 
debasing habits of city life. John Burroughs says, in con- 
trasting the farmer and the dweller in cities: **A nation 
always begins to rot first in its great cities, is, indeed, 
always rotting there, and is saved only by the antiseptic 
virtues of fresh supplies of country blood ; " and again he 
says : << The farmer has the most sane and natural occupa- 
tion, and ought to find life sweeter, if less highly seasoned, 
than any other. He alone, strictly speaking, has a home. 

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No. 4.] AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH. 265 

How can a man take root and thrive without land? He 
writes his history upon the field. How many ties, how 
many resources, he has : his friendships with his cattle, his 
team, his dog, his trees; the satisfaction in his growing 
crops, in his improved fields; his intimacy with nature, 
with bird and beast and with the quickening elemental 
forces; his co-operations with the cloud, the sun, the sea- 
sons, heat, wind, rain and frost. Nothing will take the 
social distempers, which the city and artificial life breed, 
out of a man, like direct and loving contact with the soil. 
It draws out the poison. It humbles him, teaches him 
patience and reverence, and restores the proper tone to his 
system." 

It is the out-door life, the keen observation of the every- 
day events of the farm and the forest, the watchful eye and 
ear, the minute observation of birds and their habits, of the 
squirrel, the rabbit, the weasel, the ferret, the fox, the 
muskrat and the woodchuck, of the multitudes of difierent 
kinds of insects both useful and injurious, that have given 
us such books as have been written by Gilbert White and 
Thoreau and John Burroughs and Bradford Torrey and 
Seton Thompson, — books that every observing farmer 
ought to have in his library to read in the long winter 
evenings. 

But there are exceptions to every rule. I have said that 
the farmer is, with one exception, the longest-lived man. 
Were it not for certain circumstances, he would lead the 
list. How, then, may his condition be improved? I shall 
now direct your attention to a few of the points wherein 
improvement may be made. 

And first, since I have spoken of the value of fresh out- 
door air in promoting health and long life, I will add to this 
that fresh in-door air is quite as important to those who 
live in the house, and especially is this true of the sleeping 
rooms. Too often does it happen in the modern farm- 
house that the sleeping rooms are too small, and are also 
wanting in the proper means of ventilation. Ventilation 
means the change of the foul air of the in-door apartment, 
and its renewal by fresh air from out doors. This cannot 
be done in a sleeping room in which the windows and doors 

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266 BOARD OF AGRICULTUEE. [Pub. Doc. 

are tightly closed, unless special provision is made for re- 
newing the air by means of an out-door opening, such as 
may be furnished by an open fireplace or grate ; and even a 
grate is not a sufficient means of ventilation, so long as 
there is no fire in it. A man who lives in this manner year 
after year, breathing the foul air of a tightly closed sleeping 
room, cannot continue in good health. The actual cost of 
maintaining a house with good ventilation is somewhat 
greater than that of a house with no ventilation at all, since 
a greater amount of fuel is required for a well-ventilated 
house than is necessary for a house with no ventilation. 

The Water Supply. — If pure air is essential to good health, 
so is pure water. From my own observation of very many 
farms which I have visited and inspected, I should say that 
the water supply of farms is, on the whole, better than that 
of thickly settled villages, in which the domestic water 
supply is drawn entirely from private wells. There are, 
however, abundant instances of badly polluted water sup- 
plies among the farms of Massachusetts, and when such 
farms are also dairies, producing milk for the supply of 
large populations, the polluted water supply becomes a 
serious danger and a menace to the public health. 

I shall allude to this phase of the subject more at length 
in another connection. 

The peculiar regard which each householder or house 
owner has for his own well is sometimes marvellous, when 
a single glance at its surroundings would convince even a 
casual observer that the owner's estimate is far from correct. 
The water looks clear and transparent ; it has a sparkling 
taste ; very likely the owner prefers it to any other water 
in the world. But clear and good tasting water is not 
necessarily pure w^ater, and may be exceedingly polluted, 
as an ordinary chemical analysis often shows. It is neces- 
sary, therefore, in locating a well, to place it in such a 
position that no foul drainage from any source can possibly 
enter it, either by filtration through the ground or by sur- 
face flow over the ground. The cow yard, the back yard 
of the house, the bam cellar, the house cellar, the neigh- 
borhood of the hog sty and the cesspool, none of these 
places is suited for the site of the well. As a general rule, 

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No. 4.] AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH. 267 

it would be preferable to place the well above the house and 
bam, in higher rather than in lower ground, unless some 
neighbor's house, and consequently his drainage system or 
want of system, happens to be on still higher ground above 
the well. In hilly and mountainous regions it is a common 
and an excellent practice to draw the water for the farm 
from a spring at an elevation on the mountain side, above 
the house and away from all possibility of contamination. 

In connecting such springs with the house there is, how- 
ever, an element of danger which deserves a moment's 
notice. I refer to the use of lead pipe. Under certain 
conditions and with certain waters lead pipe is used con- 
tinuously and without harm ; but this is not always the case. 
It is only quite recently that I have investigated a serious 
epidemic of lead poisoning in a small village furnished with 
a public water supply, where some thirty or forty people 
were poisoned with lead, and some of them quite seriously. 
In all these cases of poisoning I found that unusually long 
lines of lead pipe were used to connect the houses with the 
street mains. I also found that little care had been taken 
to draw off the water which had stood in the pipe over night 
before using it in the morning. With this precaution the 
danger is greatly diminished. It is much safer, however, 
to use no lead pipe at all. Iron is entirely safe, and the 
added cost of occasional renewal of the pipes does not im- 
pose a serious tax upon the house holder. 

Drainage. — Having considered the water which enters 
the house, let us now spend a few moments upon another 
and a similar question, — the water which goes out of the 
house, that is to say, the drainage or sewage of the house ; 
in other words, the water which has entered the house, with 
the addition of such refuse as the household may add to it. 
The location of farm-houses at a distance from densely 
settled communities usually prevents their connection with 
public systems of sewerage ; hence it becomes necessary to 
take care of the house drainage upon the farm itself. 

A repulsive pool of foul-smelling sewage near the back 
door of the farm-house or under the windows of sleeping 
rooms is not a pleasing or a healthful ornament to the home- 
stead. If a cesspool is used to receive the sewage, it should 

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268 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

be so constructed that no foul odors from it can escape into 
the house, and this can best be done by a perfect trap be- 
tween the cesspool and the bouse. The ordinary bell trap 
at the sink is not a sufiScient safeguard. Another plan is to 
dispose of the drainage into small subsoil pipes loosely laid, 
so that the contents may pass outward into the soil, to be 
used by the growing crops. 

Food. — Another important element which influences the 
health of the farmer is his food. Several years ago the 
State Board of Health made an investigation in regard to 
the food of the people of Massachusetts, very much of 
which related to the food of farmers. I will quote the most 
important of the conclusions which they published at that 
time : — 

1. Good bread is scarce, and is too often made with some 
unwholesome substitute for yeast. 

2. There is too little variety in food. 

3. Meat is too often fried. 

4. Pastry and cakes are used to an injurious extent. 

5. Too little time is allotted for meals. 

The quality of the beverages taken with meals is a matter 
of no little importance. Coflee, tea and cocoa form a use- 
ful addition to meals, when they are not taken in excess. 
Intoxicating drinks should be banished forever from every 
farmer's table, since no man can tell when he has passed the 
danger line in their use, so far as the effect upon his health 
is concerned. 

There are certain curious fallacies in regard to the use of 
food, beverages and drugs, which are worthy of a moment's 
consideration. One of these is the popular belief, which 
has prevailed for many years, which attributes to phos- 
phorus and its compounds in food an unusual importance in 
promoting the growth of the brain and of the intellectual 
powers. Hence much stress is given to the eating of fish, 
and the use of acid phosphates as beverages. That this 
curious theory has little foundation, however, is pretty well 
proven by the following facts : — 

1. There is no evidence to show that the brain requires 
phosphorus more than the bones or other organs of the 
body. 

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No. 4.] AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH. 269 

2. Fish contains no more phosphorus than other kinds of 
animal food, and the unbolted cereals, wheat, oatmeal, rye 
and Indian com. 

3. People who are most accustomed to a fish diet, i.e., 
fishermen (the natives of Cape Cod and of fishing ports 
generally), do not give evidence of possessing unusual in- 
tellectual powers. 

A young writer once sent a communication to Mark Twain, 
asking his opinion as to the use of fish as a food for develop- 
ing the brain, at the same time suggesting that Professor 
Agassiz had recommended the eating of fish for that pur- 
pose. He replied : ^< Yes, Agassiz does recommend authors 
to eat fish, because the phosphorus in fish makes brains. 
So far, you are correct. But I cannot help you to a deci- 
sion about the amount you need to eat. If the specimen 
composition you send is about your fair, usual average, I 
should judge that perhaps a couple of whales would be all 
you would want for the present, — not the largest kind, but 
simply good, middling-sized whales." 

Another source of harm exists in the excessive use of 
patent medicines. Under the false impression that some 
sort of drug must be taken in the spring to " purify the 
blood,'' to cure a "tired feeling," to *«make the weak 
strong," pounds of iodide of potash are taken under the 
false name of sarsaparilla, of saltpetre under the name of 
kidney cures, of alcohol under the name of celery com- 
pound, nervura and so on. All of these preparations are 
injurious, and are constantly undermining the health of the 
victims who are continually dosing themselves with them. 

Recreation. — The kind of recreation most needed by any 
man depends very much upon the character of his occupa- 
tion. To the farmer, who has held the plow all day long 
in spring time, or swung the scythe in midsummer, or cut 
and piled several cords of wood in winter, it would be 
superfluous advice to tell him to spend an hour or two a 
day in rowing or in kicking foot-ball by way of exercise at 
the close of the day. Exercise to his weary limbs would 
not be restful. These are the kinds of recreation which are 
most useful for the clerk and the book-keeper, whose life 
is mainly sedentary and confined within closed apartments. 

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270 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

On the contrary, the farmer needs a milder pastime, that 
will be at once restful and an absolute change from his 
hitherto toilsome labor. Fishing, sailing or some sort of 
in-door game will divert his mind from the toils of the 
farm, and give needed rest. 

I call to mind a man who, in my boyhood, passed my 
father's door every day with a cart or wheelbarrow on his 
way to his farm, which was at some distance from his resi- 
dence. He worked hard, early and late, and accumulated 
a handsome property for those days. He worked on, day 
after day, doing the work of two men and more, without 
rest or relaxation of any sort. So hard did he work that 
fits of sleeplessness and despondency ensued, and finally 
one day, on returning from the village school opposite my 
father's house, my mother called me to her and said, «* Mr. 
B. is dead ; he has killed himself.'' He was then fifty years 
of age, and died of incessant work. 

Good reading constitutes another excellent form of recre- 
ation for the farmer, and no farmer's household should be 
without at least the means of access to a good library, and 
to this should be added a subscription to some good farm 
journal, with such other periodicals as his means may per- 
mit. These are forms of mental recreation, to be sure, but 
the harmonious development of the mind and body is essen- 
tial to good health and contentment. 

I come now to the second topic, — the influence of agri- 
culture upon the public health. It may be inferred from 
what I have already said, that, without agriculture, there 
would be no such thing as public health, since man would 
cease to exist ; hence agriculture is, of all things, one of the 
most essential to the public health. It produces the sus- 
tenance wherewith man is supported and his life maintained. 
The phase of the subject, therefore, to which I shall now 
call your attention is the method by which this influence 
upon public health can be maintained in its highest perfec- 
tion; since there are certain ways in which the farm, occa- 
sionally, and through some neglect of due precautions, 
becomes a source of danger. 

The diseases to which man is subject are several in num- 
ber, but those which are of the greatest interest to us in this 

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No. 4.] AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH. 271 

connection are very few. Some of them are common both 
to man and to animals, and some are not. Those which are 
of peculiar interest to the farmer, and which occasionally 
cause him more or less anxiety, as well as pecuniary loss, 
are tuberculosis or consumption, typhoid fever, trichinosis, 
glanders, rabies, and anthrax, or malignant pustule. Of 
these diseases the cow is subject to one or more, the horse 
to another, the hog to another, the sheep and horse and 
cow to another, the dog to another, and man to all of them. 
But all except the first two which I have named are of such 
rare occurrence in man in this State as to be scarcely worthy 
of mention as causing any serious harm to our living popu- 
lation. All told, they produced only one thousandth part 
of the number of deaths which were caused by consumption 
in the last fifty years in Massachusetts. 

The question whether tuberculosis in the cow is the cause 
of the same disease among men, in consequence of the eat- 
ing of meat and the drinking of milk from such animals, has 
been a live issue for several years past, but definite and de- 
cisive evidence as to the exact relation of the disease in the 
cow to that in man still appears to be wanting. So long, 
however, as there appears to be a doubt in the matter, it is 
assuredly the safer course to use only such meat and milk, 
and especially milk, as comes from healthy animals. 

In the ease of typhoid fever a very different question 
arises. Here we find a disease which never occurs in the 
cow, but is peculiar to man only. Unfortunately, it is of 
too common occurrence in the farming districts, and is due 
most commonly to a polluted water supply. When it 
occurs upon a dairy farm, it occasionally causes serious 
disturbance on account of its liability to infect the milk 
supply. Hence it should be laid down as a rule, that no 
person who is til with any disease whatever ^ and especially 
with any infectious disease, should be allowed to have any 
part in the work of a dairy. Another important point is 
the care which should be taken in disposing of the discharges 
of persons who are ill with typhoid fever. Thorough disin- 
fection of such discharges should be made with chloride of 
lime. A man who is only slightly ill with typhoid fever, 
and able to attend to farm work (and such cases are quite 

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272 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

common) 9 is far more dangerous than one who is sick in 
bed, since the latter can have no direct connection with the 
milk supply. 

In order to consider the operation of such cases, let us 
suppose a case. An epidemic of typhoid fever is found to 
exist in a city of twenty-five thousand people. Twenty 
cases or more of typhoid fever are reported to the city 
board of health. There are fifty milkmen who supply the 
city with milk from the neighboring towns. All of these 
cases of typhoid fever, or nearly all, are customers of one 
milkman. This circumstance directs the attention of the 
board of health to this milk route, and, on further investi- 
gation, a case of typhoid fever is found to exist at the dairy 
where the milk is produced, and a careless method of hand- 
ling the milk is also found to exist. I need not specify the 
circumstances which are oft;en found to exist in actual ex- 
perience. The evidence of these facts is in most instances 
sufiicient to establish a presumptive connection at least be- 
tween the typhoid fever at the dairy and that which exists 
on the route of the distributer. 

Within the past ten years I have been called to investi- 
gate several outbreaks of another disease, — trichinosis, — 
which is not very common among the native New England 
population. It is always and invariably due to one cause, 
— the eating of pork, and also of uncooked or insufiSciently 
cooked pork. Fifty cases and five deaths occurred from 
this cause in the town of Colrain in Franklin County a few 
years since, all among Germans or other European immi- 
grants, and all were due to eating raw pork. The disease 
in the hog is caused by bad methods of feeding, and it usu- 
ally exists in a very considerable percentage of hogs which 
are swill-fed. The State Board of Health, during the past 
few years, has conducted experiments at two State institu- 
tions which show that the disease may be entirely prevented 
in the hog by cooking his food, and by ceasing to feed out 
the entrails of slaughtered hogs. 

I have said enough in this direction to establish two im- 
portant principles in regard to farm and dairy work : first, 
the necessity of absolute cleanliness in every department of 
work ; and, second, the rule which I have already stated, — 

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No. 4.] AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH. 273 

that no person who is ailing or even slightly ill with any 
infectious disease should be permitted to have any part in 
dairy work until such person has entirely recovered and has 
been pronounced well by the attending physician. If these 
lilies are followed, the milk producer will have less occa- 
sion to complain of frequent loss in the sale of this most 
useful article of food. 

A great stir has been made in Europe in recent years, 
with the object of preventing the importation of certain 
fruits, the products of American farms. The reasons al- 
leged, chiefly by the German government, were that poison- 
ous insecticides were used for the spraying of fruit trees in 
the United States. Another reason alleged was that zinc 
had been found in dried fruits. This statement rests upon 
the fact that apples and peaches and other fruits are often 
evaporated or dried upon zinc trays, and hence small 
amounts of metallic zinc are occasionally found in the fruit. 
The amount, however, is so small and the form in which 
the zinc is found is such that no harm need be feared from 
this source. 

The practice of spraying fruit trees in the season of blos- 
soming and for a few days afterward has become widespread, 
and demands a moment's notice. The substances used for 
this purpose are, some of them at least, deadly poisons. 
Arsenic in the form of Paris green and London purple, with 
sulphate of copper or blue vitriol, are employed for this pur- 
pose, and these make the most efficient means for destroying 
the various insect pests which attack our fruit trees, currant 
bushes, potato vines and other plants. 

In the case of fruit trees, like the apple, the principal 
insect pests are the American tent caterpillar and the canker 
worm, each of which usually hatches and begins and com- 
pletes its destructive work between May 10 and June 20. 
Now, the season of harvest for the great volume of the 
apple crop is about October first, and probably none which 
are raised for export are gathered before September first. 
There is, therefore, a period of from two to three months, 
in which the average rainfall is about three inches per 
month, — a quantity amply sufficient to wash away all traces 
of the spraying substances from the fruit and the leaves. 

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274 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

In the summer of 1896 I made the following experiment. 
Having built a small platform in the crotch of a large old 
apple tree, about fifteen feet from the ground, I took a two- 
gallon pailful of Paris green mixture up to the platform 
about three times a week, and sprayed the whole tree from 
this platform, alternating occasionally with a solution of sul- 
phate of copper. At least half of the sprayings were of Paris 
green. This mixture was so strong as to destroy some of the 
smaller branches near the centre of the tree. The sprayings 
were continued till at least a dozen doses had been applied 
between May 15 and June 15, and the canker worms were 
pretty thoroughly destroyed. A good crop of unusually 
fair apples began to appear, and were of three kinds, — 
Dutch Codlings, Gravensteins and Danvers Sweets. The 
early apples were picked about September 5 and the late 
sweets about October 5 or later. Several of these were 
selected, of two kinds, together with some of the leaves, 
and were submitted to the State chemist for analysis, and 
he reported that not the slightest trace of either arsenic or 
copper could be found in them. 

It should, however, be borne in mind that Paris green is 
a deadly poison, and when used on the farm, either for de- 
stroying the pests of fruit trees or potatoes or even larger 
vermin, like rats and mice, the greatest care should be taken 
to put the supply of poison out of the reach of children and 
of animals. 

In what points do these general branches, agriculture and 
public health, resemble each other? 

In point of usefiilness to the conmiunity, agriculture and 
public health have a great deal in common. Agriculture 
provides the means wherewith life is sustained, the suste- 
nance essential to the continuance of the human race. Nine- 
tenths of all the food used throughout the world is the 
product of agriculture. How essential it is, therefore, that 
this most useful branch should be developed in the most 
thorough manner and maintained in the most perfect degree. 

As it is true that agriculture maintains life, it is also true 
that public health or hygiene protects life. Although the 
term preventive medicine is of comparatively recent origin, 
the practical application of the science is by no means new. 

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No. 4.] AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH. 275 

Moses applied it many centuries ago in the preventive 
treatment of leprosy and in the management of camp life. 
In the middle ages nineteen thousand lazarettos were neces- 
sary to provide shelter in continental Europe for the out- 
casts from this disease. Dr. Jenner applied it when he 
introduced the practice of vaccination for the prevention of 
small-pox, a hundred years ago. But it is only within the 
past half-century that systematic and careful study and at- 
tention have been given to public hygiene, with the view of 
training young men in the science of preventive medicine, 
or the art of prolonging life. It is a fact capable of easy 
demonstration, that, since careful attention has been given 
to the subject of preventing the spread of infectious diseases 
by means of notification, isolation, disinfection and vaccina- 
tion, and still more recent methods of treatment and pre- 
vention by means of the taking of cultures and the use of 
antitoxin, the death rate from the infectious diseases has 
been sensibly diminished and the length of human life cor- 
respondingly prolonged ; and this is notably true of Eng- 
land, the country where the most careful attention has been 
given to the subject and the greatest amount of money ex- 
pended in its accomplishment. 

Public hygiene or preventive medicine, again, is like 
agriculture in its method of dealing with those evils which, 
on the one hand, destroy human beings and limit their 
progress, and, on the other, those which seriously interfere 
with the abundance and the quality of growing crops ; and 
the principles of prevention which are applied in either case 
are very much alike. 

If a sound, healthy infant, bom of healthy parents, were 
to be placed in a glass case, and fed with pure food which 
had been freed from all germs of disease by due process of 
sterilization, and were constantly supplied with pure air 
which had also been sterilized ; if the water which it drank 
were to be always pure spring water, and if in all other 
points it were to be treated on perfectly healthful princi- 
ples, such an infant would never die of measles or small-pox 
or scarlet fever or typhoid fever or whooping-cough or 
consumption. 

So, also, in agriculture, if an apple tree or a peach tree 

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276 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

were to be enclosed in a glass case, where it would be sup- 
plied with abundance of sunlight, with filtered water and 
sterilized air and soil deprived of all pathogenic germs or 
eggs of noxious insects, no canker worm or caterpillar or 
gypsy moth or any other pest could possibly molest it, and 
its leaves and flowers and fruit would mature and ripen in 
fairness and beauty. This is the principle of isolation. 

There is also a great similarity in the methods of spread 
of infectious diseases and of insect pests ; and, while there 
is a similarity in the general group of infectious diseases to 
that of insect pests, there are also many points of specific 
difference. 

Influenza, for example, spreads with amazing rapidity, 
and attacks great tracts of country in a few hours' time. It 
appeared in Boston about Dec. 19, 1889, and in less than a 
week had also appeared in nearly every city of the northern 
States. One class of diseases, cholera and typhoid fever, 
spreads through the medium of water supplies ; another 
class, including small-pox and scarlet fever, by means of 
the air and by actual contact. The spread of consumption 
is favored by the presence of dust difiused through the air 
of rooms and carrying with it the germs of disease. 

So, too, in agriculture, the various insect pests differ in 
the method of their spread. The female canker worm 
ascends the trunks of trees in the warm days of late autumn 
or early spring, and lays her eggs on the twigs, to be 
hatched in the months of May or June. Hence the mode 
of prevention is to place a barrier upon the trunks of the 
trees, which shall hinder the insects from gaining access to 
the branches. So with the American tent caterpillar. This 
insect lays its eggs upon the small outer twigs of the trees, 
in bunches of several hundred eggs in each, carefully var- 
nishing the bunches to protect them from the weather. 
Destruction of these bunches or belts of eggs, or of the 
young caterpillars as soon as they are hatched, is the only 
practical mode of dealing with them. 

Again, the same substances which destroy noxious insects 
are also used in medicine as disinfectants, and the careful 
study of their action will advance the cause of agriculture. 
The farmer who carefully applies the right form of insecti- 

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No. 4.] AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH, 277 

cide to his potato vines during the growing season will 
insure the best crop. So, also, with his fruit trees ; a care- 
ful application of spraying liquid of such strength as not to 
injure the trees, but strong enough to destroy the insect 
pests, will insure the best crop of fair and handsome fruit. 

So the health officer, who applies disinfectants judiciously 
and intelligently, will be rewarded in finding that scarlet 
fever, diphtheria and other pests of mankind will not recur 
in the same household unless introduced from outside 
sources. 

I cannot close this comparison without reference to the 
labors of one man who has lately passed away from earth to 
his great reward, and who was a common benefactor both 
of the medical profession and of those who till the soil. He 
was much more, — he was a benefactor to the whole human 
race. I mea^ Louis Pasteur. Bom in the little town of 
Dole, in France, of humble parentage, his father was a 
veteran French soldier, afterward a tanner. The son Louis 
early in life became an enthusiastic student of nature and 
of natural laws. More than a half-century ago he had begun 
the course of experimental research which destined him to 
become one of the greatest allies of the medical profession 
and of agriculture that the world has ever known. 

One of his first triumphs was the discovery of the cause 
of the silkworm disease. In 1849 and 1850 the silkworms 
were attacked with a parasitic disease which caused the loss 
to France, in the silkworm industry alone, of $20,000,000 
in a single year. The plague spread to Spain and Italy, and 
finally no eastern country was exempt from its ravages 
except Japan. Pasteur was urged to study the subject, with 
the view of finding the cause of the disease and its preven- 
tion. He gave his whole attention to this question for 
nearly three years, and so zealously did he pursue his ex- 
periments that his health broke down, he became enfeebled, 
and was stricken with partial paralysis in 1868, while he 
was in the midst of this important work. He had, how- 
ever, already found the cause and the mode of prevention, 
which consisted in separating the healthy moths from those 
which were sick, carrying out the true principle of isolation 
in infectious diseases, and thus he restored the silk industry 

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278 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

to France. He never fully recovered from the partial 
paralysis which he suffered, so far as his body was con- 
cerned ; but for nearly thirty years his mind remained un- 
dimmed, and during these thirty years he discovered the 
mode of curing those who are bitten by mad dogs, until his 
institute at Paris became the centre to which afflicted people 
resoi-t from all parts of Europe for treatment. Another 
important discovery which he made was the cause of fowl or 
chicken cholera, to which he also gave earnest attention and 
found that this, too, was a pai*asitic disease. The disease 
known as splenic fever or malignant pustule next attracted 
his attention. A young veterinary surgeon (Dr. Louvrier) 
had proposed a definite method for treating the disease, 
which has always been very fatal to sheep and cows in 
France and Russia. Pasteur immediately entered upon the 
investigation of this disease, and in less than^wo years he 
had solved the question, and a day was . appointed for a 
public trial or test of its efficiency. I will let his biographer 
tell the story in his own words : — 

Pasteur accepted. The experiments were conducted at Melan, 
May 5, 1881, a few miles above Paris, on the Seine. The Society 
of Agriculture agreed to place at his disposal sixty sheep. The 
results of these experiments were absolutely successful and con- 
vincing to the most sceptical. 

There was a burst of enthusiasm at these truly marvellous re- 
sults. The veterinary surgeons especially could not recover from 
the surprise. They examined the dead, they felt the living. 

** Well," said M. Bouley to one of them, " are you convinced? 
There remains nothing for you to do but to bow before the 
master," he added, pointing to Pasteur, ^* and to exclaim, ^ I see, 
I know, I am undeceived.' " 

Having suddenly become fervent apostles of the new doctrine, 
the veterinary surgeons went about proclaiming everywhere what 
they had seen. One of those who had been most sceptical carried 
his proselytising zeal to such a point that he wished to inoculate 
himself. 

An extraordinary movement was everywhere produced in favor 
of this method of preventive treatment. A great number of agri- 
cultural societies wished to repeat the celebrated experiment. The 
breeders of cattle overwhelmed Pasteur with applications for vac- 
cine. At the end of the year 1881 he had already treated 33,946 
animals. In 1882 the number amounted to 399,102. 

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No. 4.] AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH. 279 

But Pasteur still lives in his works. He lives also in his 
pupils. To one of these we owe the recent discovery of 
the most potent means which have yet been found for dimin- 
ishing the fatality of that terrible scourge and destroyer of 
children, diphtheria. From the teaching of this man there 
comes help to the agriculturist and to the physician, — yes, 
to all mankind. 

Let me not close without commending to every farmer, 
as an addition to his library, the biography of such a man 
as Pasteur, together with the works of Thoreau, of John 
Burroughs, of Bolles and Bradford Torrey , and of good old 
Gilbert YlTiite of Selborne. It is from the study of the 
writings of such men that our eyes are opened to see the life 
that surrounds us in the woods, the fields, the ponds and 
the streams, and to learn from every living thing some new 
and useful lesson. 



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280 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



SOIL EXHAUSTION. 



BY GEO. E. STONE, PH.D., PROFESSOR OP BOTANY, MASSACHUSETTS 
AGRICULTUKAL COLLEOE. 



The problem of soil exhaustion is one with which the 
farmers of Massachusetts have been brought face to face 
for many years. The land in this State has been deforested 
a number of times, and has been under cultivation or utilized 
for agricultural purposes for many generations. Hence, 
the original condition of the soil, with the primitive store- 
house of available plant food, has been greatly modified. 
The two factors that exert an influence on the soil are its 
chemical composition and its physical properties. These 
two factors are intimately connected, and, in general, one 
cannot be modified without changing the other. The chem- 
ical composition of the soil is fiilly as important for plant 
growth as its physical properties. The soil, however, may 
contain tons of plant food which are not available. On the 
other hand, the physical conditions of the soil should be 
adapted to the plant, in order that normal root respiration 
may take place. Unless the physical conditions are adapted 
to the plant requirements, the amount and kind of available 
plant food e.xert very little influence upon the growth of 
plants. Many plants, however, possess a wide range of 
adaptability, and are not restricted to a definite soil texture. 
In some cases it is also essential that the particles of soil be 
of suflScient size, and their arrangement of a certain order, 
so that air spaces of a definite size are formed, adapted 
to the particular plant under cultivation. It is, therefore, 
not only the size of the particles but their arrangement 
which determine the physical properties of the soil. The 
water-retaining capacity of the soil is dependent upon its 
physical properties. A light, sandy soil from Cape Cod 
possesses a water-retaining capacity of thirty-five per cent, 

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No. 4.] SOIL EXHAUSTION. 281 

while the heavier inland Boils possess sixty to seventy per 
cent. A soil, for example, that is adapted to onions is not 
adapted to lettuce, and one which will grow potatoes will 
not necessarily grow tobacco. The influence of the physi- 
cal properties of the soil can best be seen on our native 
species of plants. Every farmer has noticed the fondness 
of the white birch, pitch pine and scrub oak to dry, sandy 
or gravelly soils ; and these plants are seldom seen on the 
heavier clay soils. There are, in fact, a considerable num- 
ber of native plants in our State which are so particular 
about the physical condition of the soil that they can only 
be found in those localities where soil of a certain texture 
abounds. The peculiarities in the distribution of the wild 
plants would scarcely be noticeable except to a botanist, 
who has paid some attention to the physical conformity of 
our flora ; and a knowledge of the habitats enables one to 
form a reliable conception of the nature of the soil upon 
which they are found growing. The rattle-box ( Grotalaria 
sagiltalis) and the barberry are types of such plants, as, 
to a less extent, is the red cedar ; the latter species seems 
to delight in the presence of numerous cobble-stones as a 
soil condition. 

It is our intention to consider the chemical and physical 
changes which have taken place in our Massachusetts soils 
during the past two hundred and fifty years, and to ascertain 
whether the common methods of cultivation which have 
been in vogue are well adapted to produce crops of the same 
magnitude as those formerly produced. During the last 
decade we have heard much of abandoned farms and worn- 
out soils. Yet it is well known that these farms were not 
always in a sterile condition, but that they contained at one 
time a considerable quantity of plant food. 

Inasmuch as the predominance or scarcity of our wild 
plants in certain localities gives us a clue to the soil condi- 
tions under which they are growing, we may consider their 
adaptation as a means of determining the changes which 
have taken place in our soils. There are also many scatter- 
ing historical records which show us that plants which were 
once common have greatly decreased in numbers in certain 
localities during the last fifty or one hundred years. It is 



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282 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

not necessary for us to give a complete list of these plants 
which historical records and present distribution indicate 
to have become less common ; we will, therefore, take into 
consideration only a few of them. One of the most notable 
of these is the wild strawberry. This crop has so diminished 
in the greater part of Massachusetts that one cannot procure, 
without diligent search, a pint of berries in half a day. In 
olden time, however, this crop was exceedingly large, hence 
the practice of growing the fruit in gardens was wholly 
unnecessary ; and, as a matter of history, the strawberry 
was not cultivated to any great extent in this State previous 
to one hundred years ago. The former abundance of the 
strawberry in Massachusetts is mentioned by William Wood 
in 1635, and also by Roger Williams, in Rhode Island, in 
1643, who stated that he had " many times seen as many as 
would fill a good ship within a few miles compass." It is 
well known to men now living that it was possible not more 
than seventy-five years ago to gather a half-bushel of straw- 
berries in a few hours in certain localities of this State, 
where a gill cannot be found at the present time. Many of 
our native grasses have diminished in like manner. Among 
trees we find the beech, canoe birch and hemlock less com- 
mon, the latter having fallen off to an enormous extent ; 
while such plants as orchids, ginseng, hobble-bush and a 
host of others have become much less common in certain 
localities. This is evident to any one who has taken pains 
to study the past and present distribution of these species, 
and who has taken into consideration their natural environ- 
mental adaptations. 

The question naturally arises. What is the cause of this 
change in our floral conditions ? This can be answered in a 
few words. It is due to a decrease in the organic matter 
of the soil and its associated humus compounds. There are 
other influences, however, which are in part responsible for 
the disappearance of certain species, notably the hemlock, 
where the condition of light for the growth of seedlings is 
at fault. It is, nevertheless, a lack of organic matter which 
is responsible for the decline of these species, taking them 
as a whole. In order that we may see the differences in the 
amount of organic matter that exists in a soil approaching 

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No. 4.] 



SOIL EXHAUSTION. 



283 



the primitive condition and one that is more or less run out, 
let us examine the following table. These analyses were 
made in each case with water-free samples. 

Toible akomng the Amount of Organic Matter in Some Massacku- 

setts Soils. 



SAMPLE. 


Oivanic Matter 
at Surfkce 
(Per Cent). 


Onranic Matter 
Eight Inches 

below Surfiice 
(Per Cent). 


1. Approaching primitive conditions, . 

2. Waate land (heavy soil), .... 

3. Lettuce soil (greenhouse), 


31 

6 

15 


20 
2 



* Practically the same as at the surface. 

The percentage of organic matter shows, as might be 
expected, remarkable differences. Sample No. 1, which 
approaches primitive soil, was taken from a region where 
deforestation has not been common, and the large amount 
of organic matter represented here is the result of years of 
leaf-decay. The color of the surface soil is black ; at eight 
inches below the surface it is only a trifle lighter. Sample 
No. 2 presents a yellow color below the surface, on account 
of the slight amount of organic matter present. This sam- 
ple, which supported a growth of inferior grasses, golden- 
rods, etc., presented a dark color only at the surface. 
Sample No. 3 is a greenhouse soil, adapted to forcing crops. 
These soils usually contain from eight to fifteen per cent of 
organic matter to a depth of twelve to fifteen inches which 
is supplied by manure and by the decay of roots. 

Those plants which have shown the greatest tendency to 
become rare, and in most instances are only to be found 
where there is more or less of an approach to primitive soil 
conditions, are the humus-loving plants, or those which 
depend upon organic matter. Not only is the number of 
humus-loving plants decreasing, but their former luxuriance 
is by no means the samQ. Certain wild species of plants, 
when grown in a soil similar to sample No. 1, are from one- 
half to three times as large as those grown in soils which 



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284 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

contain a superficial layer of organic matter of a smaller 
percentage. There are limited areas in this State where the 
soil approaches a primitive condition, and in such places 
plant development is much more luxuriant than in soils con- 
taining little organic matter, which is so typical of many 
of our present soils. With the exhaustion of the organic 
matter in the soil there has taken place a change in its 
chemical and physical properties. It no longer possesses 
the same water-retaining capacity or the same amount of 
available plant food. In this way the floral conditions have 
been changed, and, instead of finding the characteristic 
species of plants which once thrived in these soils, we find 
their places taken by such species as the white birch, pop- 
lar, bush clovers {Lespedezas) ^ goldenrods, beard's-grass 
{Andropogons)^ Indian grass (Chrysopogon nutans) j etc. 

The cause of the decrease in organic matter may be traced 
to various operations. During the time of the early settle- 
ment of Massachusetts our ancestors found here woodland 
which contained an exceptionally fine growth of trees, con- 
stituting a forest difficult to penetrate. Here and there 
were open fields containing native grasses and herbaceous 
plants, growing luxuriantly, and our large river valleys were 
especially noted as being free from dense forest growths. 
This native growth exhibited a natural adaptability subjected 
to the laws of natural selection, as its conformity to physical 
conditions was not disturbed to any great extent through 
the agency of man. These natural conditions had probably 
existed since the glacial period, possibly ten thousand years ; 
and a considerable amount of organic matter, due to centu- 
ries of decay, covered the surface of the soil. Some of the 
clay hills had already been cleared by the Indians in early 
times for agricultural purposes, and were in turn eagerly 
sought by the English Ynigrators. The profuse growth of 
timber trees constituted a hindrance rather than a blessing 
to the early settlers, in consequence of which large tracts of 
primitive growth were cut and burned on the spot. By this 
process a large amount of wood ashes was formed, which 
gave rise to remarkable crops of white clover, but at the 
same time the deposition of years of organic matter of a 
priceless value was destroyed. The cutting and burning 

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Fio. 2. Effects of turning under a crop of mustard (non-leguminous) upon the 
growth of oats. Both pots were supplied with potash and phosphoric acid 
equally, but not with nitrogen. The pot marked **Senf " had mustard turned 
under ; the other one had none. No immediate effect is shown on the growth 
of the oats by the previous crop of mustard. 



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Fio. 3. EfTects of turning^ under a crop of vetch (leguminous) upon the {growth of 
oats. Both pots were supplied with potash and phosphoric acid equally, as in 
F\g. 2. The pot marked " Salpeter" received its nitrof^en in the form of salt- 
peter ; the one marked " Wlcken" had vetch turned under, showing that it was 
equal to saltpeter as a source of nitrogen. 



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No. 4.] SOIL EXHAUSTION. 285 

process has been going on ever since, much to the detriment 
of the organic matter and crop-producing capacity of the 
soil. The open fields and meadows were once rich in or- 
ganic matter, but these have become depleted through our 
methods of farming, which have consisted in taking every- 
thing from the soil without making much attempt to replace 
what has been removed. Had the practice of plowing in 
green crops been in vogue from the earliest times, our soil 
would have shown much more of its primitive character, and 
its productiveness would have been much different at the 
present time. 

The constant depletion of organic matter which is taking 
place in all of our soils is one of its most marked character- 
istics at the present time, and with this decrease have come 
inferior crops, an additional increase in certain weeds, and, 
as already pointed out, quite marked changes in the abun- 
dance and habitats of our native plants. It remains for us 
to consider how these exhausted soils can be brought back 
to a condition resembling their primitive form. It would 
take, to be sure, some centuries to restore these soils, as 
this would require the deposition and« decomposition of an 
immense amount of vegetable matter. Inasmuch as nature 
has often assumed the role of teacher in other matters, we 
may profitably turn to her guidance in considering how to 
make our depleted soils more like those formerly existing 
here, and consequently better adapted to support a crop. 

The most rational method that we know of at the present 
time appearing to accomplish this to a certain extent is the 
continual plowing in of green crops. This practice is by no 
means resorted to as much as it should be by farmers. The 
cultivation of cover crops and subsequent turning of them 
under not only increases the organic matter and food con- 
stituents of the soil, thereby giving rise to larger crops, but 
most favorably modifies the physical conditions. Cover 
crops also conserve soil nitrogen, and prevent, to a large 
extent, the soil from washing during winter. A soil enriched 
by organic matter will retain more moisture, and hence is 
better able to withstand drought. No small compensation 
for the trouble of green manuring consists in keeping the 
weeds down. A field of corn sown with any crop during 

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286 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

July is the best guarantee the farmer can have against 
weeds. A field not sown down will, as is too often the case, 
be covered with Roman wormwood, pigweed, and other 
undesirable growths. The plowing in of green crops should 
be practised on all land subject to cultivation whenever 
there is a possibility of so doing. With corn, a crop of red 




HoBBB Bean. Rid Cloyxb. 

Fio. 1. Nodales on the roots of legnmefl. 

clover, mustard or melilotus (sweet clover) can be sown 
after the last cultivation, and this can be cut and utilized 
for feeding, and the roots plowed under just before the next 
year's planting. The common red clover and sweet clover 
possess an advantage over mustard, as their roots are pro- 
vided with nitrogen-containing nodules, the product of 
bacterial activity (see Fig. 1). In this case a certain 
amount of nitrogen is added to the soil, whereas with such 



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No. 4.] SOIL EXHAUSTION. 287 

crops as rye, mustard, buckwheat, etc., no such bacterial 
adaptation occurs, and the soil nitrogen will not be in- 
creased from atmospheric sources. The leguminous plants 
constitute the best catch-crops, on account of the peculiar 
nutritive adaptation existing between the nodular bacteria 
and the atmospheric nitrogen. A crop of these plants can 
be sown, and just before reaching maturity they can be cut, 
and, if necessary, fed to stock. The roots containing or- 
ganic matter and a store of nitrogen can be plowed under. 
We have practised this system in our greenhouse to good 
advantage, — a practice which, as far as we know, is not 
made use of in greenhouses to any extent. During the 
summer the greenhouse, which is devoted to winter cucum- 
bers and lettuce, generally lies idle, and by sowing a crop 
of white lupine (which will develop in about six weeks under 
these conditions) or some other legume we succeed in add- 
ing to our soil a needed supply of organic matter and nitro- 
gen. Experiments have shown that a crop of legumes 
plowed under is practically equal to a normal supply of 
nitrogen to the soil (see Figs. 2 and 3). 

A certain stage of development in the crop is necessary 
in order to obtain the largest supply of nitrogen. This 
stage probably coincides in most cases with that when the 
seed are maturing. There has been a considerable num- 
ber of leguminous plants grown for test purposes at the 
Hatch Experiment Station in Amherst during the past ten 
years or more, such as the white lupine, horse bean, serra- 
della, alfalfa, soy bean, melilotus, Canadian pea, the various 
clovers, etc. Unfortunately, however, the majority of these 
winter-kill in our climate, and only a few of them can be used 
for winter soil-covers. Among those best suited for our 
climate is the common red clover and the melilotus or sweet 
clover. The latter, when sown in July, or at the time of 
the last cultivation of the soil, is capable of attaining a 
height of twelve or fifteen inches the following May, at 
which time the crop can be cut and utilized, and the nitro- 
gen-containing roots can bo plowed in. The red clover is 
also useful as a soil-cover, but does not always make suffi- 
cient growth in time for spring planting, being considered 
by some to be less desirable on this account than the meli- 



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288 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

lotus or sweet clover. The crimson clover is used as a soil- 
cover and for green manuring extensively in the south, where 
it is hardy ; but repeated trials have shown that it cannot 
be depended upon in Massachusetts, although it is not im- 
probable that it might winter on some of our sea-coast 
lands. There are some twenty-eight species of wild her- 
baceous leguminous plants common to Massachusetts, which 
so far as they have been examined by us, produce nodules 
upon their roots, and, much like those named above, are 
capable of utilizing the free nitrogen of the air and adding 
it to the soil. None of these species, so far as I am aware, 
have received any attention as to their possibilities of being 
utilized as nitrogen gatherers. Many of these species, such 
as the bush clover {Lespedezas) y wild lupine {Lupinua 
perennis) and rattle-box (OrotalariasagiUalis)^ are peculiar 
to worn-out soil, and in all probability the rather sparing 
growth of these plants enables them to furnish some supply 
of nitrogen to such a soil. 

Owing to the increased use of commercial fertilizers of 
late years, and the limited application of barn-yard manure, 
our soils cannot be supplied with suflScient amounts of or- 
ganic matter without recourse to green manuring. In early 
colonial times the farmers had access to leaf-mould and 
vegetable decay, which were the accumulations of centuries, 
and the necessity for manures and commercial fertilizers 
was not so urgent. In order to bring our unremunerative 
soils back to a condition approaching that of colonial times, 
and to put them into a condition in which they will become 
remunerative and bear larger crops, we must follow the 
teachings of nature, which, as we interpret them, consist in 
supplying our depleted soils with more organic matter. 



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No. 4.] FARM FORESTRY. 289 



POSSIBILITIES FOR FARM FORESTRY IN MASSACHU- 
SETTS. 



BY ALLEN CHAMBBBLAIN, SECRETARY MASSACHUSETTS FORESTRY 
ASSOCIATION. 



Notwithstanding the innumerable articles which have been 
printed by the daily and weekly press of the whole country 
during the past five years on the subject of forestry in gen- 
eral, there still exists in the minds of many only a vague 
idea of the true meaning of the subject. This misunder- 
standing cannot be attributed to the fact that agitation in 
favor of forestry is new to this country, for it has been 
urged in this State of Massachusetts by individuals and 
societies for more than one hundred years. The failure to 
make the proper impression seems to be due to a too gen- 
eral treatment of the subject so far as the country at large 
is concerned, and in our own State to a too limited prop- 
aganda. All this talking has not been entirely in vain, 
however, for there have been and still are farmers in Massa- 
chusetts and in New Hampshire who have applied the science 
of forestry in part to their woodlands, and with profit to 
themselves and to their children. But the day of widely 
applied forestry is only just at hand, and our farmers are 
beginning to ask how it can afiect them and their wood lots. 
That the farmers are generally becoming interested is the 
most hopeful sign of the century, so far as this subject is 
concerned. 

Although the subject has been agitated for so long a time, 
the first general public awakening to it was caused by Presi- 
dent Cleveland's proclamation, in February, 1897, by which 
21,000,000 acres of government-owned timber lands were 
set aside as permanent national forest. For a time the 
people in those western States where these reservations 

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290 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

were established struggled madly to secure their annulment. 
Instead of abolishing these reservations, the next adminis- 
tration added others. By that time public opinion had 
changed, on a better understanding of the subject, and 
those who had clamored loudest against Mr. Cleveland's act 
were heard petitioning that yet other reserves be estab- 
lished. This was the beginning of a system of national 
forests, and the whole people believes in it to-day. 

About the same time the State of New York began pur- 
chasing vast tracts of timber land in the Adirondacks and 
Catskills, and Pennsylvania soon after followed suit. This 
was the beginning of State forests in this country. Massa- 
chusetts has no such vast forest domains within her borders ; 
nevertheless, she is doing her share in the application of the 
science at home, but in part for a different purpose. 

That we may the better understand what we are doing as 
a nation and as a State in this matter of forestry, let us 
examine briefly into the reason for our doing it. Forestry 
is a science. So, too, is the practice of electricity. The 
time was when few believed that anything business-like or 
commercial would develop from electricity. It was re- 
garded as a theoretical science pure and simple. To-day 
vast capital is employed in promoting the many branches of 
the electrical business. Forestry also is capable of being 
made a profitable business. This has been sufficiently 
proven by the experience of European countries and com- 
munities during the last century, and during recent years 
by some of our own more progressive lumbermen. 

One of the reasons why we as a nation have not embarked 
upon this enterprise earlier, is that we have heretofore had 
an ample stock of virgin timber to draw upon, and many 
other more pressing problems to consider and dispose of. 
When our scientific men called attention to the fact that we 
were using nearly twice as much timber as our forests could 
possibly produce, provided even that they were well stocked 
and skilfully managed (which they were not), and that our 
farming and manufacturing interests would soon begin to 
feel the effect of a denudation of the hills which sheltered 
the source of their water powers, then we began to think 
deeply and to act as well. 



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No. 4.] FARM FORESTRY. 291 

Our great national timber tracts in the west are not to be 
held as public pleasure grounds pure and simple, as some 
have supposed. They are to be worked on a business basis, 
and their mature growth harvested and marketed for the 
good of the nation. Even if they fail for a time to do more 
than pay their own running expenses, there will still remain 
a distinct profit to the nation, in that the water powers rising 
in the midst of those forests will be insured for all time to 
the use of the irrigated farms and to the mills of a wide 
section. To furnish timber and to conserve the water sup- 
ply is the main purpose of those reserves, and the same is 
true of the New York and Pennsylvania reservations also. 
As a secondary consideration, they constitute vast public 
pleasure and hunting grounds. Of course we have those 
other reservations, the great national parks like the Yellow- 
stone and Yosemite, which are pleasure grounds pure and 
simple, and whose timber is not to be considered in a com- 
mercial light. These stand in much the same relation to 
the nation as do the Blue Hills, Middlesex Fells, Mt. Grey- 
lock and Mt. Wachusett public reservations to the State of 
Massachusetts. They protect the water supply of certain 
areas, and furnish wild recreation grounds for vast numbers 
of people. These are not forests in the forester's sense of 
the word, and yet they represent one branch of the science, 
in that these woodlands are being cared for with a view to 
improving the native growth, that a perpetual wild forest 
may be maintained. 

But Massachusetts has entered upon yet another piece 
of important forestry, which has an indirect commercial 
side. This is the protection of one of our most important 
harbors and its neighboring town from a slow but certain 
engulfment in shifting sand. Provincetown, out on the tip 
of Cape Cod, is the proud possessor of the only good and 
available harbor between Boston and Martha's Vineyard; 
but, owing to the improvident cutting of the original growth 
of trees and beach sod along the eastern side of the cape, the 
storms have driven in the sand of the Atlantic until it stands 
to-day in miniature mountains, but moving mountains, over 
against the town and steadily creeping upon it. To stop 
this movement of the sand was the forester's work, and the 

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292 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

State for the past five or six years has been working at 
establishing a plantation of pine and smaller growth along 
the seaward side, to anchor the sand and prevent further 
encroachment upon the town. A similar work was under- 
taken some years ago on the coast of France, and with entire 
success, and the work at Provincetown has thus far gone on 
prosperously. This is forestry of a thoroughly legitimate 
order, although it is not a plan to grow timber for market. 

Massachusetts has therefore made a good beginning in 
State forestry, but it is all purely of a protective nature. 
Inasmuch as we have no great timber area like that in New 
York, there is no reason for the State to enter upon the cul- 
tivation of commercial timber. The application of this 
branch of forestry should be left in this State to private 
enterprise ; and it is safe to predict that, if our own citizens 
do not undertake it, outside capital will eventually come in 
and begin operations. There is at least one such company 
established on Massachusetts territory to-day. It controls 
at present some 5,000 acres in one township, and is nego- 
tiating for the purchase of more. It has even been reported 
on good authority that they hope to buy the whole town- 
ship. Primarily this company was formed for the establish- 
ment of a game preserve ; but it is known that they are 
already planning to start a forest, which they hope to make 
commercially valuable. 

•< Why not encourage such foreign capital to come in and 
do such work ? " some one may ask. If they will consider the 
best interests of Massachusetts, it would surely be wise. 
But who wants to see acres of trees growing on land that is 
more valuable for agricultural crops? Forestry does not 
seek to ruin a country and turn it back from civilization to 
wilderness ; the science of forestry is diametrically opposed 
to any such practice. 

Our problem in Massachusetts ia to keep what we have, 
and to improve it ; hold fast to our tillage, and grow good 
crops thereon ; hold on to our wood lots, and improve them ; 
and, finally, make those old barren pastures, too poor to 
keep a sheep alive, and those low places, too wet for grass, 
grow marketable wood of some kind. 

Let us see for a moment what our woodland represents 

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No. 4.J FARM FORESTRY. 293 

to-day. By the census of 1895, our wooded area is given as 
nearly 1,500,000 acres, and its value as almost $24,000,000. 
While this is a gain in woodland area in ten years of more 
than 71,000 acres, its valuation shows a shrinkage of some- 
thing over $1,300,000 in the same period of time. In thirty 
years the value of our woodland has increased some $440,000, 
and the acreage increase shows almost identically the same 
figures. Judging by the census returns, the character of 
our woodlands appears to have improved on the whole in 
the ten years from 1885 to 1895, but the depreciation in 
value of more than $1,300,000 seems to indicate that further 
improvement is possible. 

The same census shows that we have in permanent pas- 
tures, swamps and other waste country some 250,000 acres 
less than in 1885. That in itself looks promising ; but when 
we compare the values for 1885 with those of 1895, it is 
seen that there has been a falling off of almost $4,000,000. 
This would make this land worth more than $15 an acre, 
which is pretty high for waste country. The loss is not off- 
set by a gain in arable land, for a loss is shown in that class, 
and with a gain in valuation, notwithstanding. The gain 
of 71,000 acres in woodland is not enough to balance it. 
Some of it may have gone into residential property, but 
still the tremendous loss in valuation remains. 

Our farmers have an opportunity to make good this loss 
by making these lands, which are no better than a burden 
to-day, yield a revenue to their owners and to the Common- 
wealth by planting trees upon them. 

When it is deemed advisable to plant any part of the farm 
to trees, there are several points which should be carefully 
considered before even the variety of tree to be used is 
thought of. First, it should be determined whether the 
owner desires to realize from his labor by an actual harvest 
during his own lifetime, or merely to increase the value of 
his farm that he may sell it thus improved a few years hence 
with a promising growth of timber trees upon it, or to make 
the plantation in the nature of an investment for the benefit 
of his children. Having settled this phase of the problem 
in his mind, his next move is to study the character of the 
soil, to ascertain what varieties of trees it is best adapted 

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294 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

to grow. It would then be well to write to the forester 
of the United States Department of Agriculture, stating the 
ultimate purpose in making such a plantation, what the gen- 
eral soil conditions are, and something about the lay of the 
land, its area, and to what use adjoining lands are put. He 
will thereby secure the best of professional advice as to his 
best course, and without chai*ge. 

As a rule, it is good policy to make use of native varieties 
when planting; and, on the whole, it is cheapest to use 
seedlings rather than seed. There are a few trees other 
than natives which will do well here under proper soil con- 
ditions ; and among them may be mentioned the European 
larch, which is a more rapid grower than white pine, and 
which makes a fine, straight-grained and light building 
timber. The western hardy catalpa (Gaialpa speciosa) is 
another tree which it is believed has great possibilities in 
this region. This again is a rapid-growing tree, making 
good railroad ties, posts, etc., in sixteen years from the 
seed. It has already been demonstrated by a western rail- 
road that catalpa ties outlast all others, their life in mud 
ballast being over thirty years. In low, wet places the 
white willow (Salix lucida) is a valuable tree. A growth 
of eight years makes charcoal stock, and anything up to 
four inches in diameter is available for the powder mills. 
White or swamp maple (Acer dasycarpum) is another good 
tree for low ground, and its wood is in demand for last- 
making. Both the willow and the maple sprout vigorously. 

While it is much to be desired that the waste places on 
the farm should be made to yield a wood crop, it is hoped 
that the existing wood lot will not be neglected. It is most 
important that it should be improved and perpetuated. It 
would be a needless waste of space to enter here upon a dis- 
cussion of the methods of planting or cutting, since. the 
Federal Department of Agriculture has prepared an excel- 
lent little pamphlet of forty-eight pages on these subjects. 
This pamphlet is known as " Forestry for Farmers,*' and a 
copy can be secured by any one who will address a postal 
card to the Secretary of Agriculture at Washington. Every 
farmer in Massachusetts should secure a copy, read its pages 
carefully, and keep it on his shelf for reference when he has 

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No. 4.] FARM FORESTRY. 295 

work to do in his wood lot. Another government publica- 
tion of great value, and which is sold for a nominal sum, is 
the " Primer of Forestry, Part I.'' Neither of these works 
deals in any language which cannot be understood by the 
average man. -Both are written by practical and skilled 
foresters, and are among the best works on the subject for 
the use of farmers. The " Forestry for Farmers " tells how 
trees grow, about soil conditions, rate of growth and repro- 
duction, how to plant a forest, what kinds of trees to use, 
the best methods of cutting in the wood lot, and something 
about the economic relation of the wood lot to the farm. 

The most valuable woodland growths of our State to-day 
are doubtless the white pine and the chestnut. There is no 
trouble in keeping a chestnut growth perpetual, owing to 
the strong sprouting proclivities of the tree. With pine it 
is different. Cut a pine lot clean, and a hardwood growth 
follows. Forestry proves that this is needless. A pine lot 
can be kept continually in pine, if enough old seed-bearing 
trees are left in suitable locations, and all fires and cattle 
kept out. A pine needling is a very delicate plant, and 
the trampling of cattle or a light leaf fire will kill it at 
once. 

Again, there is a great deal of white pine in this and in 
neighboring States that is growing under conditions which 
are most unsuitable and unprofitable. It is conmion enough 
to see an old pasture, for instance, growing up thickly to 
white pines. Few owners of such growth think of going 
near it to study the condition of the trees. For the most 
part they grow up as best they may, and at the end of forty 
years, say, they are cut and sold for cheap box boards. 
Where they stand thickly, at the end of the forty years the 
trunks are small, and covered with dry branches from butt 
to crown. Where they stand in comparatively open ground, 
they are larger in diameter, shorter, but covered with limbs, 
though these are mostly living. Now, every one knows 
that every limb, whether alive or dead, means a knot in the 
lumber which runs clear through to the heart ; it is equally 
well known that clear lumber is worth many times more 
than knotty lumber ; but it is not generally known that it is 
an easy matter to grow clear lumber, and thereby to produce 

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296 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

a more valuable crop than is possible if the trees are left to 
take care of themselves. 

The writer is personally acquainted with two men who 
have for years made it a practice to take care of their pine 
lands. One of these men owns timber in Plymouth County, 
the other in southern New Hampshire, just over the Massa- 
chusetts line. In general their methods are alike, but in 
details of handling they differ. Both recognize the fact that 
young pines grow best when close together, thus shading 
and sheltering one another, or when coming up under the 
protecting wing of a brushy deciduous growth. Both go 
through their pines once a year, and thin out the poorest 
specimens, or the brush and sprouts, and thus give the 
young pines a good chance to push ahead. Both know the 
value of clear lumber, and take care, as the trees advance, 
to remove the lower limbs close up against the trunk, so 
that there remains no stub outside the bark, and conse- 
quently insuring clear timber beyond that point. Here is 
where they differ. The Plymouth County man trims his 
trees with a knife and thin-bladed axe,. beginning when they 
are, say, five years old. The New Hampshire man waits 
till his trees are, say, ten years old, and then goes over 
them with a saw. The Plymouth man secures a greater 
proportion of clear lumber by beginning when his trees are 
very young, but the New Hampshire man contends that his 
timber sells well enough to suit him (and it may be added 
that he is a keen business man). The thinning process 
goes on from the first to the last. In cases where seedlings 
have been planted, it is often worth while to do the thinning 
for the first year or two with a spade rather than with an 
axe, especially in the case of fine, thrifty specimens that are 
crowding equally good ones. Thus many good seedlings 
can be secured to take the places of the few that die from 
natural causes, or to set out in new ground. As the trees 
grow toward maturity, the improvement cuttings can be 
utilized for firewood, or, if numerous enough, for lumber. 

It has been suflSciently demonstrated in practice that this 
thinning and trimming is not expensive, if done at times 
when there is little else demanding attention on the ftirm. 
A tree can be pruned at any season of the year when it is 

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No. 4.] FARM FORESTRY. 297 

most convenient. In the case of the white pine, an excep- 
tion might be made by those who consider outward appear- 
ances somewhat even in the timber lot. A pine trimmed in 
the spring or early summer will '* bleed," and the stem will 
thereby be badly smeared with pitch. Authorities assert 
that this << bleeding" does not injure the tree, but it makes 
an unsightly forest. From August to March is the best 
time, therefore, to trim the pines ; and most farmers will 
find this convenient for them, inasmuch as it is in the fall 
and winter that their greatest leisure comes. 

A final word should be said concerning one of the most 
serious hindrances to timber growing, namely, woodland 
fires. Until this annual evil is checked, it would be folly to 
invest much money or labor in timber lands. That it can 
be checked has already been proved by the States of Minne- 
sota and Pennsylvania. Both of these States have been 
heavy suflferers in the past from forest fires, but the people 
at length awoke to the need of doing something drastic. 
Rigid laws were enacted, providing severe penalties for 
setting fires or for allowing brush fires to escape, and pro- 
viding oflScers, who are required under penalty to enforce 
them. These laws have been enforced, and with marked 
success. Pennsylvania, for instance, suffered an average 
annual loss for years of over $1,000,000. Since the passage 
of their fire law the average has dropped to a few thousand. 
Massachusetts has laws enough on this subject, but they are 
not enforced. The woodland of the State is valued at nearly 
one-third as much as all the farm buildings in the Common- 
wealth, and yet only a few towns think it wise to enforce 
the laws which are intended to protect all this property 
from needless losses. 

The best fire law on the Massachusetts statute books is 
chapter 254 of the Acts of 1897 ; but, before it can become 
operative in any town, it must be formally accepted by the 
voters at a town meeting. This law was passed at the urgent 
request of some of the Cape Cod towns which had been severe 
sufferers from fires. Those towns adopted the law at once, 
enforced compliance with its provisions, and the benefits 
have been marked. That this law is not more widely ac- 
cepted must be due to one of two reasons, — either the 

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298 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

people do not generally know of its existence, or they are 
unwilling to tax themselves for the support of this useful 
piece of machinery. 

If any one doubts the need of seriously grappling with this 
fire problem, let him but consider the losses which the State 
sustains yearly from this cause. Our average loss is con- 
servatively estimated at from $100,000 to $150,000. In 
1895 nearly $50,000 worth of buildings were destroyed in 
the path of woodland fires. In 1899 returns were secured 
on 136 fires in 45 cities and towns, and these it was found 
burned over an area of 6,960 acres. There were known to 
have been many other fires throughout the State during that 
year, but reliable returns could not be secured regarding 
them. The immediate loss from the 136 fires on standing 
and corded wood amounted to $58,173, and on buildings 
which stood in the path of fires to $23,530 ; this makes a 
total loss of $81,703. This does not include the cost of 
labor employed in fighting the fires, which amounted to not 
less than $5,000. 

In 1900 the State Fire Marshal secured oflScial returns 
from 59 cities and towns, showing 229 woodland fires, with 
a total present loss, exclusive of labor, amounting to 
$232,071. This includes the loss on standing and corded 
wood and on buildings standing in the course of fires. 

These present losses do not, however, begin to cover the 
actual damages. Testimony secured from owners of timber 
and woodland in various parts of the State shows that even 
the lightest of leaf fires causes damage to growing trees 
which cannot be estimated in dollars and cents. It is the 
general opinion that, while light fires running in the dead 
and fallen leaves do little injury to old oaks and other thick- 
barked trees, such fires do kill quantities of valuable white 
pine seedlings, and they also set back for a year or two young 
deciduous seedlings. Oak, maple, birch and beech under 
fifteen years old are easily killed by a moderately hot fire, 
and much old^r trees are seriously injured and mature pine 
even killed by them. A forest will not wholly recover from a 
severe fire in thirty years. Not only is the growth damaged, 
but the soil is greatly impoverished by a hot fire. One in- 
stance may be cited where a good crop of fifteen-year-old 

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No. 4.] FARM FORESTRY. 299 

hard wood was destroyed. It required five years for a new 
growth to become established, and this succeeding crop 
was composed of far less valuable varieties than the one 
destroyed. 

It remains for the farmers themselves to say whether they 
will protect themselves against this annual scourge by adopt- 
ing and enforcing the laws which have been provided for the 
purpose. Without some such insurance against fire loss, 
little enthusiasm can be expected on the subject of forestry. 

Bibliography. 
The following publications of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture will be found of great value to every 
farmer who is interested in this subject. A postal card to 
the Division of Publications, Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C, will fetch the desired information. 

What is Forestry? 

Work of the Division of Forestry for the Farmer. 

The Pi-actice of Forestry by Private Owners. 

Forestry for Farmers. 

Relations of Forests to Farms. 

Tree Planting in Waste Places on the Farm. 

Practical Tree Planting in Operation. 

Trees of the United States Important in Forestry. 

Forest Influences. 

A Primer of Forestry, Part I. 

Notes on some Forest Problems. 

Measuring the Forest Crop. 



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300 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



BIRDS AS PROTECTORS OF WOODLANDS.' 



BY E. H. FORBUSH, ORNITHOLOGIST TO THE BOABD. 



The greatest enemy of the forest is man, for there is no 
devastation of the woodlands which even approximates that 
which comes from fire or the axe. Against these evils (which 
are blessings only when well handled) only education and 
legislation can protect us. We know the injury to the wood- 
lands caused by long droughts, or by cold and storms. From 
Injuries so caused there is no deliverance, neither is there 
any remedy provided, but the damage from elemental causes 
usually falls on trees which have passed their age of greatest 
usefulness, or upon young and sickly specimens. We know 
that trees are subject to many injuries by animals. Their 
foliage is eaten by beetles, flies, grubs and caterpillars ; their 
fruit and seeds destroyed by insects, birds and squirrels; 
their twigs destroyed by borers or cut off by girdlers ; their 
bark eaten by mice, hares and other animals ; their trunks 
and roots attacked by wood borers; even their very life 
blood, the sap, is sucked out by aphides. Against such 
injuries, however, nature provides preventives or remedies. 
Some species of trees have hundreds of insect species feed- 
ing upon them. When we consider well the fecundity, 
voracity and consequent great possibilities for mischief pos- 
sessed by the trees' enemies, we wonder that trees survive 
at all. Still, trees spring up and grow apace. In a wooded 
country a few years' neglect suffices to clothe field or pas- 
ture with a growth of bushes and young trees, and in time 
a wood lot succeeds the cleared land. That trees are able 
thus to spring up and grow to maturity without man's care 
is sufficient evidence that they are protected by their natural 
friends from the too injurious inroads of their natural ene- 
mies. Among these friends birds hold the chief place. 

* Illustrated by the anthor. 

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No. 4.] . BIRDS AND WOODLANDS. 301 

It is generally believed that there are few birds in deep 
woods. Travellers have often remarked the scarcity of birds 
in the forest, and it is true that usually there are fewer birds, 
both in numbers of species and individuals, in most northern 
forests than in more open or cultivated lands. Those that 
live and breed in the deep woods, however, are especially 
fitted to destroy the trees* enemies, and twice each year, in 
spring and fall, a great wave of migratory, insect-eating birds 
that summer in the north and winter near the tropics, passes 
through the woods of the temperate zone, gleaning insects 
from the trees as well as from the plants springing from 
forest floor, from the leaf-mold or from out the very ground. 

Here in Massachusetts, in the chill days of March and early 
April, when sunshine and shadow fleck the lingering snow, 
in silent woods and along swollen streams the lusty fox spar- 
row searches for hibernating insects, which only await the 
warmer sun of April or May to emerge from their hiding- 
places and lay their eggs upon or attack the trees. He and 
his companions, the tree sparrow and the junco, soon pass 
on to the north, making way for the white-throats and 
thrushes, which continue the good work, to be followed in 
their turn by other thrushes and towhees. In early April 
birds are not plentiful in the woods, but the chickadees, 
woodpeckers, jays, nuthatches and kinglets are doing their 
part. Later, in the warm days of May, when nature has 
awakened from her long winter s sleep, when the little light 
green oak leaves are just opening, when the bright young 
birch leaves decorate but do not hide the twigs, when every 
leaflet vies with the flowers in beauty and every branch up- 
holds its grateful offering, when insects which were dormant 
or sluggish during the earlier days of the year become active 
in ascending the trees, and when their swarming ofiBpring 
appear on bud and leaf, then the south wind brings the mi- 
gratory host of birds which winter near the equator. They 
sweep through the woods. They encompass the trees. Flight 
after flight passes along on its way to the north, all gleaning 
insects as they go. No one who has not watched these birds 
hour after hour and day after day, who has not listened to 
their multitudinous notes as night after night they have passed 
overhead, can realize the numbers that sweep through the 

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302 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

woods in the spring and fall migrations. Those who have 
watched the flights of wood warblers during the present season 
cannot but marvel at their vast and constantly changing pro- 
cession. On May 11 of the present year, at Amesbury, 
Mass., Blackburn ian warblers were seen all through the 
woods at daybreak. Having come in the previous night, 
they were not singing, but were busily feeding until seven 
o'clock. At eight o'clock not one was to be seen. They 
had passed on, and other species had taken their place. 

The gi'eat hosts of migratory warblers feed largely on 
young caterpillars and plant lice, — two of the worst ene- 
mies of trees. These birds come at a time when the first 
broods of these insects appear, and so do yeoman service in 
preventing their enormous increase. One needs only to 
know the possibilities in the way of reproduction among the 
plant lice to appreciate the services of birds in destroying 
these early broods. Lintner says of one species, — the hop- 
vine aphis, — that, according to Riley, it has thirteen gen- 
erations a year, and that, giving the average number of young 
produced by each female as 100, if every individual should 
attain maturity and produce its fiill complement of young, 
the twelfth brood alone would amount to ten sextillions. 
**If this brood,** says Lintner, **were marshalled in line, 
ten to the inch, touching one another, the procession would 
extend to the sun (a space titivelled by light in eight 
minutes), and beyond that to the nearest fixed star (a dis- 
tance travelled by light in six years), and onward into space 
beyond the most distant star that the strongest telescope 
may bring to our view, to a point so inconceivably remote 
that light would only reach us from it in twenty-five hundred 
years." It need hardly be said that no such multiplication 
as this can ever occur in nature ; still, the calculation shows 
the possibilities of great danger to vegetation should any of 
the forces be withdrawn which hold these insects in check. 
Dr. Fitch, by a careful enumeration and computation, esti- 
mated that several young cherry trees about ten feet in height 
were each infested by at least 12,000,000 aphides.* 

The increase of these creatures is largely controlled by 
birds, but in greenhouses, where birds cannot go, plant lice 

• American Journal Agricaltnral Sdenoe, 1846, p. 282. 

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No. 4.] BIRDS AND WOODLANDS- 303 

are a serious evil, and florists have to combat them with in- 
secticides and fumigation. The value of birds as aphis eaters 
has been shown by confining them in greenhouses. E. A. 
Samuels says that three full-grown rose bushes in a green- 
house were infested by some 2,000 plant lice which were all 
consumed in a few hours by a single titmouse.* Rudolphus 
Bingham of Camden, N. J., states that ho kept a winter 
garden almost entirely free from plant lice, wasps and flies 
by confining an indigo bird there. f He also kept a few 
native sparrows in a greenhouse, and as a result the place 
suflered very little from insect attacks. After the birds 
had been introduced he found it 
unnecessary to fumigate. These 
experiments determine only that 
birds will eat aphides when confined 
with them ; but any one who will 
watch the warblers and other small 
birds in May among the birch or 
other woods infested by aphides will 
be convinced that they take vast 
numbers from choice. My assist- 
ant, Mr. F. H. Mosher, watched 
a pair of Maryland yellow-throats fig.i.- chickadee hnnting 
eating plant lice from the birches ^* 

in the Middlesex Fells reservation in Maiden, May 28, 1898. 
One of them ate 89 of these tiny insects in one minute, and 
they continued eating at that rate for forty minutes. Mr. 
Mosher states that they must have eaten considerably over 
7,000 in that time. This seems hardly credible, but Mr. 
Mosher is a very careful, painstaking and trustworthy wit- 
ness. He adds that the birds made several other visits to 
the tree during the forenoon, and continued feeding as at 
first. 

Caterpillars are among the worst enemies of trees, and 
where they are numerous they form at least two-thirds of the 
food of the warblers. Probably all woodland birds, from 
hawks, crows and owls down to the tiny titmice, wrens and 

• Thirteenth annual report secretary Massachusetts State Board of Agricaltare, 
1866, p. 94. 
t Nineteenth annual report New Jersey State Board of Agricoltore, 1891-92, p. 163. 




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304 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

kinglets, feed on smooth-skinned caterpillars, while at least 
fifty species are now known to feed on the spiny and hairy 
caterpillars. It is largely due to a lack of native birds that 
the shade trees in our cities are so overrun with caterpillars. 
While the imported sparrow keeps down the span worms, it 
does not check many other pests. When the imported 
leopard moth appeared in New York and Brooklyn, causing 
great havoc among the trees in the parks, it was feared that 
as the insect spread it would become a serious enemy to the 
trees of the entire country. But I am informed by Dr. J, 
B. Smith, State entomologist of New Jersey, that this moth 
is doing little damage in the country districts, where the 
native birds seem to keep it in check. At first it looked as 
if the large' larvce would escape the birds, because of their 
habits. They are borers, beginning life within the small 
twigs, and when these quarters get too narrow for them, they 
eat out and crawl down outside to larger twigs. It is then 
they are taken by many native birds, though the imported 
sparrows do not appear to check them. Dr. Smith says that 
the woodpeckers eat the female moths, and probably drag 
the young larvae out of the smaller twigs. The American 
silkworm, the larvae of Telea polyphemuSj is one of the 
largest and most voracious of our caterpillars, and, should it 
increase as rapidly as the gypsy moth, it would become a 
fearful pest ; but it is noticeable that this and other allied 
species of great size never reach a destructive height. The 
principal reason for their scarcity is that they are eagerly 
eaten by birds. Hawks, owls, goatsuckers, woodpeckers, 
jays, robins, tanagers, blackbirds and other species capture 
these large caterpillars. When Mr. Leopold Trouvelot was 
engaged in raising American silkworms at Medford the 
robins came from all quarters to destroy them, and gave him 
more trouble than all other birds combined. 

Mr. Trouvelot says that one of these caterpillars will con- 
sume in fifty-six days not less than 120 oak leaves, weighing 
three-fourths of a pound, drinking in the mean time not less 
than one-half ounce of water, the weight of the food eaten 
being 86,000 times the weight of the worm on the first day. 
During this time it has increased in weight 4,140 times. The 
destructiveness of the species if allowed to increase may be 

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No. 4.] BIRDS AND WOODLANDS. 305 

imagined. Two thousand of these insects were taken by the 
birds from a small oak in front of his door within a few days. 
Mr. Troufrelot, speaking of the birds which penetrated into 
the enclosure in which he was raising the silkworms, quaintly 
says: **The small ones could go through the meshes and 
the larger ones through some holes in the old net. So I was 
obliged to chase them all the day long, as when pursuing 
them on one side they would fly to the other and quietly 
feed, until I again reappeared." He expresses the telief that 
in a 'state of nature 95 per cent of these insects are destroyed 
by birds alone. 

But this is only one indication of the value of birds in this 
respect. When settlers first began to plant orchards and 
establish tree claims on the western prairies, there were few, 
if any, arboreal birds there, except along the timbered river 
bottoms. The settlers imported insect pests on young trees. 
The enemies of tree insects being absent, because the country 
was destitute of well-grown groves and orchards, the insects 
increased and over-ran the seedling trees, the larger moths, 
like the cecropia and the polyphemus, being the worst pests 
of all, increasing rapidly, eating voraciously and making it 
almost impossible to raise trees. Dr. Lawrence Bruner, in 
a paper on insects injurious to tree claims, states that the 
absence alone of so great a factor as these birds in keeping 
down and ridding a country of its insect pests soon becomes 
apparent in the great increase and consequent damage done 
by these pests. He asserts, also, that as an enemy to tree 
culture the cecropia has no equal in some portions of the 
prairie country, and that its large caterpillars often defoliate 
entire groves, — something unheard of here. Mr. W. C. 
Colt, who has had experience in raising trees in Dakota, tells 
me that the caterpillars of this and other large species were 
terribly destructive there. As groves and orchards became 
established, however, and arboreal birds spread over the 
country, these caterpillars were reduced by them to a state 
of comparative harmlessness. 

During the past two summers, 1898 and 1899, much injury 
has been done to the woods in certain sections of New Eng- 
land by the so-called forest tent caterpillar (Olisiocampa 
disstria). Birds destroy great numbers of these pests, and. 

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306 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

were birds more numeroas, there would probably be no great 
outbreaks such as have occurred in recent years. Dr. E. P. 
Felt, State entomologist of New York, says that one of the 
most fruitful methods of keeping this pest in check through 
its natural enemies will probably be found in encouraging 
and protecting the native birds known to feed upon it.* 

As showing the large numbei*s of these caterpillars eaten 
by birds, a few notes from Mr. Mosher's observations will 
be of interest. A black-billed cuckoo was seen to eat 36 
forest tent caterpillars within five minutes. Red-eyed vireos 
(probably a pair) took 92 forest tent caterpillars from a tree 
within an hour. They were also eating span worms and 
other larv8B and plant lice. A male Baltimore oriole went 
into a tree infested by these caterpillars, where he stayed 
four minutes, killing 18 caterpillars in that time ; coming a 
little later, he stayed seven minutes, and took 26 caterpillars. 
A pair of blue jays came to the tree twenty-four times during 
three hours, taking 2 or 3 caterpillars at each visit. 

All through the summer the trees are guarded by the birds. 
While the white grubs of the May beetle are still in the 
ground, ere they can emerge to feed on the foliage, the 
robins, crows, thrashers and blackbirds search them out and 
destroy them. The sparrows and towhees also search among 
the dead leaves for caterpillars which crawl on the ground 
and drop from the trees, and for those which pupate among 
the litter of the forest floor. Woodpeckers tapping the 
trunks bring forth injurious ants, bark beetles, wood-boring 
insects. Creepers, kinglets and nuthatches search the bark 
and cavities of the trunk and limbs for scale insects, bark 
lice, borers, bark beetles and the larvae and pupse of other 
insects which hide there. Warblers, thrushes, tanagers, 
wrens, titmice, vireos, cuckoos and other tree-loving birds 
pry about among the leaves and branches in search of cater- 
pillars of all sorts. Even the hidden leaf rollers are sought 
out by the grosbeaks and many other birds, and the gall 
insects are dragged from their hiding places by the jays and 
grosbeaks. Titmice get the bud worms and woodpeckers 
search out the worm which destroys the fruit. When the 

* Insects injuriooi to maplo trees, fourth annual report, Commissioners Fisheries, 
Game and Forests. 



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No. 4.] BIRDS AND WOODLANDS. 307 

span worms, disturbed by the movements of the caterpillar- 
hunting warblera, vireos and sparrows among leaves and 
twigs, spin down on their gossamer threads, and so escape 
one enemy, they are marked by flycatchers sitting on the 
watch or hovering in the air ready to dart upon them. When 
the mature insects, gaining wings, attempt to escape by 
flight, they are snapped up by these same flycatchers, which 
sit waiting on the outer limbs of the trees ; or, escaping 
these, they are pursued by the swallows and swifts in the 
upper air. Those whose flight is nocturnal must run the 
gauntlet of the screech owl, night-hawk and whippoorwill. 
Thus birds guard the trees as the summer wanes, until the 
chill of autumn evenings causes the remaining insects to seek 
winter hiding-places, and warns the birds to begin their 
southward migrations. Then the tide of bird life turns back, 
and, passing, leaves the wood in silence, except for the sigh- 
ing of the branches and the rustle of the falling leaves. In 
October a few thrushes flit here and there, blue jays mourn- 
fully call, a crow caws now and then, but otherwise the 
woods seem deserted. Still, at this season of the year and 
all through the winter and early spring months the few birds 
which remain are accomplishing the greatest good for the 
forest ; for now the development and increase of all insects 
is arrested, while their destruction by birds goes on. An- 
other point, — the winter birds must subsist largely on the 
eggs of insects, for many insects pass the winter in that form 
alone ; and the bird that eats these eggs can destroy a hun- 
dred times as many insects in this minute, embryonic form, 
as it could in the summer, after the caterpillars had hatched 
and grown toward maturity. The jays, titmice, nuthatches 
and woodpeckers, which remain through the winter in the 
northern woods, must give at least six months more of service 
to the trees in Massachusetts than the majority of birds that 
come here as migrants, or as summer residents only. These 
birds, with the creepers and kinglets, are especially the 
guardians of the wood. Millions upon millions of insects 
and their eggs are destroyed by them during the long winter 
months. In this work they are assisted to some extent by 
the winter finches and sparrows. 

The following notes from the pen of my friend and co- 

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308 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

worker, Mr. A. H. Kirkland, are of especial interest, from 
their accurate description of the manner in which eggs of 
plant lice are destroyed by winter birds : — 

Many of our common aphides winter in the egg stage, these 
eggs being attached to the buds or stalks of the food plants. The 
large aphis common on willows lays oblong black eggs on the sides 
of the buds late in the fall. On Jan. 25, 1898, at the Arnold 
Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, I saw a flock of about half a dozen 
chickadees feeding on the eggs of this aphis. Some of the birds 
while feeding came within ten or fifteen feet of the place where 
I was standing, and I could obser\'e plainly their movements. 

The aphis common to the white birch in this region lays great 
masses of eggs on the buds and twigs. Some trees during the fall 
of 1897 were so thoroughly covered with these eggs that the natural 
color of the bark was obscured. This vast quantity of eggs served 
as a storehouse of food for many of our winter birds, and during 
the days when the ground was covered with snow several species of 
seed-eating birds were seen to feed upon them. Throughout the 
winter the chickadees fed on these eggs. The fact was one of 
almost daily observation. On March 10, 1898, while on a tramp 
through the Middlesex Fells, I noticed a large flock of these birds 
feeding in the white birches that covered the southern exposure of 
a hill. By entering the brushland in advance of the birds I was 
soon in the midst of the flock, and, remaining motionless, had an 
opportunity to observe them feeding upon the masses of the eggs. 
A few days before this date I saw a downy woodpecker feeding 
upon the eggs on a large white birch that was partly covered with 
them. Goldfinches were also common visitors to the infested 
bushes, especially after the snowstorms. The stomach of one of 
these birds, taken at 8 a.m., Feb. 3, 1898, contained 2,210 eggs 
of the white birch aphid. When other food was scarce the English 
sparrow found these eggs a suitable article of diet, and one of these 
birds, taken at 4 p.m., Jan. 29, 1898, contained 1,478 aphid eggs. 

A plant louse that is common on larches, often to an injurious 
extent, is Chermes lardfolia Fitch. This insect lays great numbers 
of stalked eggs in April and May, and the young lice resulting 
feed on the juices of the leaves throughout the summer. At the 
Bell Rock Cemetery, Maiden, April 20, 1898, 1 saw a flock of over 
foi-ty goldfinches feeding on the eggs and female lice. The birds 
began feeding at the top of the trees, worked down to the lower 
branches, then flew to the top of the next larch and repeated the 
performance. A few English sparrows also ate the eggs. 

During the past winter (1897-98) I have frequently seen chick- 



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gle 



No. 4.] BIRDS AND WOODLANDS. 



309 



adees feeding upon female canker worm moths, picking them to 
pieces before eating them. On Nov. 26, 1897, I examined the 
stomach of a white-breasted nuthatch, and found it to contain 1 , 629 
eggs of the fall canker worm. There were no moth remains in the 
stomach, and it is evident that the bird gathered these eggs from 
the trees. 

My friend, Mr. C. E. Bailey, writes that on March 28, 
1899, a single downy woodpecker made 26 excavations for 
food between 9.40 a.m. and 12.15 p.m. During this time it 
climbed over and inspected, in a greater or less degree, 181 
trees. Most of these 
excavations exposed gal- 
leries in the trunks or 
high branches in which 
ants were hibernating. 
An examination of the 
stomach of this bird 
brought to light 1 spider, 

1 beetle (unidentified), 

2 larv8B of bark beetles 
(Scolytidce) and 22 ants, 
also some partially di- 
gested material which 
could not be identified. 
At 12.15 the woodpecker 
was at work thirty-five 
feet from the ground on 
the dead end of a broken branch, in which were the channels 
or galleries of large black ants. The bird had made four 
openings into these galleries, and in each case had uncovered 
hibernating black ants. By what sense these motionless in- 
sects were discovered in their hidden burrows will perhaps 
always remain a mystery. 

On March 30 a brown creeper was seen to inspect 43 trees 
in an hour, getting its food from crevices in the bark. 

Another downy woodpecker was seen on March 31, 1899, 
taking the larvse of beetles from beneath the bark of oak 
trees. The bird seemed to know the exact spot to drill for 
each larva, for it always cut a srnall hole directly over the 
insect, finding the prey unerringly. 

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Fig. 2 (reduced two-thlrdB). — Downy wood- 
pecker and his excavations. 



310 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



The cut, Fig. 3, give8 a view of the outer surface of a 
section of bark taken from a small oak. From this small 
piece of bark the bird probably secured at least six of the 
larvae that were found in its stomach. The holes, a, 6, c, d, 
€j /, indicate those from which the larvae 
were taken. 

Fig. 4 gives a view of the inner sur- 
face of the same piece of bark, showing 
how true was the stroke of the bird, for 
its beak, piercing from the outside, went 
directly to the centre of the burrow 
where the insect lay entirely hidden 
from view. The letters a, 6, c, d, c,/ 
indicate the holes, showing size and 
shape, where the 
bird's beak came 
through to the 
inner surface, 
r Seventeen larv8B 
of bark beetles 
and 12 ants were 
found in the bird's 
stomach. 
During the win- 
FiG. 3 (reduced two-thirds).- tcr the chickadccs 

Oak bark pierced by downy ^^^ i^y^ perform 
woodpecker. •' *^ * 

priceless service 
by destroying quantities of the eggs 
of such insects as those of the tent 
caterpillar and canker worm moths. 
The owls and some of the hawks are 
useful, not alone in the summer, when 
they destroy many of the May beetles, 
larger caterpillars and moths, and keep 
down the increase of the mice and 
squirrels, but those that stay through 
the winter are also useful then by 
keeping squirrels, mice and hares in 
check. Hares and mice sometimes do great damage by 
gnawing the bark or roots of trees. All of these animals 




P.. 




Fio. 4* — Inner inrface of the 
■ame bark, showing the chan- 
nels of bark beetles and the 
woodpecker's perforation*. 



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No. 4.] BIRDS AND WOODLANDS. 311 

become injurious whenever abnormally numerous. Witness 
the great plagues of field mice in Norway, and the injury 
caused in our western plains by the prairie hare or so-called 
jack-rabbit. 

And so, day by day, throughout the year, birds work for 
the good of the forest. In satisfying their own appetites 
and providing for their young they guard and protect the 
trees, which in turn provide them with food and shelter. 
While feeding on fnlit or seed they distribute and sow the 
seed which shall provide food for future generations of birds. 
Throughout nature's great plan one organism depends on 
others, each upon each throughout their numberless inter- 
relations ; and he is a wise man who can interfere with this 
plan, and, by introducing new forces or destroying some of 
the old, change the scheme without producing disastrous re- 
sults. Yet we have gone on blindly, destroying our native 
birds. Gunners shoot them right and left ; feather hunters 
slaughter them ; boys with air rifles and shot guns decimate 
them ; a million worthless cats are turned loose to prey upon 
them ; their eggs and young are destroyed at sight by chil- 
dren, cats and dogs ; if in pay for their valuable services 
they take a little fruit or grain, the farmer, who should be 
their best friend, turns upon them and adds to the slaughter. 
As a result of all this and more, many species of birds are 
now rare which were formerly abundant. A few are nearly 
extinct, and some of the larger species have disappeared from 
the State. Let birds be encouraged and protected from their 
enemies, and they will reoccupy their former haunts, and 
there will then be less necessity for the use of Paris green 
and other insecticides. 

Natfve Birds useful in Woods. 
For the information of those interested in the subject, lists 
of birds known to destroy some of the worst enemies of trees 
are given below. The canker worms are reckoned here as 
among the forest pests, as they frequently attack elms and 
other trees in the woods, as well as in fields and along road- 
sides. The tent caterpillar is also included, as it is in some 
seasons very plentiful in the woods, where it attacks first the 
wild cherry and afterward the birch, and occasionally other 

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812 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

trees. The gypsy moth is placed first in order, as it is an 
imported insect, and is considered the most injurious of all. 
As the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, which has expended 
more than a million dollars in an attempt to exterminate this 
insect, has now given up the task as impracticable, and as it 
is now probably only a question of time before the insect 
will spread over the country, all birds which may assist in 
holding it in check assume the utmost importance. The next 
insect in order, the brown-tail moth,' another importation 
from Europe, bids fair also to become here, as in Europe, a 
pest of the first class. While this insect does not feed on so 
many trees and other plants as the gypsy moth, it has already 
proved itself a serious nuisance here, destructive to fruit, 
shade, orchard and forest trees. The State Legislature hav- 
ing neglected to provide for the extinction of this insect when 
it first appeared, it is rapidly spreading, and is now known 
to have obtained a foothold in Maine and New Hampshire. 
The tent caterpillars, both the canker worms, the tussock 
moth, and the white gi'ub or May beetle, are all well-known 
and destructive native pests, while plant lice are probably 
known amojig farmers, gardeners and foresters everywhere. 
The methods pursued in gaining the information given in the 
lists below have been described in the crop report for Sep- 
tember, 1899.* This work has been supplemented by 
stomach examinations. 

Birds feeding on the Gypsy Moth (Porthetria dispar, Linn.). 
The list of birds given in 1896 in the report on the gypsy 
moth enumerated only 38 species, while 46 are included in 
the list given below. Several of those not included in the 
earlier list have been found since to be habitual feeders on 
this insect. Among these are the scarlet tanager and the 
Nashville and golden-winged warblers. There is little doubt 
that this insect as it becomes disseminated will be attacked 
by other birds, and it is believed that several species not 
given in the list are now attacking it ; but, in view of the 
general belief that birds do not eat hairy catei*pillars, care 
has been taken to secure the most positive proof before in- 

* Birds as destrojers of hairy caterpillars, anonal report, Massachnsetts State 
Board of Agriculture, 1899, p. 316. 



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No. 4.] 



BIRDS AND WOODLANDS. 



813 



serting the name of any bird in the list. The list is larger 
than that given of birds attacking any other of the haiiy 
caterpillars, because more attention has been paid to the 
enemies of this pest. No doubt as many species of birds 
may be found attacking other hairy caterpillars. 



Yellow-billed cuckoo, 

Black-billed cuckoo, 

Hairy woodpecker, 

Downy woodpecker, 

Yellow-bellied sapsucker. 

Flicker, 

Kingbird, 

Great-crested flycatcher, 

Phoebe, 

Wood pewee. 

Least flycatcher. 

Blue jay. 

Crow, 

Red-winged blackbird, 

Baltimore oriole. 

Bronzed grackle or crow blackbird, 

Chipping sparrow. 

Song sparrow, 

Towhee, 

Rose-breasted grosbeak. 

Indigo bunting, 

English sparrow, 

Scarlet tanager, 



Red-eyed vireo. 
Yellow-throated vireo, 
White-eyed vireo, 
Black-and-white warbler. 
Golden-winged warbler, 
Nashville warbler, 
Farula warbler. 
Yellow warbler. 
Chestnut-sided warbler, 
Maryland yellow-throat. 
Black-throated green warbler. 
Oven-bird, 
American redstart. 
Catbird, 

Brown thrasher. 
House wren. 
White-breasted nuthatch, 
Red-breasted nuthatch. 
Chickadee, 
Wood thrush, 
Wilson's thrush, 
American robin. 
Bluebird. 



Birds feeding on the Brown-tail Moth Caterpillar (Euproctis 
chrysorrhoea, Linn.}. 
So far only 29 species of birds have been observed to 
attack the brown-tail moth. All of these, it is believed, eat 
the caterpillars, but the flycatchers attack mainly the flying 
moths. Birds appear at times to reduce the initial colonies 
of these pests to harmless numbers. The English sparrow 
occasionally eats a few caterpillars or imagos, but appears 
to spend more than an equal amount of time in driving more 
useful birds away from the infested trees. 



Yellow-billed cuckoo. 
Black-billed cuckoo. 
Kingbird, 

Great-crested flycatcher. 
Least flycatcher, 



Blue jay. 

Crow, 

Red- winged blackbird, 

Baltimore oriole, 

Bronzed grackle or crow blackbird. 



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314 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



Chipping sparrow, 
Field sparrow, 
Song sparrow, 
Rose-breasted grosbeak, 
Indigo banting, 
English sparrow, 
Scarlet tanager. 
Red-eyed vireo. 
Yellow-throated vireo. 
Warbling vireo, 



Grolden-winged warbler, 
Nashville warbler. 
Yellow warbler. 
Chestnut-sided warbler, 
American redstart. 
Catbird, 
Chickadee, 
Wood thrush, 
American robin. 



Birds feeding on the Forest Tent Caterpillar (Clisiocampa 
disstria, Hubn.). 
Twenty-five species of birds are now known to attack this 
insect. In connection with a list of birds given by Dr. 
Felt as feeding on this caterpillar, he quotes Miss Caroline 
G. Soule of Brookline to the effect that nuthatches become 
so absorbed in feeding on masses of these caterpillars that 
they would allow her to approach and touch them. In our 
experience, however, the nuthatches seem not particularly 
fond of these larvsB, but this only illustrates how individuals 
of the same species acquire different tastes. Our observa- 
tions have often shown that one individual of a species may 
reject as food that which another of the same species will 
devour with avidity. All of the species given, except the 
English sparrow, feed on the caterpillars. This sparrow, 
however, catches some of the flying moths. These are no 
doubt eaten by many birds not in this list. 



Yellow-billed cuckoo. 

Black-billed cuckoo, 

Yellow-bellied sapsucker, 

Flicker, 

Blue jay. 

Crow, 

Baltimore oriole, 

Bronzed grackle or crow 

blackbird, 
Chipping sparrow, 
Towhee, 

English sparrow, 
Scarlet tanager. 



Red-eyed vireo. 
Warbling vireo, 
White-ejed vireo. 
Black-and-white warbler, 
Grolden-winged warbler. 
Yellow warbler, 
American redstart^ 
Catbird, 

White-breasted nuthatch. 
Chickadee, 
Wood thrush, 
American robin, 
Cedar waxwing. 



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No. 4.] 



BIRDS AND WOODLANDS. 



315 



Birds feeding on the Tent Caterpillar (Clisiocampa ameri- 
cana, Harr.). 
We have found by observation and stomach examination 
that at least 32 species eat the tent caterpillar. Others not 
on the list probably eat the mature insect, and the pupa is 
taken from its cocoon and eaten by several. The tent or 
web seems to be some protection to the caterpillars within it, 
as few birds have been observed to break open the web and 
take out the caterpillars. Most birds appear to prefer tak- 
ing the caterpillars from the twigs, branches and leaves. 
The crow, blue jay, Baltimore oriole and red-eyed vireo are 
among those that tear open the web and hale the caterpillars 
forth. 



Yellow-billed cuckoo, 

Black-billed cuckoo. 

Hairy woodpecker, 

Downy woodpecker, 

Flicker, 

Whippoorwill, 

Chimney swift, 

Wood pewee, 

Blue jay, 

Crow, 

Red-winged blackbird, 

Baltimore oriole. 

Bronzed grackle or crow 

blackbird. 
White-throated sparrow. 
Chipping sparrow. 
Field sparrow. 



Towhee, 

Rose-breasted grosbeak. 
Scarlet tanager. 
Red-eyed vireo. 
Yellow-throated vireo. 
Black-and-white warbler, 
Golden-winged warbler, 
Nashyille warbler, 
Parula warbler. 
Black-throated blue warbler, 
American redstart^ 
Catbird, 

Brown thrasher. 
House wren. 
Chickadee, 
American robin. 



Birds which feed on the Canker Worms. 
This list of 51 birds which feed on canker worms em- 
braces most of the families and genera of the smaller land 
birds, which were well represented in the locality and at the 
time when the observations were made. It is probable that 
whenever small, smooth-skinned caterpillars become numer- 
ous, they are attacked by most species of small land birds 
in the vicinity, as such caterpillars are everywhere eaten 
greedily by most of the smaller birds and also used as food 
for their young. 



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316 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



Yellow-billed cuckoo. 
Black-billed cuckoo, 
Haiiy woodpecker, 
Downy woodpecker, 
Yellow-bellied sapsucker. 
Flicker, 
Whippoorwill, 
Kingbird, 
Crested flycatcher, 
Phoebe, 

Olive-sided flycatcher, 
Wood pewee. 
Least flycatcher, 
Blue jay. 
Crow, 
Bobolink, 

Red-winged blackbird, 
Baltimore oriole. 
Bronzed ' grackle or crow- 
blackbird, 
American goldfinch. 
Chipping sparrow, 
Field sparrow, 
Song sparrow, 
Towhee, 
American robin. 



Rose-breasted grosbeak. 
Indigo bunting, 
English sparrow, 
Scarlet tanager. 
Red-eyed vireo, 
Yellow-throated vireo, 
Warbling vireo. 
White-eyed vireo. 
Black-and-white warbler, 
Grolden-winged warbler, 
Nashville warbler, 
Parula warbler. 
Yellow warbler. 
Magnolia warbler, 
Chestnut-sided warbler, 
Maryland yellow-throat, 
Black-throated green warbler, 
American redstart, 
Catbird, 
Brown thrasher, 
House wren. 
White-breasted nuthatch. 
Chickadee, 
Wood thrush. 
Bluebird, 
Cedar waxwing. 



Birds feeding on the White-marhed Tussock Moth (Orgyia 
leucostigma) . 
Probably all the birds which feed upon the other hairy 
caterpillars feed also upon this, but, as the opportunity for 
observing this species has been limited, the list is given for 
what it is worth. This species has become very destructive 
to city shade trees since the introduction of the English 
sparrow, which, eating few of these insects itself, has driven 
out the native birds which formerly fed upon the caterpillars. 
It is interesting to note that of late, in some parts of eastern 
Massachusetts at least, the sparrow is not so obnoxious as 
during the years immediately succeeding its introduction and 
increase, and that a few of the native birds are returning to 
their old breeding place. This may result in checking the 
ravages of the tussock moth, which does little damage to 
orchards, shade trees or woodlands where sparrows are scarce 
and native birds plenty. 



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No. 4.] BIRDS AND WOODLANDS. 317 



Yellow-billed cuckoo, 
Black-billed cuckoo, 
Whippoorwill, 
Chimney swift, 
Phoebe, 



Blue jay, 
Baltimore oriole, 
Robin, 
English sparrow. 



Birds feeding on the May Beetle or its Larva y the White 
Orvb (Oenus Lachnostema) . 
As the white grubs live in the ground, they probably are 
not eaten by many birds except such as, like the robin and 
blackbird, follow the plow. It is this grub that eats the 
grass roots in lawns and fields, thereby destroying the turf, 
sometimes in great patches. Crows, robins and blackbirds 
know where to find these larvaB and how to unearth them. 
The mature insect, or May beetle, feeds on the foliage of the 
trees and flies in the night. It is then captured on the wing 
by owls and whippoorwills. Hawks also find them occasion- 
ally, and the omnivorous crows and jays destroy many more. 



Sparrow hawk, 
Screech owl, 
Flicker, 
Whippoorwill, 
Night hawk, 
Blue jay, 
Crow, 



Kingbird, 

Red-winged blackbird. 
Bronzed grackle or crow 

blackbird. 
Brown thrasher, 
American robin. 



Birds feeding on Plant Lice (Aphidee). 
Most of the following birds feed largely on the aphides 
which infest the gray birch and other forest trees. Most 
warblers and the indigo bird are particularly active in this 
respect. The chickadee and the redstart are also among the 
most useful species. The swifts and smaller flycatchers catch 
many of the flying imagos. No doubt this is also true of 
the swallows, although we have not yet observed swallows 
feeding on these insects. Probably most of the smaller birds 
feed upon aphides when they are plentiful, but it is not likely 
that the larger species often seek out such minute insects. 
The woodpeckers which eat ants, especially the flicker and 
downy woodpecker, also eat aphides. 



Downy woodpecker. 
Flicker, 
Chimney swift^ 



Ruby-throated humming bird, 
Wood pewee, 
Least flycatcher, 



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318 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



Purple finch, 
Red-winged blackbird, 
Baltimore oriole, 
American goldfinch. 
Chipping sparrow. 
Field sparrow, 
Bobolink, 
Towhee, 

Rose-breasted grosbeak, 
Indigo bunting, 
Chickadee, 
Scarlet tanager, 
Red-eyed vireo, 
Tellow-throated vireo, 



Black-and-white warbler. 
Myrtle warbler, 
Parula warbler. 
Yellow warbler. 
Black-throated blue warbler, 
Magnolia warbler, 
Chestnut-sided warbler, 
Maryland yellow-throat, 
Black- throated green warbler, 
Oven bird, 
American redstart. 
Catbird, 

White-breasted nuthatch, 
American robin. 



A glance over the list of birds given above as feeding on 
the different species of caterpillars will show that some of the 
birds which are believed by many people to be harmful occur 
in all these lists. The crow eats many caterpillars and more 
pupae. The despised jay, which certainly may do much harm 
by destroying the eggs and young of smaller birds, is one of 
the most valuable birds we have in some respects, being a 
most persistent hunter of the caterpillars, pupae and eggs of 
some of the most injurious moths. The oriole, which has a 
taste for fruit, is a gourmand for caterpillars, and the robin 
and catbird, much decried by fruit growers, feed on nearly 
all species of injurious caterpillars of the orchard or wood- 
land. The cuckoos are always and everywhere present with 
the caterpillars, and by many are believed to head the list 
of caterpillar destroyers; but in woodlands there are no 
birds more useful in this respect than the beautiful scarlet 
tanagers or the busy chickadees. Of all the warblers the 
redstart seems to be the most indefatigable in pursuit of 
caterpillars, capturing even the most repugnant species. 
The lists of birds feeding on the different species are not 
believed to be complete by any means. Most of them prob- 
ably attack the hairy and spiny species, the smaller birds 
taking them mainly when the catei*pillars are small and the 
larger birds when they grow larger. 



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No. 4.] BIRDS AND WOODLANDS. 319 

Injury done by Bibds to Woodlands. 
There can be no doubt that some slight injury may be done 
to the trees by birds. The grosbeaks and the purple finches 
eat buds and blossoms, grouse feed largely on young buds, 
crows and jays eat nuts, crossbills take the seed and buds 
Irom coniferous trees, and woodpeckers sometimes bore into 
sound trees ; but the injury done is so slight, compared with 
the benefits conferred by birds in protecting trees from their 
enemies and in distributing and planting seeds, that it need 
hardly be considered in making up the account. It is now 
said in favor of the much-abused sapsucker, that it is the 
perforations made by its beak which produce much of the 
appearance called '*birdseye" in the maple. This greatly 
increases the value of this tree for timber use. Forest birds 
appear to have been especially designed to maintain that . 
balance of forces in the forest which is essential to its preser- 
vation, and we may well fear that without their assistance 
profitable forestry would be impossible. In this matter there 
is no higher authority than the distinguished entomologist, 
Prof. S. A. Forbes of Illinois, who says that estimates of the 
average number of insects per square yard in that State give 
ten thousand per acre for the entire area, and that if on this 
basis the operations of birds were to be suspended entirely, 
the entire State in seven years would be carpeted with insects 
one to the square inch. This would certainly happen unless 
the insects were checked by some providential means. Pro- 
fessor Forbes says that this is intended only as an illustration, 
and not as a prediction of the consequences of the total 
destruction of birds, which he says would not be so simple, 
but apparently fully as grave. He also estimates that, should 
the people of the State succeed in taking measures which 
would increase by so much as one per cent the efficiency of 
the birds of the State as insect police, the efiect would be to 
save to the agriculturists of the State $76,000 per year; but 
he regards five times this amount as a very modest estimate, 
for he says the figures on which his estimates are made, " will 
be regarded by most naturalists as absurdly low.'** 

• Bnlletiii No. 3, lUinois State Laboratory Natural History, NoYomber, 1880, p. 81. 

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320 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

How TO mOREASE THE NUMBER OP BiRDS USEFUL IN 

Woodlands. 

Some practical lessons have been learned from the study 
of the food of the wood birds. As birds go where they find 
food most abundant, many birds of the swamp, field and 
orchard go from their usual haunts, one-half mile or more, 
to the woods to feed on insects plentiful there. Thus the 
bobolink in the meadow goes to the woods for aphides, and 
the oriole in the orchard and the blackbird in the marsh go 
there for caterpillars. On the other hand, the chickadee, 
blue jay, tanager and the warblers go from the woods to the 
orchards and gardens for caterpillars. In an orchard near 
the woods we noticed that the wood birds came frequently to 
those trees nearest the woods, and, by adding their work to 
that of those living in the orchard, soon cleared the canker 
worms from the trees nearest the woods. 

All our experience thus far goes to show that a well- 
watered country, where the woodland is kept mainly in 
detached patches, with the rest of the land more open, much 
of it well cultivated, with an occasional marsh or swamp, is 
best calculated to encourage the increase of the largest num- 
bers of species of birds. In such a country vegetation should 
therefore receive better protection from birds than in any 
other. In view of these facts, it is possible for a man buy- 
ing only from thirty to one hundred acres of land to so select 
his land and control the growth of vegetation upon it as to 
obtain the conditions requisite to secure an abundance and 
variety of birds. The first requisite to attract birds is a 
quantity of suitable food. To provide this, a diversity of 
vegetation is desirable. This provides not only a variety 
of fruit and seeds, but furnishes food for a large variety of 
insects, which will attract the birds. It is especially desir- 
able to have both wild and cultivated cherries and grapes ; 
and, if the birds take too large a proportion of the cultivated 
species, the earlier wild berries, like the Russian mulberry 
and the shadberry, should be planted, to draw the birds' 
attention from the cultivated fruit. Winter food may be 
furnished birds by planting mountain ash, sumach, bay berry 
and other berries, which cling to the trees or shrubs bearing 



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No. 4.] BIRDS AND WOODLANDS. 321 

them during the winter months. The winter birds may be 
induced to remain in some numbers by hanging bones, suet 
or portions of any carcass in sheltered places on the trees. 
These will furnish food for them when the trees are covered 
with ice, and, will keep them in the neighborhood during the 
coldest weather. Sunflower seeds, broken nuts, hay seed 
and grain will attract winter birds. 

Having secured food, the birds must have shelter from the 
elements and their enemies. This may be provided by 
planting thick evergreen trees in groups, and allowing a 
deciduous thicket here and there. Nesting boxes should be 
provided for those birds which will use them, and such boxes 
will shelter many a bird from winter storms. Nesting ma- 
terial, such as straw, feathers, waste string, etc., should be 
hung upon limbs during the nesting season. It will soon be 
utilized. Having made a locality attractive to birds, they 
must be protected and fostered. Birds soon learn to love a 
place where they receive a measure of protection from their 
enemies. We may protect them : — 

1 . By doing away with cats, so far as possible. 

2. By stopping promiscuous gunning. 

3. By suppressing birds'-egging boys. 

4. By keeping hawks, crows and jays within bounds. 

It is well not only to have a variety of trees in your wood- 
land, but also to have portions of it in different stages of 
growth. A small pat<5h of ground covered with young sprouts 
furnishes a desirable breeding place for such birds as the in- 
digo bird, brown thrasher, towhee and several warblers, all of 
which may be very useful in adjoining woodland. If each 
farm, wooded or otherwise, could be ideally situated and 
cultivated, with the protection and accommodation of birds 
always in view, it is doubtful if Paris green and other in- 
secticides would find a ready market in this Commonwealth, 
except, perhaps, in such cases as that of the gypsy moth, 
where man disturbs the balance of nature by introducing a 
new pest from a foreign shore. 



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322 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doo. 



SOME INSECTS INJURING MARKET-GARDEN CROPS. 



BT DB. H. T. FEBNALD, PROFESSOR OP ENTOMOLOGY, MASSACHUSETTS 
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



Market gardening in Massaehusetts is an important indus- 
try. Created by the growth of cities, it must increase as 
they do, in order to supply their inhabitants with the vege- 
table necessities of life. The successful market gardener is 
but a short distance from his market, and, in consequence, 
one of the first indications of nearness to the city a traveller 
sees on approaching it is a marked increase in the amount 
of cultivated land and of green-houses. In &ct, the market 
gardens supplying a city surround it in a broad and often 
almost continuous belt. 

The continuous acreage of crops thus produced is directly 
favorable to the rapid increase of those insects which attack 
the different kinds of market garden crops, and, as this in- 
dustry grows larger, we must expect an increased amount 
of injury from insect pests. Some of the more common of 
these and the most successful methods for preventing loss 
by them are here considered. 

The Asparagus Beetle (Oriocerts asparagi Itiun.) . 

This too familiar insect was introduced into New York 
from Europe about 1856, and is now generally distributed 
over the eastern United States. It passes the winter as an 
adult beetle, hiding in any protected place. In the spring, 
about the time the asparagus begins to appear above ground, 
the beetles leave their hiding-places and lay their eggs on the 
young shoots of the plant. The eggs are quite large, brown 
in color, and attached by one end to the plant. They are 
laid separately, but often quite close together in rows, and 
when abundant ai-e very noticeable on the asparagus tops. 
They hatch in from three to eight days, producing little gray 

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No. 4.] INSECTS AND GARDEN CROPS. 



323 



*^ grubs" with black heads. Each grub feeds an til full 
grown, which takes from ten days to two weeks, after which 
it leaves the plant, enters the ground and forms a small, 
rounded cocoon, within which it remains quiet for about a 
week, during which time the structure is changing to that of 
the adult beetle. When this change is completed the beetle 
escapes to feed, mate, and lay eggs for the next brood. 





Fio. 1.— The uxptnguM beetle: a, adult beetle; the line beside it ehowe the real length 
of the beetle. On the right a branch of asparagus, showing eggs, gmbs and beetles, 
natural size; also an asparagus tip with eggs, and places eaten out. (^From CMtUn- 
den. Yearbook, Dtpartment o/ Agriculture, 1890.) 



This brood has the same history as the last, and it is prob- 
able that a third brood is produced during the year, before 
cold weather drives the beetles into their winter quarters. 

The adult beetle is rather less than a quarter of an inch 
long, with a black head, red thorax, and yellow and dark- 
blue wing covers, the blue forming a stripe along the middle 



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gle 



324 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

of tke back, crossed near its middle by another of the same 
color and by a similar one near the hinder end of the body. 
Along the sides of the back the color becomes reddish. 

Injuries and Treatment. 

Injury to asparagus is caused both by the grub and the 
adult beetle feeding upon the shoots intended for market, 
and also upon the full-grown plants. 

For beds where cutting is done, a few shoots left here and 
there to serve as traps will attract the beetles to them if the 
other shoots are kept cut as fast as they grow to market size. 
The trap shoots should be cut about once a week and de- 
stroyed, others being then allowed to take their places. If 
this be continued for four or five weeks the egg supply of 
the beetles which winter over will be about exhausted, and 
if no young have found a chance to develop on volunteer 
asparagus near, the danger of damage from the later broods 
of the season will be greatly reduced. 

In the case of seed beds, dusting with fresh, air-slaked 
lime while the dew is on is quite effective, as the lime kills 
every grub it touches. That it is only those grubs which 
are touched by the lime which are killed, however, should 
be remembered by those who use this method. Allowing 
chickens to run in the asparagus beds is advantageous, as 
these feed freely upon the insects. Cutting down and burn- 
ing the seed stems two or three times a year is also a good 
practice, and is now considered not to be injurious to the 
plant. Finally, seveml kinds of insects prey upon the as- 
paragus beetle, and aid the grower to keep this pest in check. 

The Imported Cabbage Worm {Pier is rapm Schr.). 

This insect, like the asparagus beetle, is a native of Europe, 
and made its appearance in this country near Quebec about 
1859, since which time it has spread over nearly the entire 
United States. 

The insect passes the winter as a brown chrysalis, attached 
to some board, fence rail or other object. In the spring the 
chrysalis bursts open, setting free the white butterfly so com- 
mon around cabbage fields in summer ; and as soon as the 
cabbages are set out the butterflies begin to lay their eggs on 
the leaves, one in a place. The eggs are rather smaller thai 



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No. 4.] INSECTS AND GARDEN CROPS. 



325 



the head of a pin, pale yellow at first, but darker after a few 
days. They hatch in about a week, and the little caterpillars 
which come from them at once begin to feed on the leaves. 
At first pale yellow, the caterpillar as it grows becomes vel- 
vety green, and when full grown is more than an inch long. 




Fig. 2.— Imported cabbage wonn butterfly : male and female. 

It now crawls to some protected place, where it changes to 
the chrysalis form, — the same as that in which the winter 
is passed, — and becomes quiet while the internal organs of 
the caterpillar are being built over into those of the adult 
butterfly. When these changes have been completed the 
chrysalis bursts open and the adult butterfly appears, and 
egg-laying for another brood of caterpillars now begins. 
During the year there are three broods of these insects in 
Massachusetts, the winter being passed in the chrysalis stage. 

Treatment. 

Several methods may be used for control- 
ling this insect. Hot water applied at about 
130^ will kill the caterpillars usually without 
injuring the plants, but the disadvantage of 
this treatment upon a large scale is evident. 

Probably the best method to use is that 
of spraying with Paris green or arsenate of 
lead, as these poisons are very destructive 
to the caterpillars and without danger to the 
consumer, unless the spraying be done with 
extreme carelessness and shortly before the 
heads are cut. There are several reasons why this treat- 
ment is not dangerous. The head of the cabbage forms from 
within, only the very outermost leaves being at any time 
exposed to the poison, and these are removed in trimming 
the head for market. Then, too, the poison is chiefly needed 

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Fia. 3.— Imported cab- 
bage worm: a, full, 
grown caterpillar; ft, 
cbr}-Ball8. 



326 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub, Doc. 

on the outside leaves of the plant, where most of the cater- 
pillars occur, and these leaves are never cut with the head. 
Chemical analysis of heads heavily sprayed one week before 
cutting showed that not a trace of arsenic remained. Finally, 
if spraying be carefully done when the caterpillars first appear 
in spring and followed up until the head appears, the insect 
will in all probability be so reduced in numbers that spraying 
after the head is a quarter grown will be unnecessary, thus 
removing the last possibility of danger. 

This treatment for the cabbage worm is the usual one among 
some of the largest market gardeners in the country, and no 
case of arsenical poisoning from eating cabbage treated in 
this way has ever been reported. 

Other substances, such as alum, copperas and saltpetre, 
have been recommended for use against this insect, but are 
of no value. 

Recently a new treatment has been brought forward by 
the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, as being 
better than that recommended above. The material used 
is known as the resin-lime mixture, and is prepared as 
follows : — 

Stock eolation : — 

Palyerized resin, 5 pounds. 

Concentrated lye, 1 pound. 

Fish or any cheap animal oil, except tallow, . . 1 pint. 

Water, 5 gallons. 

Place the oil, resin and one gallon of hot water in an iron 
kettle ; heat till the resin is softened, then carefully add the 
solution of concentrated lye (prepared by the directions for 
making hard soap always given on the can) ; stir the mixt- 
ure and add the other four gallons of water, hot ; now boil 
till the mixture will unite with cold water and make a clear, 
amber-colored liquid; now add water enough to make up 
five gallons. 

With this as a stock solution, to spray, take : — 

Resin lime prepared as above, .... 1 gallon. 

Water, 16 gallons. 

Milk of lime, 8 gallons. 

Paris green, 1-4 pound. 



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No. 4.] INSECTS AND GARDEN CROPS. 327 

Bring these together in the order in which they are named, 
adding the Paris green last, stir thoroughly, and spray the 
plants. Do not prepare the spraying solution mixture, how- 
ever, till ready to use it, as it settles on standing. 

This treatment has been used with good success, and with 
reference to it the following statements are made : first, that 
by it late cabbage and cauliflower can be protected from the 
attacks of the cabbage worm and cabbage looper by two 
sprayings ; second, that in the case of cabbage the yield can 
be increased sixty to one hundred per cent ; third, that the 
cost per acre will depend on the number of acres sprayed, 
the cost of spraying ten acres twice being twenty dollars ; 
fourth, that the mixture must not be applied to cabbage dfter 
the heads are two-thirds grown, nor to cauliflower after the 
** flower" appears; fifth, that only skilled workmen should 
be permitted to spray cauliflower. 

In view of the amount of work necessary to prepare this 
mixture, and the amount of care necessary, as indicated by 
these last two statements, it becomes questionable whether 
the advantage gained by using it — a more thorough adher- 
ence of the spray to the leaves — is sufficient to pay for the 
extra expense and trouble. In any case, it is most likely to 
be of value where the acreage of cabbage is very large. 

The Squash Bug (Anasa tristia DeG.). 
The squash bug is a familiar insect in this country on 
squashes, melons and other cucurbits. The adult bugs pass 
the winter in any protected places they may find, and in the 
spring, after the squashes are well up, lay their 
eggs on the under side of the leaves. The 
eggs are light reddish-brown in color, and very 
noticeable on the leaves. They hatch in a 
little more than a week, producing small 
green-and-black young, somewhat resembling 
the adult, but without wings. These young FiG^i.-squJlh 
keep quite close together on the under side of ^'»«' «^^* ^^8» 
the leaves at first, but before long work toward 
the stems, all the time sucking the juices from the plant. 
They feed in this way and grow for about a month, the in- 
sects changing in appearance from time to time as they throw 

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328 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

off their outgrown skins, till finally, after the last of these 
molts, the changes brought about in this way produce the full- 
grown adult bugs, which proceed to lay eggs for a second 
brood. These develop in a similar manner, and many of 
this brood have become adult by the time cold weather ap- 
proaches, when they leave the plants to seek protected places 
in which to pass the winter. 

Treatment. 

This insect does not lend itself readily to treatment. No 
stomach poison is of any use, as both the young and adult 
only suck the juices of the plant, and contact poisons such 
as kerosene fail to kill any except the youngest, unless used 
so strong as to destroy the vines. Under these circumstances, 
other methods must be resorted to. 

It is evident that, if all the bugs which pass the winter 
could be destroyed, no spring brood could be possible. As 
to do this is impracticable, however, efforts should be made 
to reduce their numbers as much as possible. At all times, 
but particularly when the nights begin to grow cool in the 
fall, these insects tend to leave the plants towards dark 
each evening, and seek protection under fallen leaves, sticks, 
pieces of board, etc., on the ground. If shingles or pieces 
of bark be placed near the plants at such times, an early 
visit in the morning will show many thus collected, where 
it is easy to kill them. Burning the vines as soon as the 
crop has been gathered, and clean cultivation, reducing the 
number of places where protection during the winter may be 
found, also aid in reducing the number of these pests ; while 
a frequent examination of the under side of the leaves of the 
plants in June and the destruction by hand of all eggs and 
young found will prove to be of sufficient value to more than 
pay for the time required to do this. 

Other methods which are of value are : the protection of 
young plants by coverings, if the bugs appear while the 
plants are still small; applying land plaster well soaked 
with turpentine or kerosene to the ground near the stems ; 
planting an excess of seed, and forcing the rapid growth of 
the plant by fertilizers. All of these are of value, but un- 
fortunately no one of the methods here suggested can be 
relied upon alone to accomplish the destruction desired. 

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No. 4.] INSECTS AND GARDEN CROPS. 329 

The Squash-vinb Boreb {MeliUia aaiyriniformis Hbn.). 

The presence of this pest to squash growers is easily rec- 
ognized by the sudden wilting and dying of the squash 
leaves during July. Its work is so rapid that frequently 
the wilting and death of the plants is the first indication of 
its presence, when it is not a familiar insect to the market 
gardener. 

The squash-vine borer passes the winter in the ground, 
inside a silken cocoon coated on the outside with particles 
of dirt. The adult moths which come from these cocoons 
appear around the plants during the first two weeks in July, 
in Massachusetts (Harris), and proceed to lay their eggs on 
different parts of the vines, though the stems are preferred 
for that purpose. 

A female moth may lay over two hundred eggs scattered 
about in this way, and from them little caterpillars will 
hatch in from one to two weeks and begin to bore through 
the stems. Feeding inside the plant, after four weeks or 
more the caterpillar becomes full grown, whereupon it leaves 
the stem and burrows down into the ground for two or three 
inches, where it forms' a cocoon within which to pass the 
winter. In Massachusetts there is but one brood each year. 
Further south, however, a tendency to produce two broods 
is evident, and in the Gulf States there are doubtless two 

full broods. 

Treatment. 

This would be an easy insect to destroy if the caterpillar 
fed on the outside of the plant, where some arsenical poison 
could be placed. Working where it does, however, this 
method of treatment is not available, and others must be 
employed instead, no one of which should be relied upon 
alone, but all be used together. 

Fall harrowing of the fields where squashes have been 
grown during the summer is very effective. This brings the 
cocoons up from where the insects had placed themselves to 
the surface, where they are exposed to freezing and thawing 
during the winter. This, followed by plowing in spring to 
a depth of more than six inches, will destroy many of the 
insects. 

Good results are also obtained by planting a few summwj 

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330 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

squashes, such as cymblins or crooknecks, as early as possi- 
ble, before the main crop, and between the rows which they 
are to occupy. Such trap plants atti*act most of the borers, 
which leave the later varieties comparatively unmolested. 
Of course as soon as the crop fi^om these trap plants has 
been gathered, or when the ground they occupy is needed 
(if later than the last of July), the vines should be raked up 
and burned, to destroy any eggs or caterpillars they may 
contain. 

When the borers have once attacked a vine, nothing better 
than cutting them out is available. If the vines be watched 
during July, the presence of borers is soon shown by the 
presence of the yellowish, powdery excrement of the eater- 
pillars, which is forced out from the stem to the ground 
beneath. When such traces of the presence of borers are 
found, the stem of the plant should be split lengthwise and 
the borers be taken out and killed, after which the split 
should be covered with dirt to aid in healing. If the plants 
have been induced to throw out roots at diflferent points 
along the stems, by covering them with a little earth at in- 
tervals as they grow, the injury caused by splitting the 
stems to get out the borers is greatly lessened. 

Catching and destroying the moths as they fly about the 
plants has also been practised in some places, with good 
success. 

Besides the squash, the pumpkin, gourd, muskmelon and 
cucumber are sometimes attacked by this insect. 

Striped Cucumber Beetle {DtabrottcavittataFah.). 

This insect is a general nuisance over the greater part of 
the United States. The black and yellow stripes along its 
back make it very noticeable, while the injury it causes 
is frequently so great as to almost prevent the raising of 
cucumbers at all. 

About the time the young cucumber plants are just ap- 
pearing above ground, and frequently even earlier, the beetles 
leave the hiding-places in which they have passed the winter, 
and gather about the plants. Not satisfied to wait for these 
to reach the surface, they often burrow into the ground to 
meet them, and begin feeding, while as soon as the leaves 



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No. 4.] INSECTS AND GARDEN CROPS. 331. 

appear they gather upon them and upon the stem, which is 
ojften cut completely off by the insects. Later, older plants 
are injured by the beetles, while the young are at work at 
the roots. 

The eggs of the beetle appear to be placed on the stalks 
of the plants, just below the surface of the ground, and alter 
a time each hatches, producing a little slender, worm-like 
form, which feeds on the cucumber roots and other parts of 
the plant which touch the ground till full grown, when it is 
a little more than a quarter of an inch long. After attaining 
full size the grub changes in the ground into a quiet pupa, 
which does no feeding and which remains in this condition 
from one to two weeks, according as the weather is warm or 
cold. When this period ends, the outside shell of the pupa 
bursts, setting free the adult beetle, which proceeds to lay 
eggs for a second brood. 

Just how many broods occur in Massachusetts is not 
known, but there are at least two and possibly three each 
year. 

TreatmenL 

No entirely successful method for holding this insect in 
check has as yet been found. In several ways, however, 
their ravages may be lessened at small expense. Where 
practicable, covering the hills with netting before the plants 
appear is of value, as by the time the plants are too large for 
the nets they have attained a size sufficient to enable them to 
withstand the injuries caused by insects, better than those 
just starting. A convenient form of netting cover is made 
by taking two pieces of board about six inches wide, and 
long enough to reach the plants of the hill. To the middle 
of each board nail a pointed piece of lath, in such a way that 
when the lath is driven into the ground the board will stand 
on edge and form one side of a box. Two such pieces may 
be placed at any desired distance apart, and cheese cloth be 
tacked on so as to form the top and the other two sides of 
the box. The chief advantage of such boxes is that on put- 
ting them away, at the end of their usefulness, very little 
space is needed in which to stow them. While in use the 
earth should be so packed against the box as to leave no 
space for the beetles to crawl under and thus reach the plants. 



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332 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Another treatment is to du8t the plants while the dew is 
yet on with a mixture of Paris green, one pound, and plaster 
or flour, seventy-five pounds, or else with air-slaked lime. 

As tobacco appears to be disagreeable to these insects, 
considerable success has been obtained by applying tobacco 
dust freely to the ground around the stems of the plants, and 
renewing the application after every rain. 

The cucumber beetle feeds on the squash and melon also, 
and, if a few squashes be planted early around the edges of 
the cucumber field, the insect will usually devote most of its 
attention to them. Spraying cucumber plants with Bordeaux 
mixture, once as soon as the seed leaves appear, again when 
the third true leaf develops, and lastly when the plants begin 
to run, not only makes the plants distasteful to the cucumber 
beetle, but to flea beetles, and protects them from various 
diseases to which they are subject. 

Root Maggots. 
Under this head may be included the onion maggot, cab- 
bage root maggot, turnip root maggot, etc. 





Fig. 6. — Oulon maggot ; adult fly at left; crossed lines below, showlug natural size. Onion 
plant at ri^ht, showing eggs of fly, and maggot working on stem below level of ground. 

The adults of these maggots are flies, somewhat smaller 
than the house fly, which appear in spring and lay their eggs 



Ot 



'^ 



|gTT]Tm» > 




Oa]o 

FiQ. 6. — Eggs of onion maggot, natural size and enlarged, at left; maggot, natural size and 
enlarged, in centre; pupa, natural size and enlarged, at right. t 

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No, 4.] INSECTS AND GARDEN CROPS- 333 

on the roots of the young plants. These eggs are smooth, 
white, and large enough to be seen by the eye. Upon hatch- 
ing, the little maggots they produce burrow into the stem, 
root or bulb of the plant, often causing a serious amount of 
damage. After feeding until full grown, the maggots leave 
the plant and become quiet pupae for a time, after which 
,the adult flies escape from them to lay eggs for another 
brood, of which there are two and perhaps more each year 
of the kinds here considered. 

TrecUmenL 

Many methods have been suggested for checking the rav- 
ages of these pests, but only a few are of any value. Pro- 
tection from the cabbage root maggot may be obtained by the 
use of tar paper cut to encircle the stems of the plants when 
these are set out, but the cost of preparing and applying the 
pieces reduces the value of this method. Before the appear- 
ance of the maggots the use of carbolic acid emulsion has 
been strongly recommended. To prepare this, a pound of 
hard soap or a quart of soft soap should be dissolved in a 
gallon of boiling water. Into this pour a pint of crude 
carbolic acid, and stir until an emulsion is thoroughly formed. 
To treat the plants, one quart of this, mixed with about thirty 
quarts of water, will give the required strength. In apply- 
ing this emulsion, begin the day aft»r the plants have been 
set out, or, if raised from seed, a day or two before they 
come up, thoroughly moistening the ground close to each 
plant with it, and particularly the stems just below the level 
of the ground, in the case of plants which have been set out. 
The object of this is to kill every egg and maggot present by 
actual contact with the emulsion. This treatment should be 
repeated every week or ten days till about the first of June. 
"Whoever has tried this emulsion thoroughly, reports suc- 
cess" (Slingerland). 

Another and apparently equally successful treatment is by 
the use of carbon disulphide. To apply this properly, an 
apparatus such as the McGowan injector is necessary. In 
using this, push the tip of the injector into the ground three 
or four inches away from the plant, and run it obliquely down 
to a point just below the roots ; then force about a teaspoon- 
ful of the carbon disulphide out of the injector into th&T^ 

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834 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

ground, remove the injector and close up the hole with earth 
pressed down by the foot. This treatment usually needs to 
be made but once, when the maggots first appear, but would 
probably be more effective with cabbage and cauliflower than 
with onions, turnips and radishes, where the carbolic acid 
emulsion treatment is preferable. 

Looking for and crushing the eggs and maggots by hand . 
is also highly recommended, where labor is cheap. 

Flea Beetles. 
Flea beetles of several kinds are often present in destruc- 
tive abundance on various plants early in spring. They feed 
on the tissues, making little holes, and when disturbed take 
sudden leaps which make it difficult to capture them. The 
young of these insects are stem and leaf miners, but rarely 
do sufficient damage to require treatment. For the beetles 
themselves, spraying the plants attacked, with Paris green, 
arsenate of lead or any of the stomach poisons is usually 
entirely effective; though, as various plant diseases often 
begin at the holes made by these insects, it is generally better 
to use Bordeaux mixture with a little of the poison added, as 
Bordeaux mixture appears to be successful against flea beetles 
as well as being a fungicide. 

Cut Worms. 

Under the name ** cut worms ^ are included the caterpillars 
of a large number of kinds of moths, which hide in the 
ground during the daytime and feed at night. 

In cases where these pests are known to be abundant in 
sod land which is to be cultivated, it is advisable to plow 
quite early in the fall, and apply the potash which is to be 
used at this time, kainit being strongly recommended by 
some writers as probably the best form of fertilizer to use 
for this purpose, as it is objectionable to the insects. 

Cut worms can also be destroyed by the use of traps. To 
prepare these, spray a small piece of clover or any juicy 
plant with one of the stomach poisons (one pound of the 
poison to fifty gallons of water) , and then mow it close and 
spread this poisoned food in little heaps here and there over 
the field, which should be ready for planting. The cut 

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No. 4.] INSECTS AND GARDEN CROPS. 335 

worms, finding nothing else to feed on, will eat this poisoned 
foody and a large proportion will be destroyed. 

Later in the season, if cut worms appear after the crop is 
up, protection from their ravages may be secured by mixing 
one pound of Paris green with fifty pounds of bran. When 
these are thoroughly mixed, add water and a little molasses 
till the whole is about like dough. A tablespoonful at the 
base of each plant is more attractive to the cut worm than 
the plant itself, and ten pounds should be sufficient to protect 
about an acre of potatoes or other crop planted in that way. 
Care, however, should be taken that fowls and other animals 
likely to feed on this poisoned food be kept away from it 
while it is exposed. 

This method should also be successful where cut worms 
are troublesome in greenhouses. 



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336 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doo. 



POULTRY KEEPING ON THE FARM. 



BT ARTHUR A. BRIOHAM, PH.D., KINGSTON, R. I. 



When requested to write "an article that will give hints 
to beginners and be a help to those who are about starting 
or thinking of starting in poultry and egg production,** my 
thoughts immediately went back to some of the experiences 
of my boyhood days on the old farm in Massachusetts. My 
memory recalls very vividly how one of my attempts to com- 
bine horticulture and poultry culture was brought to a sorrow- 
ful end, because of rats. As an ambitious young gardener, 
I had constructed a hot-bed, made two sashes to fit it, and 
had woven of rye straw a thick mat to cover the whole during 
cold nights. My early farming under glass prospered, and 
the plants had been transplanted to the open garden, where 
they were all, with the exception of the cucuml)ers, thriving 
finely. A severe frost one night destroyed the cucumbers 
completely, thereby teaching the young gardener a season- 
able lesson, and perhaps saving several members of the family 
from the dangers of ** summer complaint" later. 

The early hatched chickens were doing finely in their reg- 
ular quarters. A neighbor had that spring obtained some 
nice Bufi* Cochin fowls, and later in the season kindly fur- 
nished me with a sitting of their eggs. These were given to 
the care of a motherly sitting hen, and in due time four little 
golden puff-balls showed themselves. Where to place the 
yellow-feathered treasures was a puzzle, until the empty hot- 
bed was thought of as just the place to keep them safe and 
happy. Here for several days they flourished, to the great 
satisfaction of their young owner ; but pride goes before a 
fall. One day the four pretty creatures were found stark 
dead. The youthful poultryman had forgotten that as a 
gardener he had sought to poison the rats which invaded his 

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No. 4.] POULTRY KEEPING ON THE FARM. 337 

hot-bed ; and the diminutiye chicks proved that the rat poison 
was fatal to chicken life, if not to rodents. 

On another occasion, after faithfiil attendance at church 
services, one beautiful Sunday morning in spring the same 
amateur poultryman returned home to find about forty fine 
Brown Leghorn chickens, dead or dying, scattered about the 
yard. The morning mash for the chicks had unwittingly 
been mixed with water in which some salt meat had been 
boiled, and they rendered convincing testimony of the deathly 
danger to chicken life of too much salt in the food. 

The third catastrophe, which also brought its lesson, was 
the destruction in one night, by an army of invading rats, of 
some forty pigeons, practically cleaning out the loft. 

Experience is a dear if not altogether a lovable teacher, 
and we all have to learn from her to a greater or less extent. 
I have no great or appreciative respect for the poultryman 
who ^^ knows it all," and has closed his course in learning ; 
but my sympathy goes out to the one who is studying and 
advancing in poultry knowledge, particularly if he be an am- 
bitious and enthusiastic beginner in poultry keeping. 

On nearly every farm fowls are kept or found. Too often 
they are allowed to shift for themselves. Some farmers detest 
hens. Usually on every farm there is, however, some one 
who is interested in fowls, or at least desirous of the pocket- 
money which poultry may supply. I know well a Massa- 
chusetts dairy farmer who combines very successful poultry 
keeping with his dairy business. He is one of many such. 
Lately a Massachusetts farmer told me with great satisfaction 
of the copartnership which his two boys, one thirteen and 
the other nine years old, had formed for conducting the 
poultry business of the farm. These farmer boys are chips 
of the old block, and are making a success of the business. 
Sometimes it is the wife or daughter who takes care of the 
biddies, usually very successfully. Among the poultry women 
of my acquaintance I will mention one in New Jersey, who 
took the special course of instruction, with the pioneer class 
of 1898, at the Rhode Island College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts. Although not possessed of the best of 
healthy she has made a success of poultry keeping, and, will- 
ing to share her success, has, among other helpful things, 

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338 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

written a nice booklet for women, entitled *< Pocket-money 
in poultry culture," which I can heartily recommend to the 
wives and daughters on the farms of Massachusetts. 

The idea of special poultry farming on a large scale is ex- 
tending, and large poultry plants are being quite freely 
established ; but the great bulk of poultry products for the 
market will continue to come from the numberless small 
flocks scattered through the country. The large poultry 
ranches all together can supply but a very small proportion 
of the immense quantities of eggs and dressed poultry de- 
manded by an ever-increasing consumption of these articles 
of food. 

How SHALL THE BeGINNEB BEGIN? 

In the first place, do not commence on too large a scale, 
especially if you have had no experience with fowls. The 
necessaries are the same in kind that ai*e required in almost 
any productive business. If we were to discuss the things 
needful in establishing, maintaining and managing a special 
poultry farm or a great poultry plant, the factors to be con- 
sidered might be grouped under the terms land, capital and 
labor. The same means on a small scale are required for 
the little poultry plant on the general farm. There must be 
a place for the fowls, money must be invested in buildings, 
in good birds and in food and other materials ; and, finally, 
work is unavoidable in the care and management of the 
business. 

Location. 

Even poultrymen of experience often make mistakes in 
choosing a location for poultry keeping, hence it is well for 
the novice to consider the matter quite fully. If fowls have 
been previously kept upon the farm, the adaptability of one 
or more places for the purpose may have been tested. In 
any case, several things need to be carefully considered. 
The fowls, to do their best, must live in shelter and comfort. 
The land should not be wet, and stagnant water in the soil 
is especially to be avoided. A somewhat elevated slope, 
with a southerly or south-easterly aspect, if available, is 
usually preferred. A sandy loam soil in such a location is 
naturally well drained. If the soil is a strong, heavy clay, 
naturally too moist, it may be artificially underdrained by 



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No. 4.] POULTRY KEEPING ON THE FARM. 339 

means of tiles, and thus avoid the surplns moisture which 
seems to favor the development of influenza and roup in 
poultry. 

The atmospheric drainage is something equally important, 
though not often taken into account. Every one has noticed, 
in travelling over the roads, up hill and down dale, in the 
old Bay State, that the cool and oft;en chilly, moist, heavy 
air settles to the lower places, and tends to remain there. 
Fowls should live where the air surrounding them is at least 
fairly dry, even during the wet, stormy weather of the cooler 
seasons. The inclemencies of the weather, especially the 
extreme and sudden changes in temperature during the win- 
ter and spring, even in the best locations, test severely the 
strength of constitution of both feathered and unfeathered 
bipeds here in New England. Violent winds add greatly to 
the discomfort of fowls, if they are exposed to them. Where 
the houses and yards are frequently swept by searching 
winds, the fowls abandon the runs, neglect healthful, out- 
door exercise and huddle stupidly in their houses. It is also 
undesirable to confine the poultry where in the hot weather 
the air stagnates, and the sun beats down into the unpro- 
tected yards or close houses. Both the cold of winter and 
the heat of summer must be tempered for the comfort of the 
birds, if they are to thrive and do well for their owner. 
Shade must therefore not be forgotten in locating the yards 
or the ranges and the houses. Oftentimes the hen house 
can be placed where the apple orchard or some group of 
trees will furnish both shade and shelter. Fowls delight in 
the conditions found beneath low-growing pines and other 
evergreens. 

Fenced Runs and Free Range. 
One thing had best be definitely settled before attempting 
to keep poultry on the farm. The fowls should not be 
allowed to run at will within the garden or in and about the 
farm buildings. Nothing is more aggravating or disgusting 
than to have the nice vegetables or beautiful flowers scratched 
up, and the doorsteps, the porch, the paths and the farm 
machines and vehicles fouled with poultry droppings. Sepa- 
rate the poultry also from the other live stock of the farm. 

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340 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

This IS easily accomplished when undertaken in a business- 
like manner. If the fowls are to be kept near the fiEirm 
buildings, provide ample yard room, enclosed by wire fenc- 
ing. The best material for this purpose that I know of at 
this date is the M. M. S. poultry fencing, which is made of 
any height ordinarily required, with small meshes below and 
wider meshes above. It requires ordinarily but few posts, 
is easily put up and has a very neat appearance when in 
position. Another way of separating the fowls from the 
centre of &rm operations is to place the houses at a consid- 
erable distance from the farmstead, in a pasture, where the 
fowls will have free range. The latter plan may entail some 
extra travel by the attendant, and there is the risk in some 
localities of depredations by foxes, hawks or other wild ani- 
mals or thieves. The young, strong &rmer boy may find 
advantages in the second or so-called <* colony plan," while 
the housewife will probably find the fence enclosure near the 
&nn house preferable. 

The Houses and Yards. 
In a fickle and somewhat rugged climate like that of New 
England, shelter from the extremes of weather, which check 
the growth of the fowls and their egg production, is neces- 
sary. No doubt some of our domestic fowls, if turned loose 
in the woods, could adapt themselves to the natural condi- 
tions, and continue to exist ; but the process would certainly 
reduce their egg production, and probably their size. We 
attempt to provide, by means of proper shelter, a more 
equable and comfortable climate, and expect remuneration 
for this outlay of capital in the form of plump chickens and 
numerous eggs at a season when prices are satisfactory. 
Whatever the style or form of poultry building contem- 
plated, it should be so placed that storm water and surface- 
flowage water will flow away from and not into or under the 
house. For this reason, a knoll or spot where the ground 
slopes away from the site is a good place to select for the 
building. If the soil is liable to be soaked with water at 
any season, it is well to excavate one or two feet deep, and 
fill in with stones where the building is to stand. Tile 
drains may also be laid to conduct the soil water away from 

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No. 4.] POULTRY KEEPING ON THE FARM. 341 

beneath the house. Dryness within the house is further 
secured by raising the floor six inches to a foot above the 
level of the ground surrounding the house. 

The Kind op House. 
There are many forms of hen houses, some of them desir- 
able, others despicable. Each poultry keeper ought to make 
a study of this matter, as related to the particular conditions 
of his location and the scope of his plans. Too many hen 
houses are adapted only for winter conditions. The effect 
of each season and of all kinds of weather must be kept in 
mind, if the house is intended to provide a comfortable home 
for the fowls throughout the year. Winter and summer 
quarters and a scratching-shed may be combined in one 
house or in one room, if so desired. Perhaps I can best ex- 
plain several essential points in home architecture for poultry 
by describing, as well as I can in words, a house suited, 
under ficivorable conditions, for a flock of thirty farm fowls. 
It is not forbidden to build of stone or brick or concrete ; 
but I should construct the house of wood, and build on run- 
ners, so that it could be readily moved if it ever became de- 
sirable to change to a new location or to fresh ground. I 
think that in a house fairly well ventilated at least 30 cubic 
feet of air space should be allowed per fowl. For our thirty 
fowls we must then provide 900 cubic feet of interior space. 
This we can do if we make the foundation of the house in 
the form of an oblong, 15 by 10 feet, or of a square, 12 J by 
12^ feet, and give the roof an average height of 6 feet. The 
floor may be of boards, concrete, or of dry dirt to be renewed 
at intervals. Usually the house faces to the south or south- 
east. The house is highest at the front, and the roof slant- 
ing to the rear should have a sufficient pitch to readily shed 
rain and snow water. I must allow that this form is not 
very artistic or beautiful. It may, however, be improved in 
appearance by adding a narrow jet in front, pitching toward 
the south, and placing a little cupola containing a ventilator 
at the middle of the peak thus formed. The front should be 
constructed in the form of two large doors, which are to be 
opened out in bright, warm weather, allowing the sunshine 
to reach, during some part of the day, each and every part 



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342 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

of the room. Wire netting may be used to cover the front 
when opened. Thus the whole house is readily turned into 
a scratching-shed on pleasant winter days. A door about 3 
by 6 feet is placed at the east end, and a window consisting 
of a single sash at the west end and both near the front of 
the house. A single sash window is also placed in each of 
the large doors which form the front of the house. I might 
add that windows in poultry houses should be protected on 
the inside by hinged or sliding frames of wire netting, neatly 
fitted in place, not too close to the glass. 

Scantling (2 by 3) will answer for most of the frame work 
of the house, which is covered on the outside by common 
boards, and these again, both roof and sides, with sheathing 
paper and shingles. Our experience in a very windy loca- 
tion indicates that paper as an exterior covering is very 
liable to prove unsatisfactory ; between the boarding and the 
shingles, however, it acts as a very efiective nonconductor 
of heat^ and helps materially in keeping the house com- 
fortable. In extremely cold situations the bouse may be 
sheathed inside if necessary. 

FUKNISHING THE HoUSE. 

The interior fittings of the hen house should be as few and 
as simple as possible, and all easily removable, so that they 
can occasionally be placed out of doors in the sunshine and 
fresh air. The roosting platform may be placed 1 J or 2 feet 
above the floor, in the back part of the house. It should be 
made of boards, clear of knots, smoothly planed and closely 
fitted together. Roosts are not always needed, but if thought 
to be necessary may be made of 2 by 3 scantling, planed 
smooth, rounded at the upper edges and placed broadside 
down about 6 inches above the platform. To insure protec- 
tion of the fowls during the coldest nights from the danger 
of freezing their combs and becoming chilled, the space 
above the platform may be enclosed by a curtain, which in 
moderate weather is kept up out of the way. For nests 
nothing is simpler or better than small boxes, which may be 
placed beneath the platform and open towards the rear of 
the house. A feeding trough is easily made, in the form of 
a box 2 or 3 feet long and 6 inches wide, with sides 3 or 4 

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No. 4.] POULTRY KEEPING ON THE FARM. 343 

inches high. For holding the drinking water an iron or 
earthenware dish with flaring sides answers nicely. It may 
be placed on a little platform raised a few inches above the 
floor, and may be protected by a hinged frame with slatted 
sides and a slanting board cover. A box for holding a con- 
stant supply of oyster shells and grit may be hung at the 
side of the room. I hope that this rough sketch of a plan 
has made plain the desirability of so constructing a poultry 
house that the whole floor space will be available for use by 
the hens ; that it will catch the first rays of the sun in the 
morning, and, unless clouds interfere, be blessed by sun- 
shine in some part of the house throughout the day ; that 
the house may be tightly closed and yet well lighted in 
stormy or cold weather ; that it may be opened in front on 
warm days in winter and thrown widely open on three sides 
in the hot summer weather. 

The Yards. 
If the fowls are not to be allowed free range, then double 
yards should be provided, — that is, two yards for each 
house or pen of fowls. This plan allows the poultryman to 
cultivate the soil and grow a crop of green grain in one yard 
while the other is in use by the fowls. The ground is thus 
frequently freshened and green food is supplied to the fowls. 
The yards may, as already mentioned, be neatly and eco- 
nomically enclosed by special poultry fencing, which, for 
most satisfactory results, should be 6 feet in height. For 
the kind of fencing described, cedar or chestnut posts, 5 or 
6 inches in diameter, should be set at least 2 feet deep in 
the ground, about 15 feet apart. Gates wide enough to 
admit a horse and cultivator should be made for the yards. 
Frames of wood covered with wire netting will answer the 
purpose, or very neat iron gates may be purchased to match 
the fences. They should be placed conveniently near the 
house, and be connected by good strong hinges and latches 
to stout, erect, firmly set posts. 



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344 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Can the Hens' Home be made Attbactive in Appear- 
ance ? 
Instead of being a blot on the landscape and a disgrace 
to the fiEirm, the poultry house and yards should be made 
attractive to the eye. The shingles may be. left to nature, 
to be weather tinted in simple gray, or may with creosote 
stain be given any color desired to harmonize with the sur- 
roundings. The necessity of shade in summer gives oppor- 
tunity for pleasing effects in the arrangement of trees and 
vines in the yards and about the houses. Advantage may 
be gained by the use of fruit-bearing plants for this purpose, 
as is delightfully evidenced by a little poultry plant that I 
happen to know of in East Greenwich, R. I. Without large 
expenditure of capital, a number of neat poultry houses have 
been grouped among the large, beautiful trees at the rear of 
the dwelling-house. Fruit trees in the yards and grape- 
vines trained upon the fences furnish an agreeable shade in 
summer for the fine fowls, and an abundance of luscious fruit 
in the autumn for the refreshment of the owner and the 
numerous friends whom he delights to entertain. The effect 
is very happy in several ways, but I make mention of this 
aspect especially because of the pleasing harmonious part 
which this little poultry plant makes in the landscape at 
** Paradise Farm." 

Breeding the Bibds. 
All the preparations for properly housing the flock having 
been completed, next comes the momentous question of what 
breed to select and where to get the best fowls to start with. 
It is a problem for earnest study, and each poultry keeper 
must work it out for himself. Consider the market, the 
local conditions and your own likes and dislikes in the 
matter. In New England one will not usually go fiar wrong 
if he selects one of the so-called American breeds. The 
Barred and White Plymouth Rocks and the White Wyan- 
dottes are great favorites. Of more importance, however, 
than the breed is the quality of the individual birds selected. 
Every breed includes poor specimens, which would prove 
unprofitable under even the best of conditions, and your nice 

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No. 4.] POULTRY KEEPING ON THE FARM. 345 

new poultry bouses should shelter only first-class business 
birds. Here is opportunity for the wise use of considerable 
capital and brains as well. If you have had some experience 
in selecting fowls and know a good bird when you see it, all 
the better for yourself and your poultry business. If you 
have a lot of mongrels or fowls of mixed blood, work them 
off as you find opportunity to do so advantageously, and 
purchase of some reliable breeder of really first-class poultry 
a pen or at least a trio of the best fowls he will sell you, and 
pay the price. You may prefer to purchase several sittings 
of eggs from such a poultry man, and commence your flock 
of thoroughbreds in this way. This is successfully done in 
some cases, but there is often the risk to run of disappoint- 
ment, besides delay in getting well started. When your 
valuable fowls begin to lay, keep a record of their eggs, 
using trap nests if necessary ; and in hatching note which 
eggs produce the most and the best chicks. As the chicks 
grow and develop, note which ones are the most thrifty, 
which are the earliest to mature, which are plump enough 
for the table at any age, which develop into early layers, 
which resemble most their parents and in what respects, and 
which come nearest the type of the breed. Study all the 
characteristics, with the idea of learning which birds to select 
for future breeders. (It is not best here to enter into a dis- 
course upon the principles of breeding, but any one especially 
interested will find something bearing upon this subject in 
the twelfth and thirteenth annual reports of the Rhode Island 
Agricultural Experiment Station.) In the poultry business 
it is rarely best to have but one string to your bow. In 
exceptional cases it may be well to depend almost wholly 
upon the sale of eggs for the income, in others to raise 
broilers, young roasters or mature fowls for the market ; but 
usually it is well to combine some or all of these, and to 
also sell eggs for hatching, and dispose of surplus high-class 
birds for breeders. Combine as many sources of income as 
are profitable, and push the lines that are most renumerative. 
It is with this idea in mind that I have strongly advised the 
purchase of the finest fowls obtainable. The next step is to 
improve them, which can be done if the poultryman will 
persist in his study of the individual fowls, watch the results 

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346 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

of his matings, learn to trace cause and effect, and provide 
better surroundings and conditions than the fowls have 
previously been accustomed to. 

Hatching and raising the Chicks. 

If only one hundred or two hundred chicks are to be raised 
each year, it is certainly a safe and wise plan to depend 
upon hens to do the hatching and brooding. Pullets which 
prove to be good sitters and mothers may usually be de- 
pended upon to do still better in these respects the next 
year. If a hen house or room in some farm building is 
available, an excellent plan is to place a large number of 
nests in it, and devote the same to the exclusive use of the 
sitting hens during the hatching season. Orange crates or 
soap boxes will answer for nests if the poultryman wishes to 
be very economical. Each nest should be provided with a 
lattice door in front. I like the idea of placing in the box 
two or three inches of loam beneath the nesting material, 
which usually consists of soft hay or cut straw. If con- 
venient, move the broody hens at night to their new nests, 
and allow them to sit for a day on nest eggs, unless you are 
sure enough of their good character as sitters to immediately 
place under them the eggs which they are to incubate. Re- 
move the hens from their nests daily at a regular time, 
supplying them with fresh water, whole com or other grain, 
and provide an abundance of dry, fine soil, so that the fowls 
can freely and fully dust themselves. Use plenty of Pyre- 
thrum powder or other insect destroyer in the nests and on 
the fowls, working it thoroughly in among their feathers. 
Spray the room once a week with a one per cent solution 
of carbolic acid, and remove or cover with dust the drop- 
pings of the fowls. Keep the room well ventilated, — in 
fact, make the conditions continuously healthy. 

If by using hens the chicks are not hatched sufficiently 
early in the season or in large enough numbers, or if you 
think that the hens can better employ their time in laying 
eggs than in hatching them, you are not forbidden to pro- 
cure an incubator and brooder, or, in fact, several of them, 
provided the business warrants the expenditure of capital 
for this purpose. It is easy to learn to run an incubator. 



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No. 4.] POULTRY KEEPING ON THE FARM. 347 

The chief difficulties in chicken culture come before and after 
incubation. They are found in the successful breeding of 
fowls to lay eggs that possess strong fertile germs, capable 
of producing vigorous chicks, and in successfully raising the 
creatures, after hatching, to marketable size or to maturity. 

Artificial Mothers. 
A study of the brooder problem at the Rhode Island Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station sheds considerable light upon 
the subject of the artificial raising of chickens. According 
to Bulletin No. 61 of this station, the causes of the numerous 
deaths of incubator chicks raised in brooders may be grouped 
under : — 

(a) Heredity, or to environment during the period of 
incubation. 

(b) Mechanical causes. 

(c) Imperfect sanitation, 
(rf) Improper feeding. 

Under the first heading (a) a hint is given that successive 
alternate periods of heat and cold during incubation are re- 
sponsible for a large proportion of abnormalities in chicks. 
Experiments recently undertaken in Germany have strongly 
emphasized this matter. 

Among mechanical causes (b) are included crowding and 
huddling, which, though inexcusable, are far too prevalent, 
because of the ambitious desire of the poultryman to keep 
under one hover as many chicks as possible. The remedy is 
evidently to be found in not crowding. Twenty-five chicks 
are as many as the novice, at least, should attempt to accom- 
modate under one hover. 

Under imperfect sanitation (c.) is included lack of pure air, 
sunlight and cleanliness. Tuberculosis, for example, is by 
these conditions given an excellent opportunity to attack the 
little creatures. Prevention is in this case the best plan. 
The hovers should be removable, and, if placed out of doors 
on bright days in the fresh air where the sunshine can get at 
them, the germs of this dread disease soon succumb. Care- 
ful spraying of the interior with a one per cent solution of 
carbolic acid helps to keep the conditions sanitary. 

Under the head of improper feeding (d) very striking 



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348 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

results were obtained by feeding different lots of chickens 
rations which varied in the extreme. The experiment with 
the chicks kept in the brooders showed at the end of thirty 
days, in the lot fed on egg, liver and green stuff, a mortality 
of 63.7 per cent, chiefly from digestive troubles, resulting 
in diarrhoea. The lot fed on grain alone showed a loss by 
death of 32.7 per cent, mainly from digestive troubles, 
strongly indicated by abnormal enlargement of the gall 
bladder. The lot fed on grain and green stuff suffered a 
mortality of 9.5 per cent. The lot fed a complete balanced 
ration of egg, meat, grain and green stuff had a death list 
of only 3.5 per cent. By using the proper amount of animal 
food with the grain food and supplying the necessary green 
food, a large proportion of the untimely and unnecessary 
deaths may evidently be prevented; provided, of course, 
that due attention be given to the other factors of environ- 
ment, and to the breeding from vigorous, healthy parents. 
Another phase of the brooding problem relates to the 
degree of shelter, the maintenance of a proper temperature 
and ventilation for the chicks. The sudden variations of 
the weather during winter and spring in New England make 
it desirable that there be provided four degrees of protection 
or comfort for brooder chickens : — 

1. An inviting, properly ventilated hover, kept continu- 
ously, uniformly and sufficiently warm, to which the chicks 
may at any time resort, as they would do to the mother hen, 
and warm up. 

2. A ventilated, lighted brooder or apartment, warm 
enough to protect the chicks from chilling on raw days and 
sufficiently attractive to tempt them from the hover as much 
as possible. 

3. A run protected from winds and storms by being en- 
closed within a brooder house, or, if outside, covered with a 
hot-bed sash. 

4. An outside yard, available in pleasant weather, into 
which even the youngest chicks should be tempted by litter, 
grain, green food and scraps whenever the sun shines and the 
winds are not too severe. In some way the chicks must be 
provided with a sure refuge, where they will be comfortable 

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No. 4.] POULTRY KEEPING ON THE FARM. 349 

whatever the weather. They should, however, by every 
means possible be induced to keep out in the fresh air and 
take exercise as they would with the mother hen in the 
pleasant spring weather. These hints will also apply to a 
considerable extent to chicks raised by the natural method. 
One of the secrets of successful chicken raising is to keep 
them constantly growing. To do this, no condition can be 
tolerated which gives the animal a check in its development. 
As soon as the young pullets can be distinguished from the 
cockerels, the birds of different sexes should be separated, 
and the pullets at any rate should be given free and abun- 
dant pasture range. They will thus obtain a sure supply of 
green food, and will usually find considerable animal food in 
the form of grasshoppers, worms and various insects, which 
will help to balance the grain food commonly supplied them. 
The poultryman is fortunate if he is able to pasture the 
growing birds where they can easily find running water to 
drink. 

Selling the Products. 

Sell direct to the consumer, if possible. Dispose of the 
poultry products at the time when the condition of the same 
and the state of the market yield the greatest net profit. In 
some localities a chicken will bring more as a broiler (at one 
or two pounds) or as a young roaster (three to four pounds) 
than at maturity, and the food and care necessary for the 
added growth and weight may be saved. In culling out the 
chicks to be killed and sold as dressed poultry, do not sacri- 
fice the promising young thoroughbreds. Save them for 
breeders, to replenish your stock, and, in case of a surplus, 
especially of cockerels, to sell to other poultiymen. In dis- 
posing of eggs, some poultry keepers find it profitable to sell 
to special customers, who are ready to pay more than the 
market price for them. Ordinarily, however, the eggs will 
go into the regular market. Even in this case it pays to be 
careful that the product is fresh laid, clean and uniform in 
size and color. This problem of the successful disposal of 
poultry products after the labor and care of their production 
is one which varies greatly, according to the conditions in 
each case. It must be studied out on the spot. Fortunate 

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350 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

will it be for the profits if the poultry keeper is a shrewd 
salesman. One thing at least should be insisted upon : the 
farmei'^s wife or son or daughter who undertakes to care for 
the poultry should receive the income which comes from all 
products sold, and full value for all eggs and chickens fur- 
nished for the table. The laborer in the poultry yard is 
worthy of his hire. 

The Poultry Keeper should be an Account Kjjbper. 

One thing further I desire to emphasize most earnestly ; 
that is, the keeping of records and accounts. Here is where 
most farmers and poultrymen lack. They do not know act- 
ually how their business stands financially, and are really 
often working at a great disadvantage, because they do not 
actually realize which part of their farm operations are 
bringing profit and which are entailing loss. In the case of 
the poultry keeper, the matter is not one of difliculty and 
need not require much time. A record should at least be 
kept of the eggs laid daily by each flock or pen of fowls ; 
and after the doing of this has become a habit, it will not 
require much urging to induce the interested poultryman to 
keep individual records of the egg production of his best 
breeders. 

The financial record is also a simple afiair. An inventory 
is made at least once a year of all the capital invested in the 
land, the buildings, fences, furnishings, tools, fowls, and of 
the estimated value of the poultry products on hand. The 
sum total of all these values is, in commencing the account, 
charged against the business; that is, placed on the debit 
side of the account. Then, during the year (or shorter 
period of time, if desired), everything that is purchased, in- 
cluding food, tools, lumber, nails or supplies of any kind, 
new fowls, etc., and every hour of labor at a fair price, is 
charged against the business. On the other hand, the value 
of every egg and every fowl sold or used for the house table 
and of everything that is disposed of, including the poultry 
manure and the feathers if they can be sold, is placed on the 
credit side of the account. At the end of the year, or, in 
fact, whenever the poultryman wishes to balance his ac- 



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No. 4.] POULTRY KEEPING ON THE FARM. 351 

counts, a new inventory is made of all the belongings of the 
poultry plant, including new purchases, fowls, tools, etc., 
and the estimated value of all the poultry and poultry prod- 
ucts and food on hand. The sum of these is placed on the 
credit side of the account. The difference between the total 
amounts of the debit and credit sides of the books should 
show the actual profit or loss. We will hope that it is a 
good round sum on the right side of the account. 



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REPORT 



State Board of Agriculture 



ON TBI WORK or 



EXTERMINATION OF THE GYPSY MOTH. 



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C0mm0ni0taIt^ b{ IRassat^tiSftts, 



To the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, 

Your committee in charge of the work of exterminating 
the gypsy moth presents herewith a repoii; of work per- 
formed during the year 1900. 

In common with other State departments, your committee 
is authorized to continue its operations during the month of 
January, ** until the pleasure of the General Court is made 
known, at the rate of expenditure authoiized by the appro- 
priations for the preceding year." Under this law your 
committee continued its field work as described below, 
throughout the month, at the end of which time all the 
employees were discharged, with the exception of a few offi- 
cers whose services were required in completing the accounts, 
o^^llecting tools and other work incident to closing up field 
operations. 

During the month, as weather permitted, scouting was 
prosecuted, as rapidly as was consistent with thoroughness, 
in Boston, — particularly in the outlying wards of Roxbury 
and Dorchester, — in Saugus, Swampscott and Reading. 
One feature of this work was the finding in Dorchester of a 
few scattered egg-clusters near the Neponset bridge and a 
small, compact colony at Cottage Street. Another feature 
of a more gratifying character was the result of a thorough 
inspection of Franklin Park by expert employees. It will 
be recalled that some years previous a serious colony of the 
moth existed in this park. This inspection confirmed the 
results of recent examinations, no trace of the moth being 
found. 

At other times, during and following storms, attention 
was given to clearing up infested woodland in Swampscott, 

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356 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Melrose, Winchester, Newton and Belmont. The woodland 
thus treated had been found slightly infested during the pre- 
vious year, and the destruction of underbrush and dead trees 
was a necessary measure to provide for the capture by bur- 
laps of the straggling survivors later in the season. Experi- 
ence has shown the profitableness of this practice, and the 
woodlands so treated were put in excellent condition for 
burlapping the following summer. Had we been able to 
attend to the burlapping as in past years a large number of 
colonies would have been exterminated. 

Mr. F. C. Moulton has been employed for the entire year, 
and has had charge of the material, tools, etc., stored at No. 
17 Russell Street, Maiden. He has taken an inventory of 
the stock and noted the condition during the season in all 
sections of the infested territory. The secretary of the 
Board has also visited the different localities, to examine 
colonies or confirm reports, as often as his other duties 
would permit. This committee has also visited the territory 
several times, and the results of these investigations are 
summarized below, the statements under this head being 
mainly a condensation of Mr. Moulton's report. 

Condition of the Infested Territory. 
In general, the gypsy moth has made gains during the 
year. In towns and places ready for extermination in 1899 
the moth has made a great gain, so much so that in places 
they begin to attract attention. Belmont has sent in a 
number of complaints, and there have been several from 
Maiden and some from Medford and Everett. The moth has 
been found in considerable numbers in all those colonies not 
cleaned out last fall. Among these are the Young colony 
in Burlington, the Cottage Street colony in Boston, the 
Spring Street colony in Belmont and the Brooks estate at 
West Medford. 

Maiden. 

Maiden is generally infested, and nests on street trees in 
the residential parts of the city are quite common. On 
Middlesex Street, on Converse Street and in the northern 
part of the city there are many nests. Complaints have also 



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No. 4.] THE GYPSY MOTH. 35^ 

been received from Eastern Avenue. Highland Terrace, in 
the woods north of Forest Dale Cemetery, is infested. As 
many as sixty caterpillars under one burlap were found here 
(these burlaps are those put on by the employees of the 
gypsy moth committee in 1899), and several hundred de- 
stroyed in a very short time. In Section 5 larvsB were quite 
plentiful this summer, from one to twenty-five under each 
burlap in the central part of the colony. In woodland off 
Lebanon Street from one to six were found under nearly 
every burlap. 

Everett. 

Everett is generally infested in nearly every part. The 
moth has made a great gain in some parts of the city. A 
very large tree stands on Main Street, which is infested with 
nests of the moth. One from the ground can count fifty 
nests on this tree. The branches of this tree reach completely 
across the street. 

Medford. 

Medford is becoming generally infested. There is a tree 
containing fifteen or more nests close beside the entrance to 
the Medford livery stable. Nests can be found in nearly any 
part of Medford woodland. General Lawrence has done good 
work in destroying the moth on his property ; Mr. Albert 
F. Sise has also done good work in this direction. Colony 
9 is infested. The estate of Walter Wright is badly infested. 
Five hundred larvae were counted under and around one bur- 
lap on this estate, and not over two-thirds of the larvae in the 
mass were counted, there being at least seven hundred under 
and around that one burlap. Mr. Wright's man reported 
that he killed twenty-eight thousand larvae in a space of thirty 
feet square. The Metropolitan Park Conmiission had several 
men at work all summer on and around Pine Hill. At West 
Medford the Brooks estate is badly infested. Sixty feet of 
a large and beautiful evergreen hedge on this estate were 
completely defoliated and Mlled this season. 

Melrose. 
In Melrose the moth has made a great gain. Wyoming 
Cemetery and vicinity are generally infested. Park Street is 



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358 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

infested on the north side. On Mountain Avenue larvae were 
found on nearly every tree. 

Winchester^ Arlington and North Lexington. 
No bad places have been found. The colony at North 
Lexington was exterminated several years ago, and nothing 
was found there this year. 

Bdmo^it. 
There are several infested places in Belmont. A good 
many larvae were found at the head of Prospect Street. A 
row of quince bushes off Alexander Street contained about 
one hundred nests. Four willow stumps on Spring Street 
have probably one thousand nests on and around them. 

Burlington. 
The Young colony off Spring Street is a very bad place. 
The bank wall, rubbish and empty cans there are full of 
nests, probably thousands. This colony is in the yard of a 
mai'ket gardener, and the caterpillars are likely to be distrib- 
uted over his route. The Cummings colony was well cleaned 
out, and there are but few nests at present. There are fifty- 
one trees here that are dead as a result of two years* strip- 
ping. 

Newton. 

The efficient street commissioner, Mr. Ross, did good 
work in destroying the laiTee last spring, so far as he was able 
with the resources at his command; nevertheless, Newton 
Highlands is quite generally infested. 

8augu8. 
No bad places have been found, but the nests are widely 
distributed. 

Lynn. 

No badly infested places were found. A hasty inspection 
of the residential portion of the city revealed no nests. 

Georgetown. 
A hasty inspection revealed only one nest, found near the 
centre of the area burned over. 

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No. 4.] THE GYPSY MOTH. 359 

The foregoing is a summary of the condition of the infested 
territory, so far as we could determine it with the limited 
appropriation at hand. 

The fuller notes are at the disposal of any interested. 
These notes are valuable, as confirming the thorough and 
exact information in regard to the condition of the temtory 
given the Legislature of last year. 

In the report made to the Legislature in Januarys 1900, 
your conmiittee summarized the condition of the infested 
region in the following words : — 

From the results of the past two years, it is evident that the 
work against the gypsy moth in Massachusetts is already approach- 
ing its final stages. The large colonies have been practically wiped 
out ; many of the smaller colonies have been exterminated or are 
thoroughly under control, and need but two or three seasons' work 
to secure their absolute extermination. Three years ago there 
were many localities in the infested district where there were large 
masses of egg-clusters ; to-day the infestation of the region con- 
sists of the scattered remains of former colonies and their off- 
shoots, which must be subjected to continual examination and 
treatment for a series of years. Since there are no longer large 
colonies to demand attention, a greater amount of labor will be 
available for the work of inspection and the treatment of the 
smaller colonies. 

« 

These statements were made only after careful examination 
of danger points and thorough inspection in the vicinity of 
former colonies. Your committee believed these statements 
to be a fair and honest summary of the conditions then exist- 
ing. The results of the past season give ample proof that 
such conditions did exist. With no effort to check the 
increase of the moth, there has been no serious damage by 
the pest, except in small areas that could have been readily 
controlled, had there been any funds available. This veri- 
fies in the best possible manner the summary just quoted, 
and shows that, at the time the work of the committee was 
checked by the Legislature, the moth was well under control, 
and its total extermination already in sight. 

These indisputable results were accomplished in the face 
of the most discouraging dijBculties. The Legislature of 

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360 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

1891 directed the Board to provide and execute measures 
for the extermination of the gypsy moth. This action was 
in response to a public demand. That Legislature and those 
following believed in extermination ; so did this committee 
and the Board of Agriculture ; and the result, as declared 
by the investigating committee of the Legislature of 1900, 
that '* There are to-day, so far as known, no large colonies," 
proved the wisdom of the Legislatures and the Board. 
While there were those who, ell these years intervening 
between 1891 and 1900, questioned the policy of extermina- 
tion, and while the conmiittee was handicapped and the work 
hindered by delayed action and inadequate appropriations, 
nevertheless the Board, the committee and the Legislature 
never gave up the idea of extermination from the first day 
until the close of the work this year. This view was in 
accord with the counsels of all economic entomologists of 
note throughout the country who had investigated the work. 
With this view the work was carried forward with success 
each year and the end was near at hand. 

The Board of Agriculture did not seek this work ; it was 
thrust upon it by the State. Its members have received no 
compensation for services which have been freely given. 
The work of the Board in procuring the enactment of the law 
against worthless fertilizers was for the benefit of the farmer 
largely ; in its grand record in stamping out pleuro-pneumo- 
nia, cattle owners and beef producers were most deeply inter- 
ested, and its perfect success has saved millions of dollars to 
the country ; but in this case the work is not primarily for 
the farmer only. This insect is located largely in the metro- 
politan district ; it feeds on every green thing ; the ever- 
greens are killed by a single defoliation ; the deciduous trees 
will withstand two defoliations, unless leafless for too long a 
time, as in the Burlington colony. 

The investigating committee of the Legislature of 1900 
made its report. We will not criticise it, but, that its find- 
ings may have due weight and just consideration, we place 
on record, for the perusal of those who may in the future 
examine into this subject, as a part of this report, the testi- 
mony of one who was a member of the second Gypsy Moth 

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No. 4.] THE GYPSY MOTH. 361 

Commission and secretary of this committee during all the 
work, as given before the committees on ways and means 
and agriculture of the House of Representatives, then sitting 
jointly to consider the report of this investigating committee. 
It will give the reader a hint of the conditions under which 
the investigating committee's report was sent in. 

Testimokt before ComnTTEES ON Wats and Means and Agri- 
culture, simNO JOINTLY, April 5, 1900. 

I have been much interested in this report of the investigating 
committee, and have examined it somewhat critically, and find 
that we have been condemned for our success in the enterprise. 
I find on the fourth page of the report that the investigating com- 
mittee say: ^^It has not been clearly demonstrated to the com- 
mittee that ihe actual damage done thus far has been of any 
considerable damage financially.'' Why is this? Simply because 
the gypsy moth committee, in whose charge the work has been, 
has succeeded in its work, — for which we are condemned. 
Again, they say: *' There are to-day, so far as known, no large 
colonies." Why? Simply because we have succeeded in our 
work, — for which we are condemned. Again, they say: **We 
find no substantial evidence that gardens, crops or woodlands have 
suffered serious or lasting injury." The reason for this is the 
same as given before. 

Again, the committee criticise the Board of Agriculture, on page 
5, and say that, «« the Board has fairly left itself open to adverse 
criticism in this particular," i.e., the dissemination of information 
as to the danger from the depredations of the moth ; and say : 
<^Such methods should not be tolerated." What is the Board of 
Agriculture for? What was the duty put upon the Board of Agri- 
culture by the Legislature in reference to the moth? Has it not 
been a part of its duty to inform the State as to the necessity for 
appropriations? How otherwise should the Legislature be able to 
judge whether the appropriation was necessary, and how much, 
and who was to give the information, if not those appointed by the 
State to do the work and care for it? 

The investigating committee say, also, on the same page : «' Con- 
tinued experiment and study have given us the most approved 
methods of defence and attack, and to cope with and check its 
spread is now a matter of comparative ease." To whom is the 
credit of this due, if not to the gypsy moth committee? Whq has 



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362 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

experimented and sought for expert advice of all men in the coun- 
try who were able to give such expert advice, and taken advan- 
tage of it to bring matters to their present condition, if not this 
committee? And this committee is condemned for its success. 
Again, the investigating committee say, on page 6: *' There are 
to-day no known colonies in existence and no immediate danger 
of serious outbreaks." Yet the committee in charge is con- 
demned, and the investigatora say suppression is all that is 
necessary. 

On the same page the investigating committee criticise those in 
charge of the work for the number of officials employed, as direc- 
tor, assistant director, superintendents, agents, inspectors, etc. 
As a member of the committee from the first year, I wish to say 
that the appointment of these officials was made necessary by the 
exigencies of the case. Being obliged every year, from the late- 
ness of the appropriations, to employ a large number of new men, 
having lost many of our best men, it was absolutely necessary to 
have a sufficient number of skilled and experienced men to instruct 
the new men. Each appointment, each increase of an official was 
made deliberately after investigation by the committee. These 
officials were in part made necessary by the immense amount of 
territory that had to be attended to. Work in thirty towns is quite 
different from work in a single shop, even though there may be 
several rooms in that shop ; and to enable those in charge to know 
and to keep in close touch with all that was going on, not one of 
those officers could be spared. 

Again, the report of the investigating committee says, on page 6 : 
** When it becomes necessary to suspend field work, owing to the 
exhaustion of funds, officials are retained, doing privates' work, 
at no reduction of salary." That is true, and it is true because 
the committee believed that to be the most economical plan for 
the Stale. These officials, superintendents, inspectors, etc., are the 
skilled men of the force, — men of the most experience, of the 
greatest reliability ; men the most capable, not only of directing 
the force, but of performing the work ; and they were retained for 
two reasons : first, because it was probable that the work would 
be again undertaken, and, if so, because of the loss of many ex- 
pert men, it was absolutely necessary to have a sufficient number 
of men capable of instructing the new hands; and, second, those 
men were retained because, if they were not given employment, 
being bright men, capable, and the kind of men everybody desires 
in their own work, they would get other employment, and we 



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No. 4.] THE GYPSY MOTH. 363 

woald be handicapped with no one to train the new force. Again, 
each one of these men is capable in field work of earning his 
advanced pay, be it three or four dollars a day, because of his 
superior capability, reliability and experience. Especially is this 
true in the case of expert field work^ which was largely the woric 
in which these men were employed when the privates were not 
employed. 

Again, the committee say, on page 8 : ^^ The system of scouting, 
necessary under the policy of extermination, is an expensive feature 
of the work; in its practical operation, ban-en of positive and 
justifiable results ; and, as ordinarily carried on, a manifest waste 
of money. Dozens of men racing through the woods a hundred 
yaixls apart, with the avowed object of locating nests and noting 
evidence of the existence of insects, present a ludicrous and con- 
temptible exhibition of inefficient management somewhere." The 
fact is that no such scouting is done. The nearest approach to it 
is when men have been sent to examine woodland to locate colonies 
where work may be started in the clearing of such woodland. How 
is the committee or anybody in charge of this business to find 
colonies without such examinations? 

The investigating committee say, on page 10: ^^Much of it 
[evidence] comes from unreliable and prejudicial sources, which 
hardly entitle it to a passing consideration." Yet they have lai^ely 
printed it here for the information or misinformation of the Legis- 
lature and the people. The fact is, Mr. Chairman, that a con- 
siderable part of the evidence of the wasteful . and extravagant 
expenditure of money, the lack of control of the men and bad man- 
agement and loafing came from two witnesses, ex-employees, whom 
you, Mr. Chairman, heard here last year ; and I want to say to 
you, having heard their evidence at both hearings, that it has en- 
larged several times over what they were able to give you then. 
From the nature of the case they can have had no further experi- 
ence, and the enlargement of the evidence must be for a purpose. 
Mr. Chairman, doubtless you can obtain the evidence of these two 
men from the stenographer's report for the investigating committee, 
and, if you will take the trouble to look it over and compare it with 
what was said last year, you will underatand to what I refer. Mr. 
Chairman, you remember how little weight the evidence of these 
two men had with your committee last year. With the investigating 
committee, the case seems to have been reversed. 

On page 12 the committee say : ^< Patronage should not be held 
out as a reward for legislative action." Patronage has never been 



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364 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

held out by anybody with authority to offer it. If it has been done, 
it has been by those without authority, or by men having no con- 
nection with the service. 

In reference to the statement on page 17 of the estimate made by 
^' the Board, through its chairman," in 1894, 1 want to say that the 
committee are entirely unfair in their treatment of these estimates, 
for, by their own statement in this report, on page 11, it will appear 
that the conditions of the estimate have not been at all complied 
with by the Legislature ; yet this investigating committee propose 
to hold the gypsy moth committee or the Board responsible for 
that estimate, when their side of the proposition has not been 
fulfilled. 

On page 20 the investigating committee say: ^^ The committee 
herewith submit the stenographic report of that portion of the 
testimony of one witness containing his views of the published re- 
ports of the Board ; " and say : " The quotations from these reports 
we make a part of this report ; the comments and criticisms of the 
witness are his own, and he alone is responsible for them. We 
make our own deductions." 

It is to be noted that the committee accepted these quotations 
from the reports without investigation as to their accui-acy, and 
say: *' We make the quotations from these reports a part of this 
report." 

In the first paragraph the witness quotes from an alleged report 
of 1890: "We have thoroughly investigated the outskirts, and 
found but one case where it was beyond the limits of our first in- 
vestigation." Now, Mr. Chairman, I want to say to you that there 
was no report in 1890. This matter was not put into the hands 
of the Board of Agriculture until 1891. The quotation could not 
have been in a report, for there was no report extant. Possibly 
he may have found a newspaper statement of what the first com- 
mission may have said, but the gypsy moth committee had nothing 
whatever to do with it. 

On page 21 this witness quotes from the report of 1891 : «'In 
the fall it was found only one- tenth as many as in the spiing." 
What the report said was: "It was found that in the section 
where they were most plentiful in the spring there were compara- 
tively few, not more than one-tenth the number there were last 
spring." An entirely different statement. Then, again, he 
quotes : *' If eggs can be gathered, few will appear in the spring, 
and can be easily destroyed." But the committee said: "The 
committee believes the work of gathering the eggs throughout the 



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No. 4.] THE GYPSY MOTH. 365 

entire district infested siiould be completed in the most thorough 
manner before the appearance of the eggs in the spring. If this 
can be accomplished, we believe that the numbers of the caterpil- 
lars that will appear in the spring will be comparatively small, and 
that they will be so much scattered that they can be found and 
destroyed without the spraying of the trees and shrubs of the 
whole country." 

Again, the witness quotes : ^^ Work throughout the season was 
so effective that all the large colonies have been destroyed.'* 
While this language is correct, it is entirely misleading, for the re- 
port says, afterwards: *' There is still a large area in which the 
eggs have not been destroyed." 

The quotations in reference to 1892 are not correct, but in them- 
selves are not particularly misrepresenting, but other modifying 
statements are ignored, thus in effect misrepresenting the commit- 
tee. The report for that year says: "There are lai^e areas of 
woodland in the infested towns. There are points in these forested 
districts known to be infested. There are probably other points 
where colonies have been established. There are about four hun- 
dred acres of woodland which will, if it is allowed to remain, con- 
tinue to be an uncertain element in our problem." 

The witness says, quoting from our report for 1893 : ** The con- 
dition of the infested teiTitory is better than last year." What 
the committee said is : " The condition of the worst infested tern- 
tory is believed to be better than it was one year ago." He 
quotes : " The moth is now so rare in most of the towns that only 
by close inspection can it be found." What the committee said 
is: "As a result of the work already done, the moths are now 
very rare except in limited localities in the central towns of the 
infested district. But they are scattered here and there over a 
large part of this whole area, in small colonies such as started from 
the original importation by Mr. Trouvelot in Medford." In the 
same report the committee said: "In this territory are about 
twelve thousand acres of woodland which may be more or less in- 
fested. Small areas hei*e and there in the woodland are known to 
be infested, while others may be." The committee also said: 
"The committee had asked for an appropriation of $165,000 the 
year before, so that this work might be done, but it received 
only $100,000. Again, in January, 1894, it asked for the same 
amount, but it was not given." 

I will not take your time to go over all these quotations in order, 
but simply desire to call your attention to one other, under 1896, 



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366 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

where he qaotee from the report: ^^ With a little more money we 
can exterminate them aU." No sach statement or sentence can be 
found in any report of the Board ; the qaotAtion is manufactured 
out of whole cloth. The committee that same year asked for 
♦200,000. 

I now want to call your attention to the closing remarks of this 
witness, on page 23, where he intends to be understood that the 
committee has covered up or misrepresented the size of the in- 
fested territory by failing to mention the towns that have been 
infested. The facts are these : — 

Towns reported in 1891 : Medford, Maiden, Everett, Somer- 
ville, Arlington, Winchester, Stoneham, Melrose, Saugus, Revere, 
Chelsea, Cambridge, Belmont, Lexington, Woburn, Wakefield, 
Lynn, Swampscott, Charlestown, Lynnfield, Salem, Peabody, Mar- 
blehead, Beverly, Reading, Brighton, Watertown, Waltham, East 
Boston, Winthrop, — thirty towns. Danvers was reported in 1893, 
Burlington in 1893, Boston in 1894, Nahant in 1895, Brookline in 
1895, Lincoln in 1897, Manchester in 1898, Georgetown and New- 
ton in 1899. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, I submit that a partial quotation may be as 
misleading as a false quotation, and here we have partial quotations 
which misrepresent the position of the Board, and false quotations 
which have no foundation whatever. 

Your committee has no new recommendations to suggest, 
but refer you to our report of last year. K we should sug- 
gest them, they would look beyond the present to the future 
welfere of the State ; they would appeal to the statesman 
who sees not the present alone, but the present and future 
as one. We made an appeal to the investigating committee 
of the Legislature of 1900. The appeal was ignored by the 
committee ; the Legislature did not hear it. That the gypsy 
moth committee's position may go on record, we quote the 
language of the appeal : — 

And now, gentlemen of the committee, this matter is in your 
hands. We have fought a good fight. We have done the best 
we could with the means at our command. We know the pest 
should have been exterminated ere this. We have done all that 
we could to induce the Legislatures to realize the economy of 
vigorous work with sufficient appropriations to secure it ; but they 



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No. 4.] THE GYPSY MOTH. 367 

have thoaght themselves the wiser, and, because of their policy, 
extermination has had to partially give way to temporary expe- 
dients for holding in check. That was not our fault, and we are 
not at all responsible for it. No men could have done better 
work, no methods could have produced so good a result. We 
are proud of the record, and, under these conditions, more than 
satisfied with the measure of success. This old Board took the 
burden unwillingly, and has labored diligently and with self-sacri- 
fice for the good of agriculture, and therefore of the Common- 
wealth. If others can do this work better, give it into their 
hands at once, and I pledge the support of this Board to aid their 
every effort to the extent of our ability. We only plead for the 
exteitnincUion of this fearful pest^ for the carrying out of this work 
to the end. Suppression is gradiujU expansion^ — nothing less and 
nothing more. It may delay for a few years, but its result is as 
certain as that night follows day. As I have said, this is the 
broadest, the most far-reaching, the most momentous question 
before any State Legislature in this country. It is not a question 
of politics and finance, it is a question of statesmanship and the 
future welfare of our country. We shall not live to see the blight 
of this insect stretching through our forest areas from east to west ; 
but it will come if you decide to abandon the policy of extermination, 
and nothing can stay its destructive course, once escaped from its 
present limitations. You do not realize the danger from what 
you have seen, for our work has been so well done that you must 
turn back to Medford in 1890 or to the small colony in Geoi^e- 
town to appreciate its destructive power. The farmers cannot and 
will not stay or control this pest. There is only one of two things, 
— exterminate, or let alone. We have proved to you by intelligent 
testimony that extermination is possible and assured, if the Legis- 
lature will not hamper the work. We have shown you that our 
methods are the only practical methods, and that they will accom- 
plish the result. We have brought the most intelligent witnesses, 
from Berkshire to the Cape, to bring to your notice the strong sen- 
timent of the State, — not farmers alone, but men in other callings 
with views broad enough to grasp this great question. We realize 
the importance that will attach to your verdict. We have estab- 
lished every point. We have confounded every statement of political 
intrigue. We await your verdict without anxiety. We have done 
our duty without fear and without reproach, and if you call upon 
us to lay it down, we shall relinquish it with pleasure ; only, as 



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368 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

our last word, we pray you, for the good of the State in the f atore, 
for the good of coming generations, let the work go on, and history 
will applaud the broadness of your foresight, the wisdom of your 
verdict. 

These were the final points in the committee's work before 
the Legislature of 1900. That report and this report will 
be history. The future will record the verdict. 

Only one other point, — there has been expended more 
than a million dollars in the extermination of this pest. It 
was necessarily begun in the nature of experimental work, 
and wrought out until the system is acknowledged superior 
to any known. The national government solicited the privi- 
lege of exhibiting models of the spraying apparatus at the 
recent Paris Exposition, where they received the gold medal 
for excellence. This award attests their value. True, a 
million dollars seems a great sum to those who know nothing 
of the magnitude of the work performed in these nine years ; 
and yet, if it had accomplished nothing in the extermination 
of the gypsy moth, the result in more effective and cheaper 
insecticides, as, for instance, arsenate of lead, and the im- 
proved machinery and appliances discovered and invented 
under the administration of this committee, and now in use 
all over the State for the destruction of the elm-leaf beetle 
and other tree pests, with no patents to increase their cost, 
are and will be of more economic value to the State than all 
the money expended. 

The Board of Agriculture has done its work. The State 
of Massachusetts, who, through its Legislature, stopped the 
work when ** not a large colony " could be found and when 
extermination was in sight, has taken upon itself the respon- 
sibility, and there let it rest. This Board has no apologies 
to make ; it has given its best efforts and done its best work 
every day and every hour from the beginning to the end. 
It has given this work into the hands of a carefully selected 
committee. Their reward and its reward are the benefit to 
the people. One day in each fourteen has been set apart by 
this committee for careful investigation and consideration of 
means, methods and results. It looked forward confidently 
to the laurels that would crown its successful issue, — the 

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No. 4.] THE GrPSY MOTH. 369 

greatest work of this kind ever laid upon a board, or accom- 
plished by a Commonwealth for the future good of a nation. 
The law of 1891 has not been repealed. This committee 
of the Board of Agriculture has not been discharged. The 
property of the State is in its care and keeping, with a spe- 
cial appropriation to meet the expenses that must accrue, 
until such time as the Legislature of 1901 shall make known 
its will. Under our control an inventory has been taken, 
and is on file at this office. Personal property that would 
accumulate expense has been sold and the money turned into 
the State treasury. Due care has been taken of all other, 
that it shall not deteriorate or waste. As in duty bound, we 
herewith submit our report. 

AUGUSTUS PRATT. 
FRED W. SARGENT. 
JOHN M. DANFORTH. 
JOHN G. AVERY. 
WM. R. SESSIONS. 
JAMES W. STOCKWELL. 



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370 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [P.D.No.4. 



Financial Statement for 1900, Gypsy Moth 
Committee. 



Appropriation to May, 1900, 

Augustus Pratt, expenses, 

F. W. Sargent, expenses, 

J. M. Danforth, expenses, 

J. G. Avery, expenses, 

Wm. R. S^sions, expenses, 

J. W. Stockwell, expenses, 

C. H. Femald, expenses and remuneration, 

E. H. Forbush, director, salary, . 

Travelling expenses of director and men, 

Teaming, livery and board of horses, . 

Wages of employees, .... 

Rent of office, storehouse and land. 

Supplies, tools, insecticides, printing, etc., 

Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1901, 



$74 16 


47 89 


2642 


111 50 


8040 


488 44 


738 88 


91 94 


857 89 


14,284 19 


166 67 


1,428 75 



$18,000 00 



$17,786 58 
218 42 



Appropriation from May 1, 1900, to Jan. 1, 1901, . 

Teaming, livery and b€»rd of horses, . . $188 01 

Wages of employees, 850 11 

Rent of office, storehouse and land, . . 828 58 

Supplies, tools, printing, etc., ... 121 19 



Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1901, 



$982 84 
67 16 



$18,000 00 
(1,000 00 



$1,000 00 



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TENTH ANNUAL EEPORT 



DAIRY BUREAU 



Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, 



RBQUIKBO 



Under Chapter 412, Acts op 1891. 



January 15, 1901. 



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Daiby Bubeau— 1900-1901 



J. L. ELLSWORTH, Worcester, Chairman. 
C. D. RICHARDSON, West Brookfield. 
F. W. SARGENT, AMESBURr. 



ExectUive Officer. 
J. W. STOCKWELL, Secretary of the State Board of AgricuUure. 



General Agent. 
GEO. M. WHITAKER, Boston. 



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REPORT. 



The work of the Dairy Bureau for the past year shows 
greater results than for any previous year of its history. 
The year 1900 has been a record breaker in number of cases 
in court, number of convictions and amount of fines imposed. 
In our report for 1899 we told of a year of exceptional 
activity, but we did even more in 1900 than in the previous 
year. From one point of view we regard this record with 
much satisfaction. As long as there are those in the com- 
munity who are law breakers, — who deal in counterfeit, 
adulterated or low-gitide products, — we feel some pride at 
the number we have been able to bring to justice, and at the 
amount of success which has attended our fight for pure, 
honest, standard dairy products. We also believe that, if 
the amount accomplished is measured by the appropriation 
for this department, we have further reasons for self-com- 
plaisance; for, creditable as are the results secured, they 
have been limited by the appropriation ; we have been com- 
pelled in a number of instances to go slowly or to suspend 
work altogether, because the money at our disposal was run- 
ning low. The city of Boston pays $13,000 for expenses 
and salary of its milk inspector, while the State of Massa- 
chusetts appropriates only $8,200 for its Dairy Bureau, with 
which to cover the whole State. The real disproportion of 
the appropriation is even more than this, for the Boston milk 
inspector ca.n reach any portion of his territory for an eight- 
cent fare, while to send an officer of the Dairy Bureau to 
North Adams, for instance, may mean $7.50 in railroad fares 
and at least one night's hotel bills. 

Viewed in a broad way, our record of the past year does 
not bring unalloyed satisfaction. The true citizen ought not 
to regard with pride a long list of criminal prosecutions or 
large figures in the annual summary of court records. While 
such facts may speak well for the vigilance of the authorities 



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374 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

and the feithfulness with which they have worked, the state- 
ment also tells of the existence of a considerable spirit of 
lawlessness, of the existence of a class that has no respect 
for the expressed wishes of the majority of the people, — a 
class that would strike a blow at the very essence of demo- 
cratic institutions. 

We feel that this is emphatically true in regard to the 
violation of food laws. The violators of these enactments 
do not come from the so-called criminal classes, from those 
with inherited appetites and passions, from those whose 
ignorance has blunted moral instincts. The people who, 
from a spirit of avarice, impose upon the consumers of the 
State adulterated, fraudulent or low-grade foods, are often 
gentlemen of fair or even good standing in business, society 
or politics. These gentlemen cheat consumers, injure honest 
commerce and defraud producers ; and in so doing they show 
a most reprehensible disrespect of law and order, and by 
their standing they exert a peculiarly bad influence in the 
community. 

The membership of the Bureau has undergone a change dur- 
ing the past year by the death of the chairman, Mr. D. A. 
Horton of Northampton, Mr. F. W. Sargent of Amesbury 
being appointed in his place. This change removed from 
the Bureau the last of the original appointees. The Bureau 
was organized in 1891, with Messrs. C. A. Hartshorn of 
Worcester, D. A. Horton of Northampton and Geo. L. 
Clemence of Southbridge as members. As terms of office as 
members of the Board of Agriculture expired, Mr. Hartshorn 
was succeeded by Mr. Ellsworth and Mr. Clemence was 
succeeded by Mr. Richardson. On the reorganization of the 
Bureau, after the death of Mr. Horton and the appointment 
of Mr. Sargent, Mr. J. L. Ellsworth, the senior member, 
was elected chairman. The administrative work has con- 
tinued in the same hands as heretofore, but with a change in 
the title of the position and with a statutory definition of the 
duties involved. 

In the reports of the Bureau for the years 1896 and 1897, 
attention was called to the vague and somewhat misleading 
allusion to the position in the statutes ; chapter 412, section 
6, of the Acts of 1891, providing for an << assistant to the 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. 



375 



secretaiy of the board of agriculture, ... to assist in the 
work prescribed in the eleveuth section of this act." Last 
winter's Legislature remedied this, and, in the interests of 
increased efficiency, gave the Bureau's administrative repre- 
sentative official recognition as an independent individuality, 
and defined his duties. 

Chapter 368, Acts of 1900, says : ** The state board of 
agriculture shall at its annual meeting elect a general agent 
of the dairy bureau, to assist the bureau and to oversee, under 
its direction, the work prescribed in section eleven of chapter 
four hundred and twelve of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and ninety-one." 

Two regular inspectors have been employed during the 
year, P. M. Harwood and Ralph M. Horton. Several special 
inspectors have been employed from time to time for brief 
periods to help in detective work, where a person whose 
appearance was un&miliar could temporarily be of great 
service. Three chemists have been employed: Dr. B. F. 
Davenport for the eastern part of the State, E. R. Barker 
for Worcester and E. B. Holland of the Hatch Experiment 
Station for the western part of the State. 

In a general way and statistically the work of the past 
year may be summarized as follows : — 

Inspection of places in which dairy products or im- 
itation dairy products were sold or stored, but 
where the law seemed to be complied with and no 

samples were taken, 1,612 

Real or imitation batter, samples taken, . . . 755 

Milk, samples taken, 68 

Cream, samples taken, 8 

Cases in court, 178 

Meetings addressed, 18 

Work at fiurs. 

The comparison of the court cases for 1900 and some 
previous years may be of interest : — 



1900, 
1899, 
1898, 



178 
87 
60 



1897, 27 

1896, 79 

1895, 82 



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376 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Ibotation Butter. 
The work of the past year has been almost exclosiyely 
devoted to the enforcement of the imitation butter laws, the 
manufisusturers of this counterfeit product having crowded its 
sales harder than ever. Last year we reported renewed 
exertions on their part, avarice having lead them to become 
law breakers. The tendency during the year just past has 
been even stronger in the same direction. These increased 
efforts on their part at violating the law have compelled us 
to confine our labors to checkmating them, with the result 
that the offences charged in the court cases have been as fol- 
lows : — 

violation of the anti-color oleomargarine law, . . 145 
Serving oleomargarine in hotels and restaurants 

without giving notice, 82 

Obstmoting officers in the prosecution of the work, • 1 

Total, 178 

Evidence has also been secured of several violations of 
the law which could not be tried during the year, and will 
appear in the next year's records, and of several additional 
cases in which the defendant could not be found. Of the 
cases for violating the anti-color law, the complaint in 
nearly every instance charged ** possession with intent to 
sell within this Commonwealth," although we had evidence 
of actual sales in 55 cases. In 49 out of these 55 cases butter 
was called for by the purchasers ; in 2 of the remaining 6 
the seller supposed that his customer was a pedler, and sug- 
gested that the article be sold as real butter. In 17 sales 
taken at random the average price paid by the supposed 
consumer was 22.23 cents per pound. If the manufacturer 
charged the dealer 13 cents, the retailer made a profit of 70 
per cent. 

The oleomargarine cases which we have had in court for 
the past few years have been as follows : — 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. 



377 



Anti-oolor 
Law. 



Hotel and 

Bestaonuit 

Law. 



Obftnictlng 
anOflloer. 



1900, 
1899, 
1898, 
1897, 



145 
47 
13 
16 



32 

13 

3 

5 



The result of the court cases in 1900 was as follows : — 

Convictions, 144 

Acquittals, 26 

Nolpros, 8 



Total, 



178 



Some of the cases that were lost or nol prossed resulted in 
smoking out the party who was really guilty and in securing 
his conviction, so that the above 34 cases are not wholly a 
debit. Of the 26 cases lost, a few are of more than ordinary 
interest. In the case of obstructing an officer, the offence 
consisted in the refusal of the defendant to unlock a room in 
his residence in which imitation butter was stored. The 
court ruled that a mere refusal to unlock a room was not an 
obstruction, hindrance or interference, but informed us that 
we could have broken into the room, under the law. In 3 
cases the defence showed that the parties being tried had 
bakeries, hence finding imitation butter in their stores did 
not make out a prima facie case of intent to sell. In 2 in- 
stances the colored oleomargarine was found in the posses- 
sion of pedlers in a city adjoining the Rhode Island line, 
and the court held that it had a reasonable doubt as to 
whether the imitation butter was in defendant's possession 
with intent to sell within this Commonwealth. 

In four cases the defence claimed that the sales took place, 
as a matter of law, in Rhode Island, and the court held 
that the facts presented were not inconsistent with that 
theory. The defendant was at once complained of for 
** taking orders for the future delivery of an imitation of 
yellow butter," and was convicted. This, we think, is the 



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378 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

first case ever tried under that particular clause of the anti- 
color law. In one instance the defendant sought to clear 
himself by the claim that he had disposed of the business 
before the sample was taken, and the alleged purchaser was 
one of his witnesses to confirm his evidence ; a complaint 
against this purchaser was sworn out while the trial was in 
progress. When the defendant was acquitted, the new pur- 
chaser was arrested, arraigned, fined and paid $100 before 
leaving the court room. 

/ In addition to the above imitation butter cases there have 
been two perjury cases. In one the judge of the district 
court believed perjury had been committed, and bound the 
defendant over for the grand jury. When the oleo dealer 
found that he had been indicted for both perjury and the 
sale of imitation butter, he offered to plead guilty to the 
oleomargarine case and pay what fine might be imposed, if 
the perjury case would be filed ; to this proposition the dis- 
trict attorney agreed. In the other case the defendant set 
up an alibij which did not convince the judge of the district 
court, and conviction followed. The same tactics in the 
superior court led to acquittal; but the district attorney's 
examination was very searching, and a stenographic report 
of the evidence secured ; the statements were subsequently 
investigated, and perjury proceedings instituted. 

This case was of more than ordinary interest in another 
way. One of the most persistent places for violating the 
law has been 122 South Main Street, Fall River, of which 
George Morrow was for some time the proprietor. He was 
convicted from time to time, until he deemed it prudent to 
** sell out." But the law continued to be violated, and the 
alleged purchaser of the store could not be found, while 
Morrow or some of his relatives were the only ones our in- 
spectors ever saw in charge of the store. During the past 
summer 15 additional cases were brought for offences com- 
mitted at this store, 4 against George Morrow, 2 against a 
brother and 8 against two brothers-in-law. All were found 
guilty in the lower court, and as one result a summons was 
served on the general agent of the Bureau as defendant in a 
civil suit for $5,000 damages, malicious prosecution being 

* alleged, according to the local papers. Morrow, in the 

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No. 4.] REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. 379 

superior court, after a long trial, was found guilty on 1 case 
and fined $500 ; 3 other cases in which he has been adjudged 
guilty are hanging over him for sentence. Brother-in-law 
Reed pleaded guilty to 6 complaints, and paid a fine in 1 
case, 2 were continued for sentence and the others filed ; the 
cases against the brother and one against Brother-in-law 
McCutcheon have not yet been reached in the superior 
court; the other case against Brother-in-law McCutcheon 
was the one above alluded to. Three appealed cases, with 
fines aggregating $450, against George Morrow have not yet 
been tried in the superior court. 

Another old offender has been fined $500 in the Lawrence 
court, and there is a $300 fine hanging over the same person 
in the superior court. 

Dr. Harrington, Boston's milk inspector, followed one 
slick, persistent violator of the law till the court imposed 
imprisonment. 

The result of the enforcement of these laws in Massachu- 
setts is that, according to figures submitted to Congress last 
winter, the consumption of imitation butter in this State last 
year was .73 of a pound per capita; while in the adjoining 
State of Rhode Island, where there is no law, the amount 
consumed was 8.45 pounds per capita. If we estimate the 
per capita consumption of butter or its imitations at 8 ounces 
per week, the amount consumed in a year would be 26.5 
pounds, of which in Rhode Island a little less than one-thiixl 
was counterfeit. It requires but little imagination to see the 
great injury which such a business in Massachusetts would 
cause to producer, consumer and middleman. 

The number of persons who pay a United States tax, as 
shown by the following table, has some bearing on the effect 
of the law : — 



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380 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



Tkass xniRO Jim ao— 



1891, . 

1892, . 

1893, . 

1894, . 

1895, . 

1896, . 

1897, . 

1898, . 

1899, . 
Present year, 



WhcdMsle. 



BetalL 



84 


451 


16 


269 


28 


188 


28 


248 


80 


196 


2 


87 


1 


28 


1 


28 


12 


76 


8 


59 



The methods of the Bureau have been attacked in court 
on five points, which have been taken to the supreme court 
in the cases against Mullen, Suffolk County, May 17, and 
against Ryberg, Worcester County, October 18. Our prac- 
tice has been vindicated on every point. 

A statute of 1884 provided for certain marks on tubs, 
boxes and wrapping paper used in connection with sales of 
oleomargarine. The same act also provided certain details 
in regard to samples of milk. Section 4 of this act said 
that ** before commencing the analysis of any sample the 
person making the same shall reserve a portion, and in case 
of a complaint against any person the reserved portion of 
the sample alleged to be adulterated shall upon application 
be delivered to the defendant or his attorney." Subsequent 
legislation provided other details in the milk law which led 
the supreme court to declare the above section 4 to be re- 
pealed by implication. The oleomargarine people main- 
tained that the supreme court meant to say that only so 
much of the law as related to milk was repealed, and they 
insisted that the law was in effect when samples of oleo- 
margarine were analyzed. The chemists of the Bureau, 
under instruction from the general agent, did not reserve 
portions of oleomargarine which they tested, as he claimed. 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. 381 

first, that the section of the law refeiTed to was unqualifiedly 
repealed, and, second, if it was not, it did not apply to a 
law passed seven years after prohibiting trafiic in an imita- 
tion product, because of its counterfeit nature, but where 
there was no allegation of any adulteration. 

The supreme court said : " We do not see any sufiicient 
ground for interpreting either section 4 as purporting to 
embrace samples that should be taken under future legisla- 
tion or the act of 1891 as impliedly adopting section 4 of the 
act of 1884.'* 

An objection was made to our form of complaint, on the 
ground that it did not contain the official title of the com- 
plainant, the general agent of the Dairy Bureau ; it was also 
argued that inspectors of milk are the only officers author- 
ized to make complaints. To this argument the supreme 
court said it is a sufficient answer that the same authority is 
plainly given to the representative of the Dairy Bureau. 
** As to the form of the complaint, if we should assume, for 
the purposes of decision, that only the persons named have 
authority to make complaints under the act, no doubt the 
office of the complainant should be alleged, but the defect at 
most is formal. Probably it would not be sufficient gi*ound 
for a motion to quash. But the short answer to the whole 
matter is that the statute does not prohibit any person from 
making a complaint.'' 

A third attack was the charge that our standard form of 
complaint ** does not allege that the substance was not in a 
separate and distinct form, and in such manner as will advise 
the consumer of its real character." The court says : ** This 
means that the complaint should have negatived the proviso 
that the act shall not be taken to prohibit the sale of oleo- 
margarine in a separate and distinct form, etc., ^free from 
coloration or ingredient that causes it to look like butter.' 
The motion disregards these last words. The complaint 
alleges that the oleomargarine was in imitation of yellow 
butter produced from unadulterated milk or cream, and thus 
sufficiently shows that the proviso does not apply. The 
defendant had no right to keep such a substance for sale in 
any form or manner. Probably in any case it was unneces- 
sary to negative the proviso." 

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382 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

The fourth point of attack was that the complaint *^ does 
not allege that said substance was renovated butter." The 
court says : " We presume that this should have read, * was 
not renovated butter/ to express what was intended. It is 
not necessary, when charging a well-defined statutory offence, 
to explain that you are not charging another and quite differ- 
ent one." 

The last ground of attack was that <<the complaint is in 
the alternative when it alleges that the substance was made 
from adulterated cream or milk.** To this the court says : 
** The complaint makes no such averment. It alleges that 
the oleomargarine was made partly out of an oleaginous 
substance not produced from unadulterated milk or cream, 
which is a very different allegation. If all the substances of 
which the subject matter of the charge was composed were 
produced either from unadulterated milk or from cream from 
the same, there would have been no offence under the statute 
in question ; therefore both possibilities were negatived.'' 

Another year's experience emphasizes our previously ex- 
pressed opinions as to the dishonest nature of the imitation 
butter business and the deceptive methods used to bolster it 
up. Much has been said during the past few months, in 
connection with proposed legislation at Washington, the 
Grout bill, about the wholesomeness and food value of oleo- 
margarine. Admitting, for argument's sake, that all these 
statements are true as to matters of fact, they are nevertheless 
deceptive in their application, because they attempt to befog 
an issue and deceive those to whom such claims are addressed. 
Water is wholesome, but add it to milk and its sale is pro- 
hibited ; peas have a high food value, but when added to 
coffee the mixture is a swindle ; lard and tallow are whole- 
some and have a food value, but when mixed and colored to 
imitate butter the compound becomes a counterfeit and a 
cheat. These oleomargarine laws are aimed at a commercial 
fraud. As District Attorney Rockwood Hoar said, in his 
brief in the Ryberg case, speaking of the anti-color law: 
** It relates to a deception addressed to the eye, and not the 
substance or component parts of the article." 

Of a similarly deceptive nature is all of the talk about 
coloring butter which emanates from the defenders of oleo- 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. 383 

margarine. We do not defend coloring batter, — we wish 
such a custom did not prevail. But the practice deceives no 
one ; a man who buys fresh creamery butter in December 
can hardly expect that he is buying June butter, — an in- 
ferior article. Butter is not colored to imitate another and 
more desirable article. But, even if we admit (which we do 
not; that these claims of the oleomargarine advocates are 
true as abstract statements of fact, what do they gain? 
When the law has its hands on pickpocket O, shall he be 
released and go scot free because he says C is also a pick- 
pocket? 

Dr. E. N. Eaton, the official analyst for the State of 
Illinois, in a recent article lays down this principle as gov- 
erning the use of coloring matter in food products : ** Harm- 
less artificial coloring matter may be used for the sake of 
variety or uniformity, or in deference to the demand of 
customers, in goods where such coloring is not used to 
conceal inferiority, indicate strength or to imitate a higher- 
priced article." This dictum would allow the coloring of 
butter but not of oleomargarine, the coloring of which is 
"to imitate a higher-priced article." 

The principle of the Massachusetts anti-color law has been 
several times reaffirmed in trade-mark cases. The latest was 
in a beer case, in which the defendant was enjoined from 
selling any beer under plaintiff's name and inscription, and 
also from selling " any colorable imitation thereof."* 

Last year we called attention to the use of imitation rather 
than genuine butter in public institutions. Since then we 
have seen the report of one of these institutions in which we 
know this article is used. But the financial statement shows 
the purchase of only butter, and in the menus we find " bread 
and butter" several times, but nowhere ** bread and oleo- 
margarine." If the latter is so wholesome, has such food 
value, has so many virtues, why would not a bill of fare be 
rendered more attractive by the line «* bread and oleo- 
margarine?" 

• Van Noftrand v. McOoe. 



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384 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



Renovated Butter. 

The flagrant attempts at violating the imitation butter laws 
have used so much of our appropriation that we could do 
little by way of enforcing the law in regard to renovated 
butter, although many notices have been sent to persons 
selling it, and no attempts at wilful violation have been 
found. This law is much misunderstood. The State does 
not interfere with the sale of this article, but asks that it 
shall be sold honestly, viz., properly marked or labelled. 
The ** New York Produce Review " says : ** The process of 
renovation impresses one as being cleanly and wholesome, 
. and, while incalculable damage might result from an Unscru- 
pulous substitution of this product for genuine butter, its man- 
ufEkcture and sale under appropriate designating name must 
be regarded as beneficial to the butter industry as a whole." 

This tells the whole story ; all that the law asks is that the 
product shall be sold *< under appropriate designating name." 



Butter. 
The Chamber of Commerce figures regarding the butter 
business in Boston for 1900 and the immediately preceding 
years are as follows : — 





IMO. 

Pounds. 


19M. 

Pounds. 


IMS. 

Pounds. 


1S»7. 

Pounds. 


1M6. 

Pounds. 


On handJannAry 1, . 
Receipts for the year, . 


2,078,800 
61,602,840 


2,829,160 
49,767,606 


2,473,600 
60,609,662 


2,898,000 
61,107,038 


1,660,484 
60,972,266 


Total aopplj, . 
Xxporta, dednoti • • . 


63,676,640 
1,002,874 


62,686,766 
8,061,n0 


68,088,162 
1,674,682 


64,006,088 
8,286,888 


62,681,680 
8.166,741 


Netanpply, . . . 

Stock on hand December 81, 
deduct, .... 


62,674,266 
8,286,060 


49,636,066 
2,078,800 


61,608,470 
2,820,160 


60,718,700 
2,620,680 


49,474,948 
2,898,080 


Consumption, . 


49,288,806 


47,461,266 


48,679,810 


48,008,020 


46,676,868 



The above shows increased receipts, reduced exports and 
increased consumption for 1900 over the four previous years. 
The increased consumption for the year over 1899 was 
1,827,050 pounds. Such an increase could hardly have 
occurred had the sale of imitations been unrestricted. It is 



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No. 4.] REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. 



385 



hard to estimate the coDsumption of butter in Massachusetts, 
but with the above official figures for the Boston market it is 
safe to add one-half for the rest of the State. This gives us 
74,0009000 pounds, which certainly is not an over-estimate. 
The consumption of oleomargarine, according to the United 
States internal revenue figures in 1899, was 2,083,899 
pounds, — a very small amount in comparison with the total 
consumption of butter. 

The following table shows the extreme quotation for the 
best fresh creamery butter in a strictly wholesale way in the 
Boston market for six years : — 





19M. 


1M9. 


ISM. 


18t7. 


ISM. 


ISM. 




Genu. 


Centf. 


Centf. 


Oentt. 


Centa. 


Oenta. 


January, 


29.5 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


26.0 


26.0 


February, . 


26.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.0 


24.0 


25.0 


March,. 


27.0 


22.5 


22.0 


28.0 


24.0 


28.0 


April, .... 


21.0 


21.0 


22.5 


22.0 


22.0 


21.0 


May, .... 


20.6 


19.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.0 


19.0 


June, .... 


20.5 


19.0 


17.5 


16.0 


16.5 


20.0 


July, .... 


20.5 


19.0 


18.5 


16.5 


16.5 


19.0 


August, 


22.5 


21.5 


19.5 


19.0 


17.5 


21.0 


September, . 


22.5 


28.5 


21.0 


22.0 


17.5 


22.0 


October, 


22.0 


24.0 


21.5 


22.5 


20.0 


28.0 


November, . 


25.0 


26.5 


21.0 


22.0 


21.0 


28.0 


December, . 


25.5 


28.0 


21.0 


28.0 


28.0 


28.0 


Averages, . 


23.5 


22.4 


20.5 


20.6 


20.4 


22.5 



Although butter did not go as high in price during the 
fall months of 1900 as in the fall of 1899, it did better earlier 
in the year, and did not drop so low during May, June and 
July, — the months of flush production ; so that the average 
price for the year is 1.13 cents more than for 1899, and is 
the highest average for six years. This explains the incen- 
tive to crowd the sale of fraudulent substitutes. 



Milk. 
The increased cost of milk production has caused much 
effort during the year to get better prices. These efforts 
have been successful in many instances, and in some places 
have resulted in a closer organization of producers. In the 
spring the farmers supplying the Boston market secured an 

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386 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



advance of 2 cents per 8^ quart can over the usual summer 
price for the six-months period from April 1 to October 1. 
This applied to 4,633,000 cans sold and 116,000 cans of sur- 
plus, and therefore meant an increased income to the fanners 
of $95,000. The amount came out of the middlemen, as no 
increase of retail price to consumers was made. In October 
the price for the winter six months was advanced 4 cents per 
can over the hitherto prevailing winter prices. This advance 
was so much that the dealers attempted to get it back by 
advancing the retail price. The movement resulted in such 
a remonstrance that the attempt was abandoned. Conse- 
quently the Milk Producers Union and the contractors agreed 
to the dropping of one-half of this advance January 1. This 
is the first time in the history of the business that there has 
been a change in the price during a six-months period. 

The following table gives the receipts, sales and surplus 
of i-ailroad milk, in 8^ quart cans, brought into the greater 
Boston, as reported by the contractors* association : — 



1900. 


Baoehred. 


Sold. 


Suphtt. 


Januaiy, 


808,699 


762,487 


46,262 


February, 








760,368 


692^81 


67,887 


March, 








868,440 


800326 


67,616 


April, . 








904,762 


778,720 


181,082 


May, 








1,019,682 


784,209 


286,423 


June, 








1,086,766 


784,164 


801302 


July, . 








978,872 


810,989 


167,888 


August, . 








889,690 


787,618 


161372 


September, 








846,996 


744,628 


101,872 


October, . 








872,642 


708,844 


168,798 


November, 








799,122 


678,788 


120,884 


December, 








788306 


701340 


82,466 


Totals, , 


10,607,684 


8,976,688 


1,682,146 



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No. 4.J REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. 



3«7 



Beoeipts. 



1899, 
1898, 
1897, 
1896, 
1896. 
1894, 
1898, 



11,234,764 


8,911,971 


2,322,793 


11,317,761 


8,664,682 


2,763,079 


11,798,191 


8,738,672 


3,069,619 


10,772,108 


8,087,378 


2,684,730 


9356,500 


8,040,732 


1316,768 


9,706,447 


7,667,421 


2,048,026 


9,263,487 


7,619,722 


1,643,766 


9,212,667 


7,316,136 


1,897,632 



Surploa. 



This shows receipts less than for either of the four pre- 
oediDg years. The receipts for 1900 were less than for the 
corresponding month of 1899, except October and Noveml>er. 
The sales for 1900 were the largest of any year on record. 
This gain was made in the first five months of the year and 
in September. In June, July and August the sales were 
33,000 cans less than for the corresponding months of 1899. 
In October, November and December when the revolt against 
an increased retail price was going on, sales decreased 235,000 
cans, making an increased surplus of 270,000 cans, for which 
the producers received butter value, — 14.91 cents per can 
in October, 16.43 cents in November and 17.52 cents in 
December. 

The butter value of milk per can for 1900 was : — 



Genu. 

Jannaiy, .... 19.34 
February, . .18.00 

Maich, .17.93 

April, 13.22 

May, 13.96 

June, 13.60 



The Legislature of last year reduced the minimum fine for 
the first offence of selling milk not of standard quality. 
This was contrary to the best judgment of those engaged in 
enforcing the law, who believed that any letting down of 





CenU. 


July, . . . . 


. 13.69 


Apgust, . 


. 14.70 


September, 


. 16.19 


October, . 


. 14.91 


November, . 


. 16.48 


December, . 


. 17.62 



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388 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

the bars would be no advantage to the milk business. The 
bars have been let down, however, with an emphasis in 
many cases, courts imposing a penalty of five, ten or twenty- 
five dollars, where formerly fifty dollars was the minimum 
fine. This shows a wide range between the judgment of the 
framers of the old law and of some of the district judges. 
But there is one advantage in the change : it is now much 
easier to get a record of a first offence, as a small fine is 
paid with less fighting and less appealing than a larger one. 

Educational. 

The educational portion of our work has been less during 
1900 than during some previous years, for financial reasons. 
The general agent has responded to nineteen calls, involving 
the preparation of several papers. In the early history of 
the Bureau the Babcock milk tester was a novelty, and much 
work was done in familiarizing the dairymen of the State 
with its use by exhibiting it at institutes and making 
public tests of milk. Now that this, one of the most im- 
portant products of the nineteenth century, is no longer a 
novelty, but has become one of the regular and indispensable 
appliances on hundreds of farms, this class of calls has 
grown fewer. Some work has been done in making milk 
dealers acquainted with the story the Babcock tester tells 
them. Fat lieing the variable element in milk, a test of the 
fat of normal milk will throw much light on the amount of 
total solids and of the standing of the sample tested in 
relation to the statute standard. One institute has been 
held during the year under the auspices of the Bureau ; this 
was in connection with the Springfield Milk Dealers' Asso- 
ciation. The food value of milk was the leading topic of 
the meeting, and a synopsis of some of the statements made 
at the meeting has been published as a Bureau bulletin. 

The general agent of the Bureau is on call to address 
as many meetings as bis other engagements will permit; 
especially would he be pleased to explain the work of the 
Bureau and what it is doing, thus bringing it into closer 
touch with the farmers of the State. The members of the 
Bureau will also respond to similar calls. 

In view of the large milk-consuming interests of the 

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No. 4.] REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. 389 

State, we have in previous reports called attention to the 
good which might be accomplished by some system of 
inspection of dairies, which would not be burdensome, and 
which would be helpful and educational, without any ar- 
bitrary or unpleasant features. We still hold to these sug- 
gestions, previously expressed. The general agent of the 
Bureau has been again called upon to award the dairy sweep- 
stakes for the Worcester South Agricultural Society. 

Laws may be enacted creating misdemeanors and impos- 
ing penalties, but real progress must rest on educational 
work as a basis. A law in advance of or in conflict with the 
average intelligence of a considerable portion of the people 
is a dead letter. Consequently this division of the work of 
the Bureau is very important, and deserving more attention. 

Massachusetts Courts. 
We desire to say one word in commendation of some 
features of the Massachusetts system of criminal courts, 
particularly the local district and police courts. In many 
States the dairy commissioner, or other officer entrusted 
with the enforcement of the dairy laws, on securing evidence 
of violation of law turns the case over to the public prose- 
cutor (State or district attorney), and the case gets into 
court only on a grand jury indictment. In Massachusetts 
all cases are first tried in the local court, being prosecuted 
by the depaitment bringing the complaint. These cases 
go direct to the superior court if appealed. Only appealed 
cases are prosecuted by the district attorney, and even then, 
under our Massachusetts custom, the administrative head 
of the department where the cases originate follows them 
up and is of material assistance to the district attorney, 
not only in laying before him the evidence in the case, 
but in bringing to his attention the points raised in the 
lower court and the result of experience in other counties. 
All this tends to promote the efficiency of the enforce- 
ment of the law in Massachusetts. In Pennsylvania, for 
instance, where there has been some public criticism of the 
administration of the office of dairy commissioner, his de- 
fence was that his work had been faithfully done, but that 
for any failure to bring the parties into court the district 



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390 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pul>. Doc. 

attorney was responsible. The commissioner says, in his 
last report: **The commissioner, or his attorneys, have no 
more power over the case at this stage of proceeding than 
any other citizen. All that they can do is to wait the 
pleasure of the district attorney and the court. If these 
officers decline to bring the cases before the grand jury and 
list them for trial, the prosecution has no remedy. They 
are effectually blocked as to any further progress. All of 
the cases that are now pending are in exactly this situation. 
They have been urged as far as the commissioner and his 
attorneys can prosecute them, and now it is simply a ques- 
tion of when the courts will take them up." 

Another advantage of the Massachusetts system is that it 
gives the prosecuting officer a more thorough familiarity with 
every phase of his work than otherwise would be possible, 
and it gives him a breadth of experience such as is vouch- 
safed to few, if any, who hold similar positions in other 
States. Take, for instance, the past year: the experience 
of the general agent of the Bureau has included such an in- 
vestigation of the methods and details of the imitation butter 
business as has culminated in 178 cases for court ; it has also 
included the actual trial of those cases in the lower courts, 
and a very close touch with such as have been appealed to 
the superior courts. This exceptional breadth of experience 
is sometimes recognized in a way complimentary to the State 
by calls upon him to address meetings out of the State 
and to explain the work of the Bureau. Last summer he 
represented the State »nd its agricultural department with 
a paper at the Farmers' National Congress at Colorado 
Springs (at his own expense). Later he was given an hon- 
orable place on the programme at the national convention of 
dairy and food departments of the different States, held at 
Milwaukee, Wis. He was also emphatically urged to appear 
before the committee on agriculture of the National Senate, 
at a hearing on the Grout bill, to give some account of the 
experiences of the Dairy Bureau in enforcing the imitation 
butter laws of Massachusetts. These invitations he was 
unable to accept, on account of other duties. We believe 
that it is well for the Commonwealth to be represented oc- 
casionally, within reasonable limits and when funds allow. 

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No. 4.] REPORT OF DAIRY BUREAU. 391 

at national gatherings. It not only gives the Commonwealth 
a recognition and standing among other States, but an inter- 
change of ideas and acquaintance with others doing similar 
work promotes the general efficiency of the cause. Massa- 
chusetts already stands high among other States in the mat- 
ter of dairy legislation. Since the Plumley decision, which 
was so largely due to the great ability and skill of former 
Attorney-General Hon. A. E. Pillsbury, between twenty- 
five and thirty States have patterned after our anti-color law ; 
California has a Dairy Bureau ; and now Maine is contem- 
plating organizing a Dairy Bureau of its Board of Agricult- 
ure, patterned after the Massachusetts Bureau. In addition 
to the above calls out of the State, the general agent of the 
Bureau has, as a representative of the department, addressed 
the Vermont Dairymen's Association and a dairy conference 
of the Maine Board of Agriculture. 

Financial. 
The following is a classified statement of the expenses of 
the year : — 

Members of the Bureau, travelling and per diem for attend- 
ing meetings, $262 94 

Educational work, 136 27 

Inspectors* salaries, 1,682 00 

Inspectors* expenses, 2,444 96 

Chemists, 1,664 60 

Geo. M. Whitaker, travelling expenses, postage, express, 

telegrams, etc., 797 92 

Printing and supplies, ....*.... 61 81 

17.000 00 

GEORGE M. WHITAKER, 

General Agent. 

Accepted and adopted as the report of the Dairj Bnreaa. 

J. LEWIS ELLSWORTH. 
CARLTON D. RICHARDSON. 
FRED W. SARGENT. 



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ANNUAIi REPORT 



Board of Cattle Commissionees 



Commonwealth of Massachusehs. 



January 9, 1901. 



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KEPOKT. 



To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives, 

The Board of Cattle Commissioners herewith presents its 
anDoal report, as required by section 3, chapter 408, Acts 
of 1899, of the work it has performed during the past year. 

The Legislature of 1900 appropriated the sum of $50,000 
for the expenses of the commission in dealing with the con- 
tagious diseases of animals. This sum has proved insuflScient 
for carrying out the law, and all cattle quarantined after the 
1st of December were released for lack of funds. 

In order to have this report ready by the 10th of January, 
it is necessary for the commission to close its books the 15th 
of December ; that is, the annual report of the Cattle Com- 
mission involves the period between December 15 of one 
year and December 15 of the following year; therefore, 
while the report shows a balance on hand December 15 of 
about $4,300, when the bills against the commission all come 
in, January 1, it is feared that there will not be funds enough 
on hand to meet them, and that a small deficiency will be the 
result, which will probably amount to a little over $3,000. 

As work had to be closed December 1, leaving forty or 
fifty diseased cows to be looked after another year, and as 
the work done during the past year has been only that which 
was in the main absolutely imperative, the commission finds 
that it will require an appropriation to be placed at its dis- 
posal this year of $75,000, in order to properly carry out 
the provisions of the law which it has to administer. This 
amount will be necessary to meet the expenses incurred in 
dealing with tuberculous cows reported by the local inspectors 
of animals, keeping up the quarantine regulations requiring 
healthy cattle to be brought in from other States, examining 
and killing horses with glanders or &rcy, investigating and 
limiting outbreaks of hog cholera and rabies, and incident- 

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396 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

ally inquiring into any other outbreaks of disease reported 
to it, thought to be of a contagious character. 

In dealing with tuberculosis among cattle, the commission 
feels that, in taking animals that can be condemned upon a 
physical examination or that have tuberculous udders, it is 
protecting the public health and giving the State a good sys- 
tem of inspection of dairy herds, but that it is little more 
than holding its own against the disease, and not diminish- 
ing it as rapidly as could be desired. Many farmers would 
like to have their herds freed from disease, but in most in- 
stances it has been necessary to refuse for lack of funds, and 
when it has been done, the conditions imposed seem to have 
been too onerous for many farmers to bear. 

It does not seem unwise, therefore, to suggest the ad- 
visability of a special appropriation, in addition to that 
absolutely necessary for administering the law, to be used 
for testing the herds of cattle of owners who request it, 
paying for animals found to be diseased, such owners being 
willing to comply with the requirements of the Cattle Com- 
mission in disinfecting their premises and keeping their 
herds healthy after once rendering them so. If an appro- 
priation of $25,000 could be placed at the disposal of the 
Cattle Commission for this purpose, it is believed that in 
some localities very material advances could be made toward 
further diminishing the amount of bovine tuberculosis in 
this Commonwealth. 

An inspector of animals has been appointed in every city 
and town in the State during the past year, nearly all of the 
appointments being approved by the Board. In two or three 
instances appointments were made of persons who were not 
thought by the commission to be suitable for the position ; 
in these cases it declined to approve them, as provided for 
in the law, and requested that inspectors be appointed who 
were properly qualified for these offices. The selectmen of 
one town declined to make an appointment aft^er the commis- 
sion refused to confirm its appointee ; the Board accordingly 
appointed an inspector of animals for them, as provided for 
under section 18 of chapter 408, Acts of 1899. In one of 
the cities the Cattle Commission appointed an inspector of 

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No. 4.J CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 397 

animals. The board of aldermen refusing to confirm the 
luayor's appointment, the mayor requested the commission 
to make an appointment, as he and the aldermen could not 
agree on a suitable person ; this was therefore done. 

The inspectors have done very much better work during 
the past year than they did the year before ; only four have 
failed to make the annual report required of them, and two 
of these had good excuses ; while in 1899 the inspectors of 
animals in twenty-three cities and towns neglected to make 
the reports they should have made. 

New books were furnished the inspectors last year in 
which to make their reports, and perhaps one reason for 
having reports from more towns is due to the books being 
simpler and the blanks in them more easily filled out. 
Formerly the inspectors were furnished with a book in 
which to record the results of their herd inspections and 
another in which to record the results of the inspection of 
stables and premises ; now one book is sent, having spaces 
to fill out, answering questions relative to the animals and 
premises all on one page ; and the questions asked are fewer 
and simpler, making the inspectors' task lighter, while the 
results arrived at are the same. 

The commission takes this opportunity of renewing its 
thanks to Dr. Theobald Smith, professor of comparative 
pathology at Harvard University, for the valuable advice 
and assistance he has ever been so ready to render when they 
were needed. 

The laboratory work required by the commission during 
the year 1900 has been performed as usual by Dr. Langdon 
Frothingham at the bacteriological laboratory of the Harvard 
Medical School, except when he was on his vacation, when 
Dr. John N. Coolidge took his place. Their services have 
been fully appreciated, as have also the fi^icilities granted the 
Board at the Harvard Medical School. 

Financial Statement. 
During the year ending Dec. 15, 1900, there has been 
expended by the Cattle Commission, under chapter 408, 
Acts of 1899, as follows : — 



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398 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Paid for cattle condenmed, killed and found tuberculous, 

1,423 head, $30,870 22 

Paid for cattle condemned, killed and no lesions found, 43 

head, 886 33 

Paid for quarantine expenses, 17 head, .... 24 15 

Paid for expenses of killing and burial, .... 1150 

Paid for arbitration expenses, 1 00 

Paid for salaries of commissioners, 5,740 00 

Paid for expenses of commissioners, 2,227 07 

Paid for services of agents, 7,890 57 

Paid for expenses of agents, 3,130 61 

Paid for clerks and stenographers, 2,608 50 

Paid for postage, stationery, printing and other office ex- 
penses, 1,206 71 

Paid for expenses of laboratory and experimental work, . 981 99 

Paid for expenses of quarantine stations, .... 2,733 79 

Paid for expenses of glanders, killing and burial, . 209 00 

Paid for tuberculin and implements, 184 29 

Total, $58,205 78 

Of this amount, there was paid for 1899 accounts $12,- 
573.52, leaving balance paid for expenses of current year to 
December 15, $45,632.21. The average price paid for the 
1,466 head condemned was $21.66. During the year there 
has been received and paid to the State Treasurer, proceeds 
from sales of hides and carcasses of condemned cattle, $791. 78. 

Tuberculosis, 

As in previous years, the chief cause of expense in eradi- 
cating the communicable diseases of animals has been in 
connection with bovine tuberculosis, and more animals have 
been condemned and killed on account of this affection than 
any other ; hence it is given the first place in this report, 
although it can hardly be considered of greater importance 
than glanders under existing conditions, or than rabies at 
times when this disorder is very prevalent. 

The management of tuberculosis, as in former years, may 
be divided under three general heads : — 

First. — The maintenance of quarantine regulations against 
other States, requiring that all cattle imported into Massa- 
chusetts for dairy or breeding purposes shall be free from 
tuberculosis, their health being based upon their being able 
to pass the tuberculin test. The owner may have them 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMmSSIONERS. 399 

tested by a veterinarian satisfactory to the Cattle Commis- 
sion before shipment, or after arrival at their destination, at 
his expense and risk. 

Second, — That portion of the work called for by the 
quarantining of manifestly diseased animals by the local 
inspectors. 

Third. — Testing entire herds at the request of the 
owners, with a view to permanently eradicating tuberculosis 
from them. 

First. — The maintenance of quarantine regulations will 
first be considered. 

All cattle brought into the quarantine stations at Brighton, 
Watertown and Somerville remain in quarantine until re- 
leased by the commission. All persons bringing cattle from 
without the Commonwealth into these stations are required 
to bring with them certificates of test made by competent 
veterinary surgeons, the cattle to be tagged in the ear, and 
said tag number must correspond with the number upon the 
certificate. If any fail to have such certificate and tag, they 
are held until tested with tuberculin and released or con- 
demned by the commission. 

The following tables will show the amount of stock re- 
ceived at these stations during the year : — 

Receipts of Stock at Brighton^ from Dec. 16^ 1899^ to Dec- 
15, 1900. 

Maine cattle, 11,203 

New HampsMre cattle, 1,689 

Massachusetts cattle, 12,290 

New York cattle, 917 

Connecticut and Rhode Island cattle, .... 486 

Western cattle, 81,498 

Vermont cattle, 656 

Sheep, 26314 

Swine, 681,694 

Veal, 89,797 

Cattle released on certificate, 9354 

Cattle tested, 496 

Cattle released after test, 490 

Cattle eondenmed and killed after test, ... 6 

Massachusetts cattle in stock bam, .... 16,969 



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400 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 



Receipts of Stock at Somerville^ from Dec, 15^ 1899 y to 
Dec. 15, 1900. 

Maine cattle, 1,432 

New Hampshire cattle, 6,217 

Vermont cattle, 6,027 

Massachusetts cattle, 8,422 

New York cattle, ....... 606 

Western cattle, 10,819 

Sheep, 826,738 

Swine, 17,610 

Veal, 62,896 

Cattle released on certificate, . . . e . 1,667 

Cattle tested. 7 

Cattle released after test, 7 

Receipts of Stock at Watertown, from Dec. 15, 1899, to 
Dec. 15, 1900. 

Vermont cattle, 4,678 

New Hampshire cattle, 6,097 

Massachusetts cattle, 8,007 

New York cattle, 26 

Western cattle, 44,338 

Sheep, 366,685 

Swine, 686,667 

Veal, 68,169 

Cattle released on certificate, 6,122 

Cattle tested, 181 

Cattle released after test, 129 

Cattle condemned after test and killed, ... 2 

Total Amount of Stock at the TJiree Stations. 

Cattle, 192,257 

Sheep, 707,637 

Swine, 1,284,871 

Veal, 146,862 

Released on certificate, 17,043 

Tested at stations, 633 

Released after test, 626 

Condemned after test, 7 

Thi8 year more cattle have been broaght to market without 
certificates than in any year since 1896, There have been 
tested by the commission 633 cattle, 7 of which number 
have been condemned, killed and found to be tuberculous, — 
a little over 1 per cent. 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 401 

In 1896 there were 501 cattle tested at the stations, of 
which Dumber 18 were condemned, killed and found to be 
diseased, — 3| per cent. 

There has been a steady decrease in the per cent, of cattle 
condemned each year, from 3| in 1896 to 1 percent, in 1900, 
which is due largely, we think, to the care and good judg- 
ment the drovers exercise in selecting their stock, as they 
report that there are certain sections of some States in which 
they do not care to buy cattle for this market, owing to the 
prevalence of tuberculosis. 

We believe that if the present quarantine restrictions were 
removed there would not be such care taken on the part of 
the drovers, and many diseased animals would be found in 
Brighton market and also all through the Commonwealth 
from those districts; therefore we believe the quarantine 
should be made more stringent along the border lines, and 
great care taken to protect the citizens and herds of the State 
from this disease. 

It will be seen that, out of a total of 192,257 head of neat 
stock, 17,669 were released as free from disease ; these were 
nearly all milch cows for the local market ; the remaining 
174,588 were for slaughter or export. 

In addition to the above, there were 636 permits issued 
and 4,765 dairy cattle were brought into the State, also 16 
calves. Of these, 3,120 were tested before shipment and 
1,614 after arrival in this State. Some cattle were returned 
from pasture during the year, and a good many beef cattle 
were brought in for slaughter, the exact number not being 
recorded. Of these 1,614 cattle tested after arrival, 22 re- 
acted to the test and were disposed of as follows: 6 were 
returned to the State from which they came ; 15 were killed 
and found tuberculous ; and 1 was killed and paid for, be- 
cause no lesions were found. 

The following extract from a paper, read by the chairman 
of the Board of Cattle Commissioners at the annual meeting 
of the American Veterinary Association, at Detroit, last 
September, will give an idea of the difficulties the commission 
has met with in enforcing its regulations : — 



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402 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, [Pub. Doc. 



Obstacles to enforcing Regulations requiring the Tuberculin 
Test in Inter-State Cattle Traffi.c. 

Massachusetts was among the first States, if not the first State, 
requiiing cattle brought within her borders to be kept for dairy or 
breeding purposes to be subjected to the tuberculin test, although 
for several years prior to the use. of tuberculin as a diagnostic 
agent Maine had maintained a quarantine against all Massachu- 
setts cattle, because of the prevalence of tuberculosis in the old 
Bay State. 

In 1894 the Massachusetts Legislature passed an act providing 
that owners should be reimbursed by the State for one-half the 
value of cattle killed by order of the Cattle Commission as having 
tuberculosis. In 1895 the law was amended so as to provide that 
owners should be paid full appraised value for tuberculous cattle 
up to a limit not exceeding $60 for any one animal. In 1899 this 
limit was reduced to $40, the appraisal to be based upon the actual 
market value of the animal for milk or beef purposes at the time 
of condemnation, breeding not being considered. No compensa- 
tion, however, is allowed for a diseased animal that has not been 
owned continuously within the State for six months prior to the 
time of condemnation. 

It was during 1894, also, that the Cattle Commission commenced 
using tuberculin on a large scale as a diagnostic agent, killing all 
reacting animals. It was at once obvious that, if the State was 
to undertake the extirpation of bovine tuberculosis, only healthy 
animals should be brought into the Commonwealth to replace 
those killed, and that their condition of health must be based upon 
their standing the tuberculin test. Massachusetts does not raise 
a great deal of neat stock ; the supply of milch cows is brought in 
largely from without the State, especially at the eastern end, 
where the milk producers depend almost entirely upon new pur- 
chases brought in from other States to keep up their dairy stock. 
These cows come lai'gely from Maine, New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont, quite a number come from New York State and a few from 
other places. 

Every Wednesday a large cattle market is held at Brighton, a 
suburb of Boston, at which there are often 700 or 800 cows. Of 
these, 200 to 250 come from Maine, 100 to 125 from New Hamp- 
shire, as many more from Vermont and a carload or two from 
New York State ; these are practically all new milch cows. The 
rest come from Massachusetts, many of them brought in by milk- 
men to sell because they are farrow, gargetty or otherwise worn 
out, most of them being sold for cheap beef or bolognas, th^eir 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 403 

owners replacing them with fresh stock, mainly from the northern 
New England States. 

There are about 20,000 head of cattle from without the State 
(not counting beeves), mainly milch cows, passing through 
Brighton market each year; most of them remain in Massachu- 
setts, quite a number go to Rhode Island and a few are taken to 
Connecticut. The Cattle Commission, therefore, in the autumn 
of 1894 issued regulations requinng all persons bringing cattle 
into Massachusetts to have a permit unless brought to the stock 
yards at Brighton, Watertown or Somerville, which were desig- 
nated by the Board as quarantine stations, and requiring all cattle, 
except beeves for immediate slaughter and calves under six 
months old, to be subjected to the tuberculin test. 

Commencing Nov. 21, 1894, the cattle arriving at the stock 
yards were held in quarantine and tested by the commission, all 
reacting animals being killed. Of course, under the law there is 
no compensation for a tuberculous animal that has not been owned 
in the State for six months ; but if an animal killed by order of the 
commission is found free from disease, the State has to pay its 
full value to the owner. 

Under the method first adopted it was found that quite a num- 
ber of animals gave an apparent reaction to tuberculin, which 
when killed showed no lesions of disease, and therefore had to be 
paid for, making the work quite expensive for the State. This 
was due to the fact that many cows, as the result of the excite- 
ment of transportation and strange surroundings, would have a 
rise of temperature the day after arriving, that could easily be 
mistaken for the rise of a tuberculin reaction. The cattle trains 
arrive early Tuesday morning ; tiie cows are unloaded and given 
twenty-four hours to rest and bag up, and are placed on the mar- 
ket Wednesday. Wednesday has been market day at Brighton 
from time immemorial, I was going to say ; at least, it probably 
has been ever since there was a market at Brighton. In order to 
give the Cattle time to rest and recover from the effects of trans- 
portation, the Cattle Commission had market day changed to 
Thursday, the cattle being tested Tuesday evening and tempera- 
tures taken Wednesday ; even this was not satisfactory. 

It was then proposed that the cattle should be brought down a 
week ahead, — tiiat is, cattle intended for sale one week should be 
brought down the preceding week and held in quarantine six days, 
and then tested. This plan would have entailed an extra expense 
that the drovers could not have stood, as it would have upset their 
plans and cut into their profits to an extent that would have driven 
them out of business. After testing the cattle at Brighton from 

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404 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Nov. 21, 1894, to April 30, 1895, with the drovers fighting, object- 
ing and placing every obstacle in the path of the Cattle Commis- 
sion that they possibly could, the work was temporarily abandoned. 
In July, 1895, it was decided that milch cows and breeding stock 
coming into Massachusetts must be tested, but that each drover 
could employ a veterinarian to test the cattle before shipment, the 
examiner to make out a certificate of tuberculin test on blanks 
furnished by the Cattle Commission. These blanks are made in 
duplicate, the animal described therein is identified and released 
by a member of the commission at the stock yards, who gives the 
owner the original and keeps the duplicate to file away, where it 
can be referred to at any time if a question concerning a particular 
cow arises. At the present time each cow is required to have an 
ear tag (furnished the drovers at cost by the commission), the ear 
tag number and certificate number having to correspond ; this 
makes the identification of each animal more easy. 

The drovers entered readily into this plan, and each arranged to 
have a veterinarian in his locality test his cattle. The Cattle 
Commission obtained a list of veterinarians from the commission- 
ers of the other States, whom they considered reliable ; the in- 
tention at first was to have only veterinary graduates upon it, and 
only those vouched for by Cattle Commissions of their respective 
States. In some localities there were no qualified veterinarians, 
and it was arranged to accept tests of members of the laity who 
were practical cattlemen, castrators and the'like, and who famil- 
iarized themselves with the proper methods of applying tuberculin. 
This work was done honestly, probably, for a few months ; then 
crooked work commenced, and has been carried on to a greater or 
less extent by some men ever since. (An honest quack is better 
than a dishonest graduate.) 

This plan has been followed now for five years. The animals 
brought to the stock yards each week need no permit ; the cow 
dealers give the certificates of tuberculin test (often fake ones) to 
the commissioner having charge of this branch of the work, who 
identifies and releases the animals. Cattle brought to any other 
points can come in only on permits, and if over six months old 
and for dairy or breeding purposes must be tested either before 
shipment or after arrival at their destination, at the expense and 
risk of the owner. If any cows are brought to the stock yard 
quarantine stations untested, they are held and tested in five or 
six days, in time to go on to the market the next week. Any that 
react are killed ; if slightly diseased, the owner can have what the 
butcher will allow him for the beef ; if badly diseased, the carcass 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 405 

is tanked. If the commission makes a mistake by killing a healthy 
animal, it pays for it. 

Since 1894 and 1895 many other States have adopted regu- 
lations based upon those of the Massachusetts Cattle Commission. 
The Bureau of Animal Industry of the United States Department 
of Agriculture requires all cattle held at the government quaran- 
tine stations to be tested with tuberculin if over six months old. 
The Canadian government also requires neat cattle brought into 
Canada to have a certificate of tuberculin test made by a govern- 
ment vetennarian in the country from which they are shipped ; in 
the absence of this, they are held and tested at the quarantine 
station at the port of entry. 

One would suppose from this that the State of Massachusetts 
had a right to adopt such rules and regulations as were deemed 
necessary for the protection of her live stock interests, yet the 
commission has had a steady fight on its hands for the last six 
years with the cattle dealers and drovers. 

The regulations regarding the cattle trafl3c in various States 
differ somewhat. In Massachusetts the law gives the Cattle Com- 
mission power to issue all necessary rules and regulations for the 
protection of the live stock interests of the State ; the same is true 
of Vermont, New Hampshire and Colorado. In some of the other 
States the governor issues a proclamation upon the recommenda- 
tion of the live stock sanitary boards ; Illinois, Texas, Wisconsin 
and several other States are examples of this method. In Maine 
the Board of Cattle Commissioners may issue the necessary rules 
and regulations, subject to the approval of the governor. 

In some States the importation of cattle is regulated by the 
Public Statutes ; examples of this are Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania. This legislation may favor the 
tuberculin test, or may be directly opposed to it, and may even be 
carried so far as to show a distinct animus against the veterinary 
profession. The State of Connecticut is the most striking example 
of this feeling. . 

Rhode Island has an intelligent and conscientious Cattle Com- 
mission, the secretary of agriculture acting as its secretary, with 
a commissioner from each of the six counties, an appraiser and a 
consulting veterinarian. Until this year the law of Rhode Island 
provided as follows : — 

[Chapter 342. Acts op 1896.] 

Section 2. All persons, corporations or companies intending to ship, 
transport or drive cattle into the state, must produce a certificate to the 
effect that the cattle to be so shipped, transported or driven are free from 
tuberculosis as far as may be determined by physical examination and 

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406 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

the tuberculin test The certificate shall give a description of each ani- 
mal brought into the state, sulBciently accurate for identification, and 
shall also give the date and place of examination, the preparation of 
tuberculin used, the quantity injected, the temperature immediately be- 
fore inoculation, the temperature at the eleventh hour and every two 
hours subsequent thereto, for at least ten hours, or until the reaction is 
completed. The certificate shall be signed by a veterinarian who is a 
graduate of a recognized veterinary college, and shall be sent imme- 
diately to the secretary of the state board of agriculture, who shall im- 
mediately notify a commissioner of the county into which the cattle are 
to be shipped, transported or driven, and said commissioner shall exam- 
ine the cattle to identify them. Failure to comply with the law shall be 
considered a misdemeanor punishable by a fine not to exceed one hun- 
dred dollars. 

Section 8. Complaint for the violations of the provisions of this 
chapter shall be made to the secretary of the state board of agriculture, 
and said secretary shall be exempt from giving surety for costs on any 
complaint made as aforesaid. 

From an intelligent stand-point this would seem to be a good 
law, and one which ought to have been left alone ; but the Rhode 
Island Legislature of 1900 passed the following amendment: — 

[Chapter 766, Acts of 1900.] 

Section 1. All persons desiring to import cattle into this state or 
from other states without obtaining the certifi(»ate required by section 
two of chapter three hundred and forty-four of the public laws, shall 
give written notice to the cattle commissioner of the county into which 
the cattle are brought within forty-eight hours after the arrival into the 
state of such cattle ; and such notification shall contain a specified list of 
the cattle so imported, with a full description of age, sex, and such other 
particulars as may be necessary for the identification of the said cattle 
and the place where they can be found. 

Section 2. Immediately upon the receipt of such notification the 
cattle commissioner of the county into which said cattle are imported 
shall proceed within seventy-two hours to the place designated and make 
a physical examination of said cattle ; and if upon such examination 
said cattle shall be deemed free from tubereulosis, it shall be so certified 
by said cattle commissioner upon a permit, and a duplicate thereof be 
given to the owner of said cattle, and the cattle shall be released for the 
use and benefit of the owner. 

Section 3. If after such examination the cattle commissioner shall be 
of the opinion that the cattle so examined are afflicted with tuberculosis, 
he shall require of the importer that the suspected cattle l>e tested with 
tuberculin, said test to be applied by a veterinarian of a recognized 
veterinary college, who shall give to the said commissioner a certificate 
in writing that such test has been applied, together with a statement of 
the tuberculin used, quantity injected, temperature of each animal before 
inoculation and at the eleventh and every two subsequent hours there- 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 407 

after, for at least ten hours, or until reaction is complete ; and a duplicate 
thereof shall be given to the owner of said cattle, and the original certifi- 
cate shall be sent by the said commissioner to the secretary of the state 
board of agriculture. If after such test it shall i)e proved that such sus- 
pected cattle are afflicted with tuberculosis, such diseased cattle shall be 
immediately slaughtered, upon written order of said commissioner, and 
the state shall not be required to compensate the owner for their loss, 
and the owner shall pay for testing such cattle with tuberculin ; but if 
such cattle shall be found free from tuberculosis they shall be released 
for the use and benefit of the owner. If any of such cattle are slaughtered, 
and upon post-mortem examination it shall be found that the slaughtered 
animal was not afflicted with tuberculosis, then the animal so killed shall 
be paid for by the state at the full appraised value, in accordance with 
the provisions of section eleven of chapter ninety-nine of the general laws. 

Section 4. Any person violating any of the provisions of this act 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be fined not more 
than one hundred dollars. 

Section 5. This act shall take effect from and afler its passage. 

It can be readily seen that this law is intended to counteract 
that of 1896, and was passed in the face of the opposition of the 
Rhode Island Cattle Commission and all intelligent argument that 
could be brought to bear against it. This is another example of 
obstacles to the tuberculin test on the part of the cattle men. 

On the other hand, Pennsylvania and New Jersey have very 
good statutes for the protection of their live stock interests, pro- 
viding that all persons and corporations must have permits to 
bring cattle within their limits, and that cattle for dairy and 
breeding purposes must be tested with tuberculin before ship- 
ment, by reliable veterinarians, or else be held in quarantine and 
tested after arrival at their destination. 

Probably legislation such as has been enacted in Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey is more efficacious for the protection of the live 
stock interests of a State than the power to make rules and regu- 
lations given to cattle commissions or live stock sanitary boards ; 
because, first, there is more respect for statute law than for the 
rules and regulations of a commission ; and, secondly, the courts 
will take more interest in enforcing the law than they will in im- 
posing penalties for breaking rules and regulations formulated by 
a commission. 

The Massachusetts Cattle Commission has been impeded and 
imposed upon in every possible way that many of the drovers 
could devise. Most of the dealers undoubtedly thought, when 
these regulations were first adopted, five years ago, that tubercu- 
losis was a fad and a temporary matter, that it was of little 
importance and that tuberculin did not amount to anything. A 



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408 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pab. Doc. 

fanner in one of the northern New England States does not like to 
sell a cow subject to the test, and have her left on his hands if 
she reacts ; the drover does not like to buy a cow out and out, 
and have her react, because he has to sell her at a loss near home, 
her value being diminished if she turns out to be an animal he is 
not allowed to bring into Massachusetts. The result has been 
that a number of the dealers have done their best to corrupt the 
veterinarians or alleged veterinarians making the tests, and induce 
them to make out certificates without using tuberculin at all, and 
in many instances have succeeded in doing so. When the Massa- 
chusetts Cattle Commission finds that a man is doing dishonest 
work, it refuses to accept his tests, and the drover then has to 
find a new man, and, if possible, corrupt him. There have been 
a few exceptions to this rule, when the culprit has acknowledged 
that he has done wrong, and has promised to turn over a new leaf 
when the disgi*ace of his dishonesty has been pointed out to him, 
and he has been reinstated. 

In localities where an occasional carload of cows is shipped into 
Massachusetts I think that the testing has been in the main prop- 
erly done ; but where the cattle are shipped every week, as they 
are from certain points in Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont, 
corrupt methods have developed. Two years ago last spring the 
Massachusetts Cattle Commission had a list printed of men whose 
tests it would accept, after dropping a number of names from the 
old list, and it is now time to prepare a new one ; the chief reason 
for delay is the fact that just when it seems that the names of 
only reliable men are ready, it is found that another good man 
has gone wrong. 

Another reason for dishonest work, in some instances, is due to 
competition among the veterinarians, who cut prices in order to 
obtain a certain drover's patronage, until they reduce the price 
to such a rate that a man cannot afford to test the cattle and use 
tuberculin, and so makes out the papers without the formality of a 
test. This has been a very foolish cause for this kind of work, as 
there are so few men on the list now that they could all agree to a 
good price, and obtain it. 

Occasionally a tuberculous cow may be honestly tested and fail 
to react, — that is, she may be tested by a man one week and 
refused a certificate ; and then the owner may have another veter- 
inarian test her the following week without informing him that she 
has reacted once, and thus obtain a certificate of health because 
she fails to react when tested the second time ; or a drover may 
have a cow of which he is suspicious, and himself inject her with 
a heavy dose of tuberculin, and when she recovers have her tested 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 409 

by the veterinarian. Occasionally a badly diseased cow may fail 
to react, but these cases ought to be perceptible from the physical 
condition of the creature ; but when a man is testing a large num- 
ber, and has gotten into the habit of depending entirely on tuber- 
culin, he may overlook such a case. ' In my experience, a cow's 
failing to react to a second test made soon after the first one is 
not as frequent as many persons believe ; in the majority of cases 
an animal that has given a marked reaction once is very likely to 
react again. 

Numerous specific instances of dishonest work might be given. 
Last autumn an Ontario graduate, supposed to be one of the lead- 
ing veterinarians of New Hampshire, was called to Dracut, Mass., 
to test a cow just brought in from across the line, held in quaran- 
tine until a ceitificate of test was sent in. Soon after, suspecting 
that all was not right, I proceeded to Dracut, and went with the 
inspector of animals to see about releasing the cow. I asked the 
owner if she had been tested. He said : "Oh, yes ; the man came 
and stuck the tubule right into her ; took it out of his pocket and 
stuck it in." Asked how long he was there and how many times 
he called, he said he "only seen him once, and he was only 
there a few moments." All he had done was to take the cow's 
temperature, make a physical examination, and then give a cer- 
tificate of tuberculin test. The cow failed to pass when properly 
tested later. This veterinarian called to see me, and denied that 
he ever did such a thing before, but acknowledged his transgres- 
sion in the case I caught him on, and said he would be very care- 
ful in the future. The words were hardly cold from his mouth 
before he was called upon to test a lot of cows to be sold at auc- 
tion in southern New Hampshire, some of which might be brought 
into Massachusetts. A number were brought in with his certifi- 
cate and held by the commission and tested; several reacted, 
showing that they either were not tested properly or probably not 
at all. It is needless to say that his tests will not any longer be 
accepted by our Board. This is only one example of a number 
that I might give. 

Early in June a large Jersey breeder in Pennsylvania had Dr. 
Francis Bridge test a number of cattle he intended selling at 
auction, and sold them with his certificates. A neighbor was 
going to have an auction of Jersey cattle at about the same time, 
and he thought it would be a favorable opportunity to have Dr. 
Bridge test his. I believe there was quite a lai'ge number, — over 
one hundred, if I am correctly informed, — and some twenty odd 
failed to pass, and Dr. Bridge refused to give certificates. The 
owner had a local veterinarian test the cattle, who gave certificates 



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410 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

on some, if not all, and they were sold at the auction with the 
other man's certificate. At the sale the statement was given out 
that Dr. Bridge did not test all the animals, as quite a little bunch 
was overlooked until after he had gone, and therefore they had 
been tested by another doctor. Several cattle from this sale were 
brought into Massachusetts, but all had been tested by Dr. Bridge. 
If any tested by the other man had been shipped into the State 
they would have been held and re tested by the Cattle Commission, 
with, I believe, interesting results. 

The Bureau of Animal Industry is in the best position to obtain 
honest tuberculin tests, as it holds the cattle in quarantine at the 
port of entry and has its own agents to test them, and therefore 
knows the work is honestly done. 

The greatest obstacle to the enforcement of laws or regula- 
tions requiring a tuberculin test in the inter-State cattle traffic is 
dishonesty. 

First, there are the avarice and lack of honesty among some 
cattle dealers and drovers, which lead them to object to the test, 
because it interferes with their profits. 

Secondly, the dishonesty of certain veterinarians, who disgrace 
and dishonor a profession which should be a useful and honorable 
one, by claiming to be members of it. 

Possibly there is more excuse for the cattlemen, as many of 
thenj think tuberculin is a humbug, that the test is of no value, 
and that these regulations are a passing fashion, — not come to 
stay. I do not wish it to be understood that I regard all our 
cattle dealers and drovers as dishonest or dishonorable, as there 
are a number of men among them of the strictest integrity and re- 
liability, but it is greatly to be deplored that many of them are not. 

The veterinarians ought to know l>etter than to do dishonest 
work, and should be glad to co-operate with the authorities in any 
State in diminishing a scourge to the farmer, even though too 
many farmers are so ignorant and short-sighted as to fail to ap- 
preciate what is being done for them. As to the danger to the 
public health, I think that is a matter that has been overesti- 
mated. The attempt to terrorize the community with the dangers 
of the use of dairy products on account of tuberculosis, by certain 
veterinarians whom the people have suspected of wanting sal- 
aries, has done much to cause a reaction against the work and to 
lead to a lack of confidence in the profession, such as is so well 
exemplified in the legislation already alluded to in the State of 
Connecticut. Much of the trouble seems to be due to a lack of 
honesty among certain dishonorable membera of the profession. 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 411 

What other remedy there is, except refusing to accept their tests, 
I do not know. They ought certainly to be expelled from any 
veterinary associations to which they belong, although most of the 
offendei*s belong to a class that do not join associations. Dealers 
and drovers or breeders who sell cattle with fake tests ought to 
be prosecuted for obtaining money under false pretences ; and a 
breeder who will do such a thing ought to be expelled from any 
breeders* association, and his cattle ought to be refused registry 
in the herd book. 

A lack of honesty seems to be a national failing. Parents 
should bring up their boys to realize that it is a sin and a disgrace 
to steal, and that ^^ a lie is an abomination to the Lord." Our 
veterinary schools should lay greater stress on professional integ- 
rity than at present ; and if some means could be devised for dis- 
ciplining the rascals, even to revoking their diplomas, if that is 
possible, it would be a benefit. "Honesty is the best policy; " 
but my experience with men has been that a man who is not hon- 
est as a matter of principle is not very likely to be so as a matter 
of policy. 

Other obstacles to the enforcement of regulations requiring the 
tuberculin test may be carelessness on the part of railroad compa- 
nies in seeing that a shipper to a point outside a quarantine sta- 
tion has a permit. It occasionally happens that a freight agent 
may accept a shipment of cattle from a man who has not secured 
a permit, without notifying the authorities in the State to which 
the cattle are shipped. This can be remedied by reporting the 
local freight agent to the general freight agent of the road, when- 
ever such an instance is heard of ; and in time the work will be so 
perfected as to have no such infringement of the rules, as they are 
broken more from not understanding them than from any direct 
intention to disregard the law. 

Another obstacle that will always exist on a small scale is the 
trading back and forth of cattle by farmers in adjoining towns 
located in different States ; but the number of animals exchanged 
in this way is limited. The necessary rules or laws may be en- 
forced here to a certain extent, but there will always be a number 
of instances where they will be quietly disregarded. 

I have necessarily confined myself chiefly to the condition of 
affairs in New £ngland, and more especially to Massachusetts, as 
this is where my personal experience lies ; but what I have said 
will probably apply to a certain extent to other sections, and it 
may be that the trials we have been called upon to endure may 
result in making it easier for others later. 



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412 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Second. — The quarantining of cattle by the local inspect- 
ors, because there is reason to believe that the animals are 
diseased. Most of them were found on the general inspec- 
tion, although there were a few cases reported at intervals 
during the year, chiefly upon complaint of the owner to 
the inspector of animals in his town. 

It is provided by section 29, chapter 408, Acts of 1899, 
as follows : — 

It shall be the duty of inspectors, in addition to their inspec- 
tions of animals for contagious diseases, to examine the barns, 
stables or other enclosures in which neat cattle are kept, with ref- 
erence to their situation, cleanliness, light, ventilation and water 
supply, and the general condition and cleanliness of the said neat 
cattle, and to make a detailed report, with names and residences 
of owners, to the board of cattle commissioners, who shall embody 
the same in its annual report to the legislature. 

In accordance with this provision of the law, the following 
order was issued to each inspector of animals : — 

Boston, Oct. 1, 1900. 
: , Inspector of Animals, 

The Board of Cattle Commissioners hereby directs that you 
shall make a general inspection of the neat stock in your town, 
and incidentally other farm animals, to commence at once, and to 
be completed on or before the fifteenth day of November, as re- 
quired by chapter 408, Acts of 1899. You will be provided with 
a book to carry out the provisions of section 23 and a book to 
carry out the provisions of section 29. 

Cattle are not to be quarantined as tuberculous unless they 
show enough evidence of disease to make it possible to condemn 
them on a physical examination, except where the udder of a 
milch cow is tuberculous. On no account are cattle to be quaran- 
tined simply for the purpose of testing them with tuberculin, when 
they show no physical signs of disease. The only exception to 
this rule is, that it is the duty of the inspectors of animals to 
quarantine all cattle brought into the State without a permit from 
this Board, until the owner furnishes the Cattle Commission with 
satisfactory certificates of a tuberculin test. Before quarantining 
any cattle you should decide upon what cows yon are going to 
quarantine, then send the papers on a number at once, so our 
agent can see them all on one visit. 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 413 

As section 29 requires that tiie results of your inspection shall 
be incorporated in the annual report of this Board, you will see 
that it is necessary to have your returns by November 15 in order 
to prepare them for publication. Your books go forward to-day 
by express. 

Austin Peters, Chau^man^ 
L. F. Hbrrick, Secretary^ 
C. A. Dennen, 

MassachuseUs CaUle Commission. 

The results of the labors of the inspectors in quarantining 
cattle supposed to be infected with contagious disease, and 
the disposition made of them by the Cattle Commissioners 
and their agents, are shown in the following table : — 



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It will be seen by the foregoing table that during the year 
the local inspectors quarantined for various causes 3,249 
cattle; of these, 1,178 have been killed and paid for as ta« 
berculous ; 79 were killed on a permit to kill, 15 of which 
were too badly infected with tuberculosis to prove fit for 
beef, and were paid for, the owners taking the hides and 
carcasses of the other 64 to dispose of for their own benefit ; 
there are also 242 cattle, killed as tuberculous, which have 
not as yet been paid for. This makes a total of 1,435 head 
of cattle killed during the year as tuberculous quarantined 
by the local inspectors, nearly all of which were so badly 
diseased as to be condemned on a physical examination. 

In addition to the animals in the above table, 30 head of 
cattle were reported as having been condemned as unfit for 
food at the slaughter house because of tuberculosis, or as 
having been received at the rendering establishments. One 
swine was also condemned as unfit for food because of 
tuberculosis. 

Very little tuberculin has been used except for testing 
the animals held in quarantine at Brighton and other points 
as coming from without the State, and for 291 animals which 
were tested at the voluntary request of their owners, who 
wished to eradicate this disease from their herds. 

Whether the bovine and human tubercle bacillus is identi- 
cal, and whether there is any danger to human beings from 
the use of milk from cows with tuberculosis, or not, may be 
a question ; but it cannot be denied that cows that are badly 
diseased or that have tuberculosis in their udders give tuber- 
cle bacilli in the milk, and it is a known feet that milk from 
these animals fed uncooked will produce tuberculosis in pigs, 
calves, rabbits and guinea pigs, if given to them. Even 
granting that it is not proved that milk from tuberculous 
cows is any danger to human beings, no sane person would 
advocate feeding to children material that will infect calves, 
pigs and other animals. 

Most of the animals killed were sufficiently diseased to pre- 
sent very well-marked lesions, and several had tuberculosis 
of the udder ; such creatures are certainly unfit for a public 
milk supply in a community where milk is usually used un- 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 427 

cooked, to say nothing of the danger there is of a badly 
diseased animal infecting other members of the herd. 

Beside examining the animals and quarantining diseased 
ones, the inspectors in their annual inspection have to ex- 
amine the premises and water supply, and report upon their 
condition. An idea of the amount of labor involved in this 
inspection may be obtained from the following table : — 



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Summary. 

Number of herds inspected, . 
Number of cows inspected. 
Number of bulls inspected. 
Number of oxen inspected, 
Number of young cattle inspected, 
Total number of cattle inspected, 
Number of sheep inspected, . 
Number of swine inspected, . 
Number of stables inspected, . 
Number of stables improved since last report, 
No report furnished : New Braintree, Rockland, 
Warwick and Wayland. 



33,000 

181,106 

6,912 

2399 

64,852 

258,268 

82,411 

74,031 

83,020 

1,662 



The above summary shows the tremendous amount of 
work accomplished in the aggregate by the inspectors, and, 
while the improvements noted are not many, yet there 
seems to be a continual tendency toward a better condition 
both in the care of live stock and premises. 

Many letters were received from the inspectors after com- 
pleting their annual inspection, showing that the work is a 
benefit, although many of them complain that it is very diffi- 
cult to make a complete inspection in the autumn, when so 
many of the cattle are at pasture, and they think a mSre 
thorough one could be made in the spring, before the animals 
are turned out. Tliis is undoubtedly true. It would also 
require more money, as more diseased cattle would be found 
after being housed all winter than can be detected after the 
creatures have led an out-door life for several months. This 
is also an argument for more sunshine, fresh air and out- 
door exercise. A spring inspection would require a liberal 
appropriation, and it would be necessary to have it available 
early in the legislative session. 

When it is considered that the summer of 1900 was very 
dry and the pastures were consequently poor, it is gratifying 
to hear that neat stock looked so well. This is no doubt in 
a measure due to the mild weather in the fall, permitting the 
cattle to run at pasture until late, and the good pasturage 
resulting from the autumn rains afl:er the long drought was 
broken, but the inspectors seem to think it is in part due to 
the annual inspection leading owners to take better care of 

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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 443 

their cattle, and the weeding out of the diseased and unthrifty 
members of herds. 

The following letters from inspectors will give an idea of 
the benefits derived from this work, and also illustrate the 
difficulties of a fall inspection : — 

NO&TH ATTLBBOAOrOH, MA88., NoY. 16, 1900. 

Austin Peters, Esq., Chairmany Cattle Commission. 

My Dear Sir: — I send yoa to-night by express my report of 
the inspection for this year. I trust it will prove satisfactory. I 
have been surprised and gratified at the marked improvement seen 
everywhere in the care and cleanliness of the animals and the 
apparent absence of anything indicating tuberculosis. I have 
answered the question, "What improvements," etc., invariably 
" None," supposing that the improvements related to the bams or 
sheds in which the animals were housed. With but few excep- 
tions all are sheltered satisfactorily; the supply of water from 
well, spring, river and the town water works is pure and abun- 
dant ; the appearance of the cattle indicate that they are well fed 
and groomed. 

For the encouragement of the Cattle Commissioners I would 
state that very general praise has been expressed by the cattle 
owners at the marked efficiency displayed in the management of 
the commission, with the wish that they may be satisfactorily sup- 
ported by the Legislature this session in their recommendations 
and appropriations desired for a continuance of the work. 

Mr. H. P. Wilmarth has a very large and prolific goat farm in 
the New Boston district, so called, of this town. On my visit 
there I found 350 goats, in excellent condition. The farm is well 
conducted, and the owner states that this industry is steadily 
growing, and profitable. I have not included this inspection in 
my report. 

Yours respectfully, W. Hbnrt Eling. 



Wbbntham, Mass., Dec. 3, 1900. 
State Cattle Commission. 

Gentlemen: — Having injured my hand, have had my report 
copied, and trust it will meet with your approval. I send same 
by express to-day. I have inspected all of the neat stock in 
town, with the exception of 8 two-year-old heifers that broke 
pasture and are running wild. This inspection has been very 
gratifying ; the hard-headed ones, who at first said it would not 



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444 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc, 

amount to anything, and some other things, now say, '^ There 
has been good work done." I find a big improvement in the 
stock, and many farmers are paying more attention to cleanliness 
and sanitation, the latter as far as they can. 

Respectfully, E. M. Bbastow. 

Newburypoet, Mass., Not. 18, 1900. 
Dr. Austin Peters, Chairman^ CaUle Commission, 

Dear Sir: — I send by American express the result of my 
general inspection. It has been very difQcult to accomplish, as 
the cattle were out in the pastures, and I had to go early and late 
to find them, and often twice; however, I have succeeded in 
making a full canvass of my district. I have never seen the 
cattle in such good, healthy condition as they are this season. A 
great improvement has been made, and all parties are anxious to 
have the commission continue in this good work. 

Many bams where small herds are kept I have not mentioned, 
as they are as perfect as can be for comfort. 

Yours respectfully, Geo. M. Knight. 

Webster, Mass., Nov. 19, 1900. 
Dr. Austin Peters, Chairman, CaUle Commission. 

Dear Sir : — I forward you to-day the report of my inspection, 
and am pleased to be able to inform you that I have not been able 
to detect a single suspicious case of tuberculosis or any other con- 
tagious disease, and have found them all in good condition. I 
also find that the people are paying more attention to the source of 
water supply ; also to light and ventilation. 

I have delayed my inspection on account of the unusually mild 
weather, the cattle being in fields. 

Very respectfully yours, L. H. Paquin. 

Dana, Mass., Dec. 4, 1900. 
CaUle Commission, 

Gentlemen : — I find cattle in better condition this year than I 
ever have before. 

Respectfully yours, A. W. Doanb. 

Ludlow, Mass., Not. 15, 1900. 
Dr. Austin Peters, Chairman^ CaUle Commission, 

Dear Sir : — I am sending by express my report of inspection 
of neat cattle, etc. There were some cattle out at pasture that 
could not readily be found, which are not included. Most of the 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 445 

work has been done in the early morning and evening, so as to 
find the cattle that are at home in the stables.- 

There is a marked improvement in the condition of cattle and 
stables. If the conditions were such that the inspection could be 
made in the winter months, we could do better work, as we could 
examine all the cattle closely if necessary, and could judge better 
as to the condition of the stables. 

Respectfully submitted, A. L. Bennett. 

Wbnbell, Mass., Not. 16, 1900. 
To the Eonorable Board of Cattle Commissioners. 

Gentlemen : — I return in this mail the report of inspections. 
Found hard work to induce people to bring the stock in from the 
mountain pastures, and impossible to get near them in the pasture. 

Have inspected 299 head of cattle, 149 swine and 24 sheep, 
against 290 cattle, 121 swine and 14 sheep last year. 

Some of the stables where I found tuberculosis have been torn 
out and rebuilt, others cleansed. Have found it at the slaughter 
houses to some extent, and have notified you of same in each case. 

Trusting I meet your approval, I am, very respectfully, 

Geo. a. Lewis. 

NoBTHAMFTON, Mabs., Dec. 6, 1900. 

Dr. Austin Peters. 

Dear Sir : — I send by to-day's mail my report of inspection 
for the last year. I have reported all places containing over 2 
head of cattle and have visited besides 158 places containing 1 
and 2 head, kept as family cows, kept generally in horse stable 
or in small stable by themselves, and have found them in good 
condition and surroundings generally healthy. 

The work of the Cattle Commissioners is appreciated very much 
by the people in this part of the State. 

Yours truly, J. H. Roberts. 

MiBDLETiELD, Mass., Dec 1, 1900. 
Board of Cattle Commissioners. 

Gentlemen: — I have completed the inspection of live stock 

in town. I find no evidence of tuberculosis or other contagious 

disease. With the exception of 15 animals in different parts of 

the town that had injured themselves by eating too many apples, 

I find animals in an unusually healthy and thrifty condition. The 

increased value of live stock has a tendency toward the better care 

and feeding of animals. 

Respectfully yours, J. T. Brtan. 



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446 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

Third. — That portion of the work coming under the 
third classification is the testing of entire herds at the re- 
quest of the owners, for the purpose of eradicating tubercu- 
losis from them. This has been necessarily done upon a 
very limited scale, as the commission felt that most of the 
money would be required to carry on its regular duties, 
and that work of this character could not well be undertaken 
unless there was a surplus from the appropriation that 
could be devoted to this purpose. 

In order to make the expense of herd tests as light as 
possible for the State, and also to put part of the burden 
of expense upon the owner, in order to make him under- 
stand that it was important for him to properly disinfect 
his premises and buy only tested cattle to replace those 
killed, he has been required to sign the following con- 
ditions, before the commission would t^st the herd : — 

1900. 

I , in asking to have my herd tested at the expense of 

the State, do hereby agree to the following conditions : — 

That all reacting animals shall be killed; those that are so 
badly diseased that they will not pass as fit for beef the State is 
to pay full appraised value for, up to a limit of $40, according 
to law ; for animals that react, and are so slightly diseased as to 
prove fit for beef, I will take what the butcher will allow, and not 
expect payment from the State. 

I furthermore agree to disinfect my buildlDgs in such manner as 
the Cattle Commission shall prescribe. 

I also agree to only buy cattle that have passed the tuberculin 
test to replace those that are killed. 
(Signed) 
Witness, 

Under this arrangement the commission furnishes the 
veterinarian to do the testing, the tuberculin, and pays for 
the badly diseased animals, the owner taking what the 
butcher will allow for those that are so slightly infected 
as to pass as fit for beef. 

No farmer will agree to these conditions unless he is sin- 
cere in his purpose to eradicate tuberculosis from his herd, 
as under them there is no incentive to have his herd tested 



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No. 4.] 



CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 



447 



for the purpose of selling diseased animals to the State as a 
matter of speculation. 

Under the conditions named, the following herds have 
been tested : — 



Datb. 


Name. 


City or Town. 


No. 
tested. 


Released. 


Killed 

and 

paid for. 


Sold 
for 
Beef. 


No 
Lesions 
found. 


1900. 
















Feb. 7, 


F.R.,. . . 


MUton, . . 


2 


1 


- 


- 


1 


Marcli9, 


M.V.T., . 


Westwood, . 


48 


86 


5 


7 


- 


March 9, 


J. 8., . . . 


Lenox, . 


25 


24 


1 


- 


1 


April 17, 


J. S., . . . 


Lenox, . 


5 


5 


- 


- 


- 


April 10, 


H. W. C, . . 


Westwood, . 


5 


5 


- 


- 


- 


AprU 14, 


N.M., . . 


HamUton, . 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


April 24, 


J.B.,. . . 


Wakefield, . 


41 


80 


5 


6 


- 


May 1, 


J. B., . . . 


Wakefield, . 


8 


3 


- 


- 


- 


April 24, 


A. A. 8., . . 


Oolraln, . 


24 


9 


13 


2 


- 


June 7, 


W.E.C., . . 


Brookline, . 


6 


6 


- 


- 


- 


June 7, 


E. Q., . . 


WinchoBter, . 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


June 15, 


E. Q., . . 


Wlncheater, . 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Jane 21, 


B.L.C., . . 


Colraln, . . 


7 


3 


2 


2 


- 


June 28, 


B.C.N., . . 


Bowe, . 


36 


35 


1 


- 


1 


July 23, 


J.H.G., . . 


Worcester, . 


1 


~ 


1 


- 


- 


Aug. 23, 


Town farm. 


Balem, . 


5 


4 


- 


1 


1 


Sept. 4, 


C. W., 


Waltbam, . 


53 


61 


1 


1 


- 


Sept. 12. 


J.C 


Colraln, 


5 


- 


5 


- 


- 


Dec. 4, 


S.E. W., . . 


Leicester, 


4 


3 


Unsetaed 


- 


- 


Dec. 10, 


J.L 


Groton, 


17 


9 


Unsettled 


- 


- 




201 


227 


84 


10 


4 



In addition to this, several persons have made applications 
for herd tests; two, however, withdrew theirs when they 
understood the conditions imposed upon them if the tests 
were made ; the other requests are still upon file in the office 
of the commission. If funds were available for more work 
of this kind, it is thought more rapid advances in diminish- 
ing bovine tuberculosis could be made, especially if it could 
be combined with better ventilation, sanitation, and breeding 
animals with more vigorous and stronger constitutions. 

An improvement in the way of testing the cattle brought 
m from without the State is also highly important, in order 

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448 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc, 



to be certain that only healthy animals are brought in to 
replace those that are destroyed as tuberculous, or that are 
disposed of for other purposes. 

Glanders. 

Glanders and farcy have continued to prevail during the 
past year to an alarming extent, entailing a serious financial 
loss upon the horse owners of the Commonwealth, to say 
nothing of its menace to human life and health. More 
cases, or suspected cases, of this disease have been reported 
to the Cattle Commission than in any previous year in its 
history. In 1899 more cases were reported to the Board 
than ever before, but in 1900 the number has been faf in 
excess of the preceding year. 

While the methods for securing reports of cases and of 
calling the attention of the commission to suspected cases 
of this malady have had much to do with securing more 
information concerning the occurrence of this disorder than 
was formerly obtained, at the same time it seems to have 
increased somewhat, — at least, that is the opinion of some 
of the leading veterinarians and Tenderers who have been 
consulted in regard to the matter. Not only is there an 
increase in the number of cases reported during 1900 over 
any previous year, but it is reported as occurring in more 
cities and towns. In 1899 cases were reported from only 
101 places, while in 1900 the disease was reported from 
128 cities and towns. 

The following table gives the distribution and prevalence 
of this malady in various localities throughout the State : — 



drr OB TowH. 



ClTT OB Tows. 



Abington, 

Acton, . 

Acushnet, 

Adams, 

Andover, 

Arlington, 

Ashby, . 

Ashland, 

Anbum^ 

Avon, . 

Barnstable, 



Barre, 

Bedford, 

Belmont, 

Beverly, 

Bill erica, 

Blackstone, 

Bolton, 

Boston, 

Boylston, 

Brockton, 

Brookline, 



1 
4 
4 
1 

1 
1 
192 
1 
6 
4 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 



449 



CiTT OB Town. 


1 


j 


CiTT OB Town. 


1 


1 


Burlington, . 


1 


^ 


Medford, . 


4 


2 


Cambndge, . 




49 


.8* 


Medway, 






- 


1 


Carlisle, 




. 


2 


Melrose, 






2 


1 


Charlton, . 




1 


- 


Milford, 






8 


— 


Chelsea, 




24 


- 


Millbury, 






2 


- 


Cheshire, 




- 


1 


Milton, 






1 


- 


Chieopee, . 




2 


1 


Natick, 






2 


1 


Clinton, 




7 


6 


Needham, 






6 


1 


Cohasset, . 




2 


_ 


New Bedford, 




11 


1 


Concord, 




1 


1 


Newburyport, . 




- 


1 


Danvers, 




~ 


1 


Newton, . 




12 


2 


Dartmouth, . 




1 


- 


North Reading, 




1 


1 


Dedham, 




2 


- 


Norwelirr^ 




2 


1 


Dover, . 




8 


1 


Norwood, . 




1 


. 


East Longmeado^ 


V, . 


1 


- 


Palmer, 




1 


- 


Easton, 




5 


. 


Peabody, . 
Pittsfield, . 




2 


. 


Enfield, 




1 


— 




1 


2 


Erving^, 




1 


- 


Plymouth, . 




1 


- 


Everett, 




19 


- 


Princeton, . 




- 


1 


Fall River, . 




87 


8 


j Qnincy, . 




6 


- 


Fitchburg, . 




24 


18 


Reading, . 




4 


1 


Foxborough, 




1 


. 


! Revere, 




5 


- 


Gardner, 




2 


1 


Rockland, . 




1 


1 


Gloucester, . 




1 


1 


Salem, 




1 


- 


Goshen, 




2 


- 


Salisbury, . 




- 


1 


Grafton, 




2 


1 


Saugus, 




1 


1 


Greenwich, . 




1 


„ 


Somerville, 




89 


7 


Groton, 




- 


1 


Springfield, 




9 


8 


Groveland, . 




1 


. 


Sterling, . 




7 


8 


Hanover, . 




1 


8 


Stoneham, . 




7 


. 


Haverhill, . 




1 


- 


Swampscott, 




1 


« 


Hinffham, . 
Holden, 




8 


1 


Swansea, . 




8 


- 




- 


1 


Templeton, 




- 


1 


Holliston, . 




1 


- 


Tisbury, . 
Wakefield,. 




-. 


1 


Hubbardston, 




1 


. 




8 


. 


Hudson, 




1 


- 


Walpole, . 




2 


- 


Hull, . . 




- 


1 


Waltham, . 




7 


6 


Hyde Park, . 




1 


. 


Watertown, 




2 


1 


Ipswich, 




- 


4 


Wellesley, . 




4 


2 


Lawrence, . 




4 


1 


West Springfieli 
Westborou^, 


i, '. 


- 


1 


Lee, 




- 


1 




- 


1 


Lunenburg, . 




-. 


1 


Westminster, 




2 


— 


Leicester, . 




8 


2 


Westport, . 




- 


1 


Leominster, . 




4 


1 


Weymouth, 




5 


- 


Lexington, . 




7 


8 


Whitman, . 




1 


- 


Lincoln, 




8 


2 


Winchester, 




2 


- 


Littleton, . 




1 


- 


Winthrop, . 




8 


- 


Longmeadow, 




- 


1 


Wobum, . 




1 


- 


Lowell, 




1 


2 


Worcester, . 




87 


18 


Gulden, 




6 


8 


Wrentham, 




2 


. 




19 


6 


Westwood, 




4 


. 


Mansfield, . 




. 


1 


Unknown, . 




1 


. 


Marblehead, 




1 


. 








Marlborough, 




- 


1 


Total, . 


699 


150 


Medfield, . . . 


1 


— 







* One still in quarantine, nndedded. 



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450 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc, 

It will be seen by this table that 699 animals have been 
destroyed as having glanders or farcy between Dec. 15, 
1899, and Dec. 15, 1900. Of these, 697 were horses and 2 
were mules. There were 149 animals released from quar- 
antine after careful examination, as free from disease, and 1 
is still an undecided case, being under observation at the 
time of preparing this report. 

Three of the horses killed will have to be paid for by the 
Commonwealth, as being free from a contagious disease. 
In two of these cases guinea pigs inoculated with some of 
the nasal discharge developed glanders ; the horses were 
killed, and upon post-mortem examination no lesions of 
glanders could be found ; the owners agreed to a reasonable 
valuation, and will have to be recompensed. It is impossi- 
ble to produce glanders in guinea pigs without having the 
germs of glanders present in the material used ; and, as this 
work was carefully done, it seems cei-tain that the micro- 
organisms of the disease must have been present, yet no 
lesions were found in the horses killed. It seems possible, 
then, that animals may carry the germs of disease for a 
while before appreciable gross lesions develop, and may be 
a source of danger to others while apparently in a fair state 
of health themselves, aside from a nasal catarrh or some 
shnilar disturbance, in the same manner that a person ap- 
parently free from disease can carry the bacillus of diphthe- 
ria in the throat, infecting other persons while apparently 
in health himself. 

It is much better to occasionally kill and pay for such an 
animal, than it would be to err in the opposite direction, 
and allow a suspicious case to run at large, spreading the 
disease wherever it went, because it is not certain that it is 
infected. 

The third horse was owned in Salem. He had a discharge 
from the left nostril, erosions on the mucous membrane in 
the nose and a very much enlarged sub-maxillary gland on 
the left side. Because of these symptoms he was ordered 
killed by a member of the commission, and an autopsy held, 
at which a number of veterinary surgeons were present. 
The animal was found to be suffering from a cancer of the 
palate, the bones in the roof of the mouth on the near side 

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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 451 

being diseased, the five upper back molars loosened, a can- 
cerous growth in the nasal cavity, and the enlarged sub- 
maxillary lymphatic gland was due to a secondary cancerous 
growth, instead of glanders. Such an animal is practically 
worthless ; but, as the owner wanted an exorbitant price, 
which the commission declined to pay, he has resorted to 
the courts, where the damages will have to be assessed. 
The commission does not deny that the horse was free from 
a contagious disease, — it only refuses to pay more than the 
animal was worth at the time of slaughter. 

Compared with the report of the previous year, there 
appears to have been a decrease in Worcester and Spring- 
field ; there is also less in the Merrimac valley than for- 
merly. There was less in Clinton in 1900 than for two or 
three years, the disease having practically disappeared 
among the horses owned by the citizens of the town, the 
horses killed in Clinton, Sterling and Boylston having been 
in nearly every case the property of contractors employed 
upon the metropolitan water works. There were more 
cases found in Fall River in 1900 than in 1899, but the in- 
crease may be partly due to a more efficient inspector having 
been appointed for 1900 than in the previous year. There 
has also been quite an outbreak in Fitchburg, 24 horses 
having been killed there in 1900, against 9 in 1899. 

Aside from the increases referred to, the greatest and most 
alarming has been in Boston and the surrounding towns, 
Boston acting as a centre of infe<?tion, and the sufferers out- 
side being in many cases farmers, milkmen, expressmen and 
teamsters, whose business requires them to make long daily 
trips from their homes to the city, their teams often having 
to draw heavy loads both ways, hard work lowering the 
horses' condition and making them more susceptible to dis- 
ease. The nature of the work also leads to an extensive 
use of the public watering troughs on the road. The loss 
here falls very heavily, as the men who own these animals 
are those who can very illy afEbrd to lose their live stock. 

The past year was the first during which reports were 
received from the renderers of the State throughout the 
entire year ; and a portion of the increase in the number of 
cases reported to the commission mxtBt be credited to them. 

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452 BOARD OP AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

as undoubtedly quite a number of horses would be killed 
and rendered that the Cattle Commission would never hear 
of if it were not for these renderers' reports. Whenever a 
case is reported by one of the rendering establishments as 
occurring outside of the city of Boston (in Boston the 
Board of Health has charge of all matters pertaining to 
glanders and farcy, it having been placed outside of the 
jurisdiction of the Cattle Commbsion in this city) , that has 
not already been called to the attention of the commission, 
the inspector of animals for the city or town where the case 
occurs is at once instructed to see that the premises from 
which the horse came have been properly disinfected, and, if 
any other horses are stabled there, to see that they are free 
from contagion. In this way it is believed that much good 
has been accomplished. 

Reports have been made by 9 rendering companies, the 
total number received being 168, including 439 animals 
supposed to have been suffering from glanders or farcy ; of 
these, 172 occurred in the city of Boston, leaving 267 
which came under the jurisdiction of the Board. Of these 
267 cases, 209 were previously reported in other ways, 
leaving 58 to which official attention would not have been 
called had it not been for these returns. 

A few of these cases, not over half a dozen, may not have 
been glanders or farcy ; on the other hand, occasionally an 
animal infected with this disease may not have been re- 
ported. It is therefore probable that the numbers given 
may be less rather than more than the cases which actually 
occurred. 

The following table will give an idea of the results of the 
renderers' reports : — 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 



453 



» I vi 



9 

h 
|| 



S « S {3 o. . 



N. Ward Company, Boston, 
MuUer Bros., North Cambridge, 

Butchers Slaughtering and Melting 

Association, Brighton. 
Guy N. Barnes Rendering Company, 

Fall River. 
New Bedford Product Company, 

New Bedford. 
Parmenter & Polsey, Peabody, 

Jos. E. McGovem, Lawrence, . 

Lowe Bros., Fitchburg, . 

Bartlett & Holmes, Springfield, 

Totals, .... 



61 

39 

37 

12 

7 

4 

7 

4 

7 

168 



197 

103 

76 

31 

10 

4 

5 

6 

7 



153 

3 

16 



439 



172 



44 

100 

60 

31 

10 

4 

5 

6 

7 

267 



3 

19 

18 

9 

4 



58 



This does not include the reports from Bartiett's render- 
ing works in Worcester, as Mr. Bartlett reports directly to 
Commissioner Herrick whenever he receives an animal 
with a contagious disease. 

The importance and necessity of doing all that is possi- 
ble to eradicate glanders from the community has been 
emphasized more strongly than in any previous year by the 
loss of human life it has occasioned. Three and possibly 
four persons have been sacrificed to this malady during the 
past season. 

Two deaths in man occurred in Fitchburg, a father and 
son both dying from disease contracted by caring for a sick 
horse. One of the staff of the Sixth Regiment, M. V. M., 
hired a mare from a Mr. A. of Fitchburg to ride at the 
annual tour of duty at Framingham in June. Two or 
three days after returning home she appeared to be ailing, 
and a few days later a veterinarian was called, who treated 
her for bronchitis; she died Sunday, July 8. The veter- 
inarian was not satisfied with his diagnosis, made a post- 
mortem examination of the mare, and repoi-ted to the 
Cattle Commission that he believed she had died of glan- 

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454 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

ders. About the date of the mare's death Mr. A. and his 
son became ill with a sickness which at first puzzled the 
physicians ; the veterinarian told one of them that he be- 
lieved the animal died of glanders, and suggested the possi- 
bility of the men having contracted the disease. This was 
found to be the case, Mr. A. dying of glanders two weeks 
later and the son about ten days after Mr. A. This occur- 
rence was particularly sad, as the boy was an only child, 
the widow being doubly bereaved by the loss of her hus- 
band and son so near together. 

The case in the mare was one of those obscure cases 
where the lesions occurred chiefly in the lungs, and the 
usual enlarged glands in the sub-maxillary region; nasal 
discharge and chancres on the septum nasi were wanting. 
She undoubtedly had lesions of glanders in her lungs when 
taken to camp, and the change of surroundings and work 
caused it to develop in an acute pulmonary foi*m soon after 
the return to Fitchburg. There is ample reason for be- 
lieving this to be the fact, because two more horses owned 
by Mr. A. were killed by order of the commission July 23, 
and another one owned by his estate November 3, there 
being every reason to believe that some of these animals were 
diseased prior to the mare being let to go to Framingham. 
Furthermore, a list was obtained of all the horses ridden 
by officers of the Sixth Regiment at camp in June, and an 
agent of the board or the inspector in the towns where they 
were kept examined them all, some seventeen or eighteen 
in number, and they were found to be free from disease. 
Only one was not seen, as it had been sent out of the 
State, but there is no reason to suspect that it was un- 
healthy. No trouble has as yet been reported from any of 
these horses. 

In addition to the animals killed, eight others kept in 
Mr. A.'s stables were quarantined and kept under observa- 
tion, permission being given to use them, but not to sell 
them. The eight remaining horses were finally released 
from quarantine November 26, all having been tested with 
mallein and failing to react, showing no physical signs 
of disease at that time, and the stables having been thor- 
oughly disinfected. 

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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 455 

The last day of October, E. M., a hostler, employed in a 
stable in Milford, was admitted to the Framingham hospital 
as a suspected case of small-pox, he being broken out with 
an eruptive disease of some kind. He died Wednesday 
evening, November 14. Wednesday, a few hours before 
his death, Dr. Shea, one of the physicians of the Boston 
Board of Health, saw the man and said there were symp- 
toms present that did not coincide with small-pox, and, 
upon asking the man's occupation, suggested that it might 
be glanders. After his death guinea pigs were inoculated 
with material from some of the lesions at the laboratory of 
the Boston Board of Health, and also by Dr. Langdon 
Frothingham for the Massachusetts Cattle Commission, and 
in both instances these little animals developed glanders, — 
proof positive that the man who died was infected with this 
disease. 

An agent of the Cattle Commission was at once sent to 
Milford, to investigate matters at the stable where E. M. 
had been employed. Here it was learned that a horse 
was killed the previous Tuesday, November 13, which the 
owner had been treating for pneumonia, but, as it did not 
seem to be improving, he had it killed and buried. Mon- 
day, November 19, the carcass was exhumed and examined, 
and found to have been a case of glanders and farcy. Two 
other horses were killed in Milford by order of the com- 
mission, one during the summer and the other November 
20, because of their having glanders, both of which were 
formerly kept in this stable. The man who died is thus 
easily connected with the care of glandered horses. 

Another possible case of glanders in man has been re- 
ported to the Board as occurring in Chelsea last spring. 
M. F. was told by a physician that he had glanders; he 
later became an out-patient at the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, where it does not appear any definite diagnosis 
was made; he afterward was under the care of another 
physician in Chelsea, and died, his death certificate being 
made out as a case of cancer of the throat. It is not un- 
likely that occasional cases of glanders may occur in man 
which are not reported as such, because the disease in 
humans is so uncommon that it is not recognized by the 

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456 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

physicians, and other diagnoses are made. It has been 
diagnosed as typhoid fever, pneumonia, pleurisy, peri- 
carditis, inflammatory rheumatism, pyaemia, small-pox, 
and possibly as cancer of the throat. Considering, there- 
fore, the great prevalence of this disease among horses, it 
is not unlikely that there may be, once in a great while, a 
case in man which is never correctly diagnosed. 

An instance illustrating the difficulty of eradicating this 
malady, on account of its slow development in some cases, 
and the possibility of an animal being a bearer of disease 
for some time before definite symptoms develop, is demon- 
strated in a case killed by order of the commission in 
Ashby last October. This animal was a four-year-old colt, 
apparently in very good condition, plump and sleek, yet 
with well-marked symptoms of glanders. This colt was at 
pasture with a glandered horse in the summer of 1899, 
killed in July of that year ; the colt's owner said that it 
had a cough when he brought it home the previous 
autumn, — a slight, dry cough, which disappeared when it 
commenced to run at the nose, about six weeks before it 
was killed. It is possible for the colt to have contracted 
the disease in some other way, but it is not at all improb- 
able that it was infected fifteen months previous to the 
time of killing, and, being young and vigorous, it held the 
disease in check for a long time. 

As to the spread of the infection, there are various ways 
in which the disorder is disseminated. The Board is of the 
opinion, as it has said in previous reports, that public 
watering troughs are one cause, and that in many instances 
they are misplaced charities. Blacksmith shops, hitching 
posts, baiting stables, where a healthy horse may be put 
in a stall previously occupied by a diseased one, and the 
actual contact of diseased with healthy horses either at home 
or on the street, are all factors in the extension of glanders, 
some of course much more important than others. 

In the last annual report a condition of affairs was re- 
ferred to in Melrose, near the lines of Maiden and Saugus, 
where there are men who buy old horses to kill, the refuse 
and offal being fed to pigs, and the meat sold either to dog 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 457 

biscuit manufacturers or fertilizer factories. These men 
pay a little more for a horse to kill than the renderers will ; 
hence a good many worthless horses are sold to them, and 
among these animals there are some suffering from glanders. 
These animals are led out over the highway often by irre- 
sponsible persons, who may water them at the public 
watering troughs on the way out, or even sell a horse with 
glanders to some other person than the killer, if they can 
get a dollar or two more by so doing. 

No one would believe, who had not been out there, that 
such a condition of affairs could exist, or such a community 
be found, within ten or twelve miles of the State House, 
and it reflects anything but credit upon the city whose 
board of health allows it to continue. There seems to be 
no legislation to reach these horse killers. It would be 
wise to enact a law that all persons engaged in the occupa- 
tion of killing horses shall have a license from the board of 
health of the city or town where such business is carried on, 
that such a license shall not be granted to any person or 
firm which has not a suitable rendering plant, and wagon 
for removing dead horses from owner's premises, a penalty 
to be provided for any person or firm not having such a 
license, and they should also be required by law to report 
all cases of contagious disease, among animals received at 
their establishments, to the Board of Cattle Commissioners. 

It might also be well to provide that any person who 
knowingly buys a horse with glanders or fiircy shall be 
liable to the same penalty as the person who knowingly 
sells such an animal, as now provided for in the law, — the 
only exception being that a licensed renderer may purchase 
such an animal for slaughter, if he wishes. 

Whether remunerating owners of glandered horses for 
animals killed by the State would help to diminish the num- 
ber of cases or not is an open question. If such a policy 
were decided upon, it would require an annual appropriation 
of $50,000 to $60,000 for some time. Certain it is that the 
present condition of aflEairs is very serious, and the most 
stringent measures for its eradication will be none too severe. 
The Cattle Commission has done all in its power to mitigate 

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458 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

the evil, and it has certainly been able to show the true con- 
dition of affairs the last year as it never has before, and hopes 
that its labors may also have accomplished some good results. 

Blackleg, ob Symftomatio Anthrax. 

During the summer of lOOO, a disease resembling black- 
leg in many ways has caused a number of deaths among 
young cattle at pasture in some parts of Worcester County. 
Hubbardston was the town where the disease prevailed 
most extensively and where the chief losses occurred, but 
similar outbreaks of a more limited extent occurred in sur- 
rounding towns, and also in towns at some distance from 
Hubbardston. Cases were reported from Barre, Princeton, 
Templeton, Rutland, Greenwich, Prescott, Grafton and 
Ashby, and possibly Westminster. In the latter town 
there was a rumor of trouble, but it was not investigated, 
as it was over before the Board heard of it. The cattle 
found dead in Westminster were thought to have been chased 
to death by dogs, but it is barely possible it may have been 
the same malady met with In the other towns. 

The attention of the Cattle Commission was first called to 
the presence of the disease by Dr. A. S. Cleaves of Gard- 
ner, who telephoned to Boston, July 31, reporting an out- 
break of a disorder similar to anthrax or blackleg in the 
town of Hubbardston. Commissioner Herrick was immedi- 
ately telephoned at Worcester, and on the same afternoon 
visited the scene of trouble with Dr. Cleaves and Mr. A. W. 
Clarke, a veterinary student, who was at his home in Hub- 
bardston for his summer vacation. 

The following report from Dr. Cleaves and Mr. Clarke 
gives a very good history of the Hubbardston outbreak, as 
well as of one case in Princeton, occurring in a young cow 
owned by N. B. Reed ; the animal was pastured on Little 
Wachusett Mountain. The description of the symptoms 
given below and the gross post-mortem appearances are so 
good that it is not necessary to attempt to detail them fur- 
ther; and the post-mortem conditions found in animals 
dying in other localities, where autopsies were made, were 
found to be similar in most cases to those existing among 
the young cattle in Hubbardston. 

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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 459 

John Adams's pasture, lying in the southern part of Hubbardston 
and adjoining Rutland, owned or rented by C. C. Ck>lby of Hub- 
bardston, containing eleven head of cattle, from one to two years 
old, owned as follows : — 

C. C. Colby, Hubbardston, 5 

C. F. Rugg, Hubbardston, 2 

Adams, Hubbardston, 1 

S. M. Stone, Hubbardston, 8 

Total, 11 



On visiting the pasture, July 22, one of Mr. Rugg's heifers was 
found dead and in a badly decomposed state ; was left lying where 
she was found. Pasture was next visited July 29, and one of 
Stone's and two of Colby's were found dead ; these were in good 
condition, their skins were removed and carcasses left lying on top 
of the ground. 

The seven remaining alive were di*iven to the respective owners' 
places, except one of Mr. Stone's, which was driven to Mr. Colby's 
and turned out with his herd of milch cows, some ten in number. 
Mr. Rugg also turned out his with his herd of milch cows, while Mr. 
Adams's was kept completely isolated in a small field, and Stone's 
was partially isolated, being tied several rods from several other 
young calves in an orchard. 

Mr. Colby found the Stone heifer dead in his pasture July 30, 
and skinned and buried the carcass where it lay, notifying Clarke 
of Hubbardston next day that his remaining heifers did not appear 
well. Notice* was sent to Boston and Worcester that morning, 
July 31, and Mr. Herrick held post-mortem on the carcass buried 
July 30, for purpose of getting pathological specimens, if possible. 
Carcass was again buried, and directions left for lime to be 
thoroughly worked into the earth around about the spot of burial 
and death. 

The three heifers left at Colby's had the following temperatures : 
black two-year-old heifer, in splendid physical condition, 106f ; 
Jersey, eighteen months, fawn heifer, 102f ; brown yearling, lOlf . 

August 1, black heifer, 106^ 

August 1, Jersey heifer, 102 

August 1, brown heifer, 102 

August 2, black heifer, lOTf 

August 2, Jersey heifer, lOlf 

August 2, brown heifer, 102| 



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460 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

The two-year-old black heifer was killed on the afternoon of 
August 2. Temperature immediately before death registered 
106|^, having dropped from 107| in the morning. Symptoms 
were distressed breathing, bloodshot eyes, local oedematous swell- 
ing in the sub-maxillary space and about the larynx and pharynx, 
pulse 100, and evidence of much pain in the throat; tongue pro- 
truding and black, and an inclination to drink water, but unable 
to do so. This heifer and the Jersey and brown one had been 
removed from the main herd into a small enclosure across the road. 
Post-mortem revealed lesions entirely localized in the larynx, 
pharynx, roots of tongue and surrounding muscles and tissues, 
except the blood had a peculiar black appearance, and left a dark 
cherry stain on the hands ; mucous membrane at base of tongue 
very black, and tremendous amount of oadema, extending clear 
through to the skin. 

The temperatures of the brown and Jersey ran as follows : — 

August 3, brown heifer, 103} 

August 3, Jersey heifer, 102 

August 4, brown heifer, 104 

August 4, Jersey heifer, 104} 

August 5, brown heifer, . . . . | ^^^^ ^ * 

August 5, Jersey heifer, lOlf 

In the afternoon of August 5 the brown heifer commenced 
breathing in a labored sort of way, pulse very weak, eyes blood- 
shot, and blood commenced oozing out around the ears, neck and 
both shoulders. She died some time before 6 a.m. August 6, 
and the post-mortem revealed hemorrhagic spots entirely dotting 
the folds of serous membranes in both the abdominal and pleural 
cavities, about the size of twenty-five and fifty cent pieces; no 
lesions in the throat visible. 

A record was made of the temperature of the four remaining 
heifers until August 29, as follows : — 



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No. 4.] 



CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 



461 



Colby's 
Jeney. 



Bagg*i 
Jeney. 



Adanu*! 

BUokand 

Whit*. 



Stone'f 
Brown. 



Augnst 7, 
August 8, 
August 9, 
August 10, 
August 12, 
August 14, 
August 16, 
August 19, 
August 20, 
August 21, 
August 23, 
August 25, 
August 27, 
August 29, 



101 

101 

1021 

102 

101} 

1001 

lOli 

lOOi 

100{ 

101 

loot 
lOii 

lOU 
100} 



102{ 

102 

102J 

102 

102 

102- 

102 

104J 

102 

lOlt 

102 

102 



102i 

102 

101 

102 

101 

101 

102 

lOlJ 

lOlt 

10l{ 

lOlf 

10l| 

102 

lOlf 



102 

lOli 

102i 

108 

101 

1001 

102 

101 

lOll 

101 

lOlf 

101 

102 

lOlf 



Mr. Ragg's heifer, August 20, developed quick respiration, 
bloodshot eyes, quick pulse, vomited in the morning of August 20, 
and commenced to improve until she was evidently normal. 

In the Bennett pasture, located in the north-west part of Hub- 
bardston, near the Templeton line, containing thirty-eight head of 
young cattle, July 28, a bull two years old was found dead. He 
was partially buried where he died ; he belonged to Blanche Ben- 
nett of Hubbardston. August 2, L. S. Moore found one of his 
two-year-old heifers dead ; she was also partially buried up. Au- 
gust 6, an eighteen-months-old heifer, belonging to L. S. Moore, 
was found dead. When the pasture was visited the previous day 
the three men there were unable to catch this heifer, though they 
were sure she had a clearly developed enlargement about the lower 
jaws. Ante-mortem showed oedematous condition about the 
larynx and pharynx and sub-maxillary space ; heifer was found 
lying in the ferns, and no evidence whatever of any struggling 
before death. Post-mortem revealed lesions entirely localized in 
the region of the larynx, pharynx and sub-maxillary muscles, 
apparently identical with the black Colby heifer. August 9, 
Frank Hayes found one of his eighteen-months-old heifers dead 
in this same pasture. All of these carcasses were finally thoroughly 
burned in this and all the other pastures. 

August 8, in the John H. Lackey pasture, located in the south 
part of the town, and about two miles from the Adams pasture, 
John Collar found one of his two-year-old heifers dead. This 
pasture contained three head. 

D. P. Ford, living in the western part of the town, having three 



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462 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

heifers and one cow, foand one of his yearlings dead, Aagast 4, 
apparently all right the day before. Aagast 12, a two-year-old 
was taken sick and was left in the bam; had profase bloody 
diarrhoea, (sdema of throat and right side; temperature 105|. 
Died some time daring the night, and was dragged across the yard 
to the road, along this some two hundred yards, then down into 
the woods, where both carcasses were eventually burned. 

Mr. Prentiss, Hnbbardston, in charge of a pasture in the eastern 
part of the town, containing twenty-six head, young and old, 
belonging to Mr. L. W. Newton, Southborough, found one of 
the two-year-olds dead August 16 and one eighteen months old 
Aagust 17. Both carcasses were burned. Another three-year- 
old, ear tag No. 213, seemed to wish to isolate herself from the 
others, and no inclination to eat; temperature 104, pulse 90. 
August 18, she resumed eating, and temperature was normal. 

August 27, heifer No. 70 was found dead. A three-year-old 
was isolating herself from the others, ears lopped, eyes dull and 
sunken, pulse 95 and temperature 106 ; August 28, temperature 
104f, same physical symptoms; August 29, temperature 104, 
same physical symptoms, with the addition of bleeding at the nose ; 
in the afternoon, temperature 105|. Killed for post-mortem and 
pathological specimens. Lesions were found in the pharynx, and 
in both the serous and mucous membranes in the abdominal 
cavity. The lesion in the pharynx immediately about the glottis 
consisted of almost total destruction of the mucous membrane, 
and oedema extending into the surrounding muscles, slightly dis- 
colored at the base of the tongue. All the serous membranes 
were affected with hemorrhagic spots about the size of quarters 
and fifty-cent pieces, while on the mucous surfaces immediately in 
opposition were spots much resembling small ulcers leading one to 
saggest that the lesion originally started from this surface. These 
carcasses were all disposed of by burning. 

D. V. Meaney, living in Williamsville, directly west of Hnbbard- 
ston, on August 17 noticed, in a pasture containing ten head of 
yoang cattle, that one of his two-year-olds was ill, evinced labored 
breathing, eyes dull, weak pulse, bloody discharge from rectum 
and temperature 105|; died some time duiing the night. Post- 
mortem held in the afternoon of August 18, and lesions localized 
in the throat ; mucous membrane was dark in color at base of 
tongue and in phai*ynx slight oedema ; carcass was burned. Mr. 
Meaney found a yearling dead some ten days before this. 

Mr. N. B. Reed, Princeton, had four heifers turned out in a 
pasture in the north part of the town. August 18 he noticed that 

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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 



463 



a foar-year-old Devon was not feeling well ; she was taken to his 
barn in the village and placed in the cellar ; she would try to eat 
and drink, but seemed unable to do so. August 16, temperature 
104f , pulse 98, eyes bloodshot, respiration 7, comatose in charac- 
ter ; swelling in throat and evidence of pain ; drooling profusely 
from mouth ; inclined to lie down a good deal. August 18, symp- 
toms much the same, except respiration was quite rapid, tempera- 
ture 105 and pulse 100 ; killed for autopsy. Post-mortem showed 
lesions entirely localized in the pharynx and immediate surround- 
ings. The mucous membrane was entirely broken down and quite 
black, considerable oedema of the pharyngeal muscles and liga- 
ments. 

September 5, Mr. Morgan, living in the east part of Hubbard- 
ston, noticed one of his two-year-old Jersey heifers with profuse 
diarrhoea. September 6, she would not eat, seemed very dull and 
inclined to lie down ; died that same evening. Post-mortem re- 
vealed hemorrhagic spots on the serous surface in the abdominal 
cavity and black discoloration at base of tongue ; bloody faeces in 
rectum and floating color. This heifer was in milk and running 
with four others, all but one being milch cows, and the exception 
was a heifer about thirty months old, in milk. Carcass was burned. 



Summary. 



Pastubbb owmxd bt— 



NomberofHead. 


Died. 


11 


7 


88 


4 


3 


1 


4 


2 


26 


4 


10 


2 


5 


1 


4 


1 



Mr. Adams, . 
Mr. Bennett^ . 
Mr. Lackey, . 
Mr. Ford, , 
Mr. Newton, 
Mr. Meaney, 
Mr. Morgan, 
Mr. Reed, 
Totals, 



101 



22* 



* Percentage, 21.78. 
Bespectf uliy submitted, 



A. S. Cleaves. 
A. W. Clabk. 



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464 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

There was a report clrcalatiDg in the town that this was not the 
first or largest outbreak of this sort in the town, but upon investi- 
gation it was found that the only recent deaths in pastures were in 
1897. In the Wm. Hartwell pasture, located in the southern part 
of the town, about two miles from the Adams pasture, H. Clarke 
found four of his yearlings dead, and Edgar Tilton found three of 
his dead in a pasture about two miles from these other two pastures. 

A. S. Cleaybs. 

As already stated above, Mr. Herrick visited the John 
Adams pasture with Dr. Cleaves and Mr. Clarke, July 31. 

August 4, Dr. Peters, Mr. Herrick, Dr. Cleaves, Mr. 
Clarke and Mr. J. H. Burtch, inspector of animals of Hub- 
bardston, visited the Adams pasture and the surviving 
animals that had been removed from it, and also the Bennett 
pasture. 

August 18, Dr. Theobald Smith accompanied Dr. Peters, 
Mr. Herrick and Dr. Cleaves to Hubbardston. On the way 
from Gardner to Hubbardstori a Mr. Le Claire of Temple- 
ton informed the party that he had just found two yearlings 
dead in his pasture. Time did not permit of a visit to his 
premises, but from his description the heifers died from a 
similar malady to that occurring in Hubbardston. Upon 
arriving in Hubbardston, the pasture of David Meaney was 
first visited, and an autopsy made upon a heifer that died 
the night before ; but decomposition had been so rapid that 
no specimens were taken, as they were valueless for scien- 
tific investigation. The Newton pasture was next visited, 
but no new cases were found there on this date. From the 
Newton pasture the party drove to Princeton and went to 
Mr. N. B. Reed's, where the four-year-old Devon cow, 
mentioned in Dr. Cleaves' report, was in quarantine. The 
animal was killed, and specimens taken from the local lesion 
in the throat and various viscera for examination by Dr. 
Smith. 

August 29, Dr. Laugdon Frothingham visited the Newton 
pasture with Dr. Cleaves, when a three-year-old heifer 
which was sick was killed for autopsy and specimens taken 
for scientific study. September 6, autopsy on Morgan 
heifer was made by Dr. Cleaves, Mr. Herrick being with 
him. 

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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 465 

From the report made by Dr. Cleaves and Mr. Clarke, 
it would appear that some animals were affected with the 
disease in a light form, and after being slightly sick for a 
few days recovered ; others seemed to have enjoyed an im- 
munity from it ; and about twenty per cent, suffered from 
a severe form, which was rapidly fatal, an animal that was 
ailing one day frequently being found dead the day following. 

After September 10 the disease subsided, and, as no new 
cases were reported, the quarantines on the infected past- 
ures were raised September 17 by advice of Mr. Herrick 
(who went to Hubbardston September 14), except on Paul 
B. Morgan's pasture, which was removed October 2. 

August 6, a yearling heifer was quarantined by Perley 
Ooddard, the inspector in Grafton, owned by Albert Brad- 
ish, as having anthrax. A post-mortem examination, made 
August 7 by Mr. Herrick and Dr. C. H. Perry, revealed 
a similar condition to that found in the Hubbardston cattle. 
Portions of lung, kidney, spleen, stomach, intestine and 
tongue were sent to the Harvard Medical School, and 
examined by Dr. John N. Coolidge, who found a micro- 
organism of the same character as that found in specimens 
taken from the Hubbardston cattle, which will be described 
later. Another yearling owned by Mr. Bradish was found 
dead in the pasture a few days before Mr. Herrick's visit, 
and was buried. A cow kept with them remained healthy. 
This is the only outbreak reported in Grafton. 

August 18, Dr. Chas. Paquin, the inspector in Barre, 
quarantined the cattle in two pastures because of the 
appearance of a disease similar to that occurring in the 
adjoining town of Hubbardston. One contained fifty-six 
head of young cattle, the other fifteen head ; several died 
in each pasture. No new cases occurred in these pastures 
after September 20; the quarantines were therefore re- 
moved October 1. 

September 6, a letter and quarantine dated September 3 
was received from W. H. Glazier, the inspector of Green- 
wich, the animal quarantined being a small gray yearling 
heifer owned by Fred L. Edson. Dr. Cleaves was at once 
sent to investigate the case. He went to Greenwich Sep- 
tember 7, and reports as follows : — 

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466 BOARD OP AGRICOLTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

West Oabdnbr, 'Haas,, Sept 8, 1900. 
Dr. Austin Peters. 

Dear Doctor: — The heifer in quarantine died September 6, 
the day before I arrived in Greenwich, and was buried when I got 
there. Mr. Edson was away, but the hired man gave me a very 
intelligent history of the outbreak. It seems that Mr. Edson and 
Gray of Greenwich hired a pasture in Presoott of Mr. Chas. 
Abbott, and turned in fourteen head. Edson owned seven, Gray 
five, Ezra Alden and Chas. Manley, both of Greenwich, each 
owned one. Four weeks ago they found three heifers dead in the 
pasture, one each of Edson's, Alden's and Manley's. They had 
evidently been dead several days; *« they were buried about three 
feet deep, at great trouble to the diggers." 

Mr. Gray immediately drove his five head into a pasture adjoin- 
ing the Abbott pasture, where they have since remained perfectly 
well, apparently. Mr. Edson drove his home, and turned them 
with his milch cows in a hill-side pasture near his house, ex- 
cepting one which he left at Mr. Felton's to have pastured. 
About August 3 or 4 one of the heifers, about fifteen months old, 
refused to eat. She grew very emaciated, bled at the nose, had 
bloody diarrhoea the day before she died, which was August 18 ; 
would seem to try to eat for a while, but could not ; also drink. 
Buried her in a sand bank. 

The quarantined heifer was about a year old, and they first 
noticed her August 80, when she would not eat ; a considerable 
amount of swelling around her throat, gritting of the teeth, evi- 
dence of some pain, and the day of death bloody diarrhoea and 
blood exuding through the skin around the head and shoulders. 
She died September 6, and was buried in a sand bank. 

Mr. Glazier had gone to Springfield, but I waited to see him, 
and advised him to quarantine the Edson farm and any others if they 
should show evidence of an outbreak. I also told the Edson's to 
use lime by working it into the earth all about the graves of each 
animal, and Mr. Glazier said he would see that it was done. The 
pasture being in Prescott, I suppose you will have to communicate 
with the inspector there. It certainly appears to be the same 
thing that is occurring in Hubbardston. 

Yours traly, A. S. Cleaves. 

Upon receiving this report, Mr. Henry N. Grover, in- 
spector of animals for Prescott, was written to, telling him 
to quarantine the pastures where the disease occurred. 



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No. 4.] CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 467 

September 14 he quarantined two pastures owned by 
Charles J. Abbott. No new cases being reported from 
these pastures, the quarantines were ordered removed 
October 11. 

There was an outbreak of blackleg in one pasture in 
Ashby, probably of a similar character to those appearing 
in other places ; the following correspondence will give a 
sufficient history of it : — 

AsHBT, Mass., Aug. 14, 1900. 
Dr. Peters. 

Dear Sir : — I was called this morning to make an autopsy on 
a heifer that was found dead in the pasture. On making inquiries, 
I find that this is the third one within the same number of weeks. 
The heifer was very badly decomposed, but I made the autopsy 
as best I could, and found it was blackleg or symptomatic 
anthrax. I did not know before that the commission had any- 
thing to do with that disease, but read in your report that you 
came up here two years ago to see some cattle belonging to a 
John Wright in Ashbumham. I thought I would let you know, 
and you can do as you like about it. I examined the rest of the 
cattle in the pasture, of which there were thirty-three, and found 
them all right; part of them are young stock. As the carcass 
was in such a condition, I had it burned. 

I have foi^otten to say that these cattle are in the pasture 
belonging to Mr. Woodard of Ashby. 

Yours in haste, C. B. Shaw. 

Dr. H. D. Clark of Fitchburg was telephoned to investi- 
gate this trouble, and Dr. Shaw was written to that this 
had been done. The following letters are reports of Dr. 
Clark's visits : — 

FiTCHBURO, Mass., Aug, 16, 1900. 
Dr. Austin Peters. 

Dear Sir : — I went to Ashby yesterday, and saw Dr. Shaw. 
Dr. Shaw told me there were no new cases of sickness or death 
among Mrs. Woodard's cattle, and that all those that had died had 
been buried or burned. The only one Dr. Shaw saw had been 
dead three days, so he could not make much of an examination. 

I drove over to Mrs. Woodard's pasture this afternoon, and saw 
the cattle, thirty-two of them, and all well. The cattle are to be 
seen every day, and if there is further trouble Dr. Shaw will be 

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468 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

notified ; and I saggested that he telephone me, and together we 
would make as careful an examination as we could, and send a 
specimen to you. 

Yours truly, H. D. Clabk. 

FiTCHBUBO, BiA88., Sept. 1, 1900. 
Dr. Austin Peters. 

Dear Sir : — Dr. Shaw of Ashby telephoned me this morning 
that another heifer had died in Mrs. Woodard's pasture. I went 
up there, hoping to make a good examination of the carcass and 
get a specimen to send you, but found the heifer had been dead 
several days, and was so badly decayed that I could not make a 
satisfactory examination. I noticed the skin was wrinkled and 
cracked open just back of right fore leg and on inside of left 
thigh ; the right leg and thigh had a bloated appeai*ance. I opened 
the abdominal cavity, but found the maggots working there in such 
enormous numbers that I could not make much of an examination. 
There was a spot on right side of the body, about fifteen by six 
inches, where the hair was all gone and the skin seemed dry and 
hard, while the skin as well as the muscles on other parts of the 
body was very soft. The neck was nearly half eaten off by mag- 
gots a few inches back of head. 

There was one heifer that Mrs. Woodard thought did not act 
quite natural (the animal had a scaly skin eruption) , and I had the 
animal with a few others shut off in a small part of the pasture, 
where she can be better watched. 

Yours truly, H. D. Clark. 

The disease seems to have disappeared here during Sep- 
tember, as it did in the other towns. A few cases were 
said to have occurred in Rutland, but these were not offi- 
cially reported to the Board. Mr. Herrick was informed that 
there is a large pasture in the western part of Princeton 
where young cattle are said to die every year, and that 
trouble has existed there for many years, perhaps as many 
as thirty or forty. It is said that a few young cattle died 
in this pasture early in the summer of 1900, but these cases 
were not reported to the commission, and there was no op- 
portunity for an investigation. 

Reports were received from more distant parts of the 
State of deaths among young cattle in Chester and Monroe, 
and agents of the commission were sent to investigate 

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No. 4.] . CATTLE COMMISSIONERS. 469 

them. The results of the investigations do not show the 
trouble to have been blackleg ; but, in view of the cases 
elsewhere, it is not impossible that this disease was present 
in these pastures, and that it had subsided when the agents 
made their visits. 

The following correspondence is sufficiently explana- 
tory : — 

Aug. 13, 1900. 
Cattle Commissioners, Boston, Mass, 

Deab Sirs : — As I have been losing cattle for two weeks past, 
five in all dying, I reported it to the cattle inspector of Becket, 
Mass., as that is the town that I live in, but I got no satisfaction 
from him, as he did not come to see them. It is reported around 
here that it is a contagious disease that is causing them to drop 
off. The last two died last Friday and were buried Saturday. 
My next neighbor lost three in the same manner. 

I live between Middlefield and Chester. Trusting that you will 
give this your attention, and oblige me greatly. 

Yours very truly, A. T. Boyd. 

FiTTSFiBLD, Mass., Aug. 17, 1900. 

Dear Dr. Peters: — In accordance with your instructions, I 
went to Chester to-day and investigated the trouble among the 
cattle on the pasture of Archibald T. Boyd, and have to report as 
follows : — 

Five weeks ago there were in Boyd's pasture seventeen animals ; 
of these, eleven two-year-old heifers and steers were the property 
of Boyd, while six animals (a mature bull and five two-year-old 
creatures) were owned by Mr. Farnham, the neighbor mentioned in 
Boyd's letter. Five weeks ago one of Boyd's young cattle was 
foand dead in the pasture, and, as there had been a thunder storm 
the day before, the cause of death was supposed to have been 
lightning stroke. No more animals died until the latter part of 
Jaly and the first ten days in this month, during which time four 
more of the young stock of Boyd and the bull belonging to Farn- 
ham died, the last death having occurred Friday, August 10. On 
August 6, Mr. Farnham removed his five young cattle from the 
Boyd pasture and turned them into a lot further up the road. These 
animals were not seen until the following Sunday, August 12, when 
it was found that three were alive and two were dead. The con- 
dition of the carcasses when found led the owner to think that the 
animals probably died within one or two days from the time they 



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470 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. [Pub. Doc. 

were removed from the Boyd pasture and put into the new one ; 
further, Boyd thinks they were sick before they were taken from 
his pasture. 

August 10 all thQ^remaining cattle were taken out of the Boyd 
pasture, since when there have been no more deaths, and all the 
animals are noticeably improving. 

As to the pasture, the land where the seventeen animals had 
been summering comprises about twenty-four acres, and is of ob- 
long shape, about two-thirds of it open and comparatively level, 
while one-third is partly wooded and partly brash, sloping down 
into a lake. The whole is extremely rough and barren. Of the 
actual surface of the open land, at least one-third is rock and 
stone, and as I saw it to-day, after having been vacated of stock 
for a week and after our recent rains, there is positively hardly a 
spear of grass that